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Diacritical marks and the Samoan Language

Diacritical marks and the Samoan Language

Throughout the latter half of the nineteenth and the early twentieth cen- tury, significant linguistic, cultural, and scientific studies were published in Samoan that continued to make inconsistent use of diacritical markings. Many of the writers were missionary scholars who were heavily influenced by the earlier works of scholars such as Pratt. These texts—such as Henry Nisbet’s Notes on the Epistle of Paul to the Romans (1870), Thomas Powell’s Samoan Manual of Zoology (1886), and Pratt’s Bible Diction- ary in the Samoan Dialect (1887, as well as C J Kinnersley’s 1927 revised edition)—were written primarily for Samoan speakers, who were able to distinguish words by reading contextually. Subsequent secular scholars, QRWDEO\GXULQJWKH*HUPDQDGPLQLVWUDWLRQRI6ëPRDRIWHQZURWHDERXW the language for non-Samoan audiences but continued to follow the estab- lished orthographic policies of the missionary scholars. Notable German authors who published collections of Samoan oral traditions, material cul- ture, Samoan grammars, and Samoan lexicons included Bernhard Funk (1893), Wilhelm von Bülow (1895), Otto Sierich (1905), Oskar Stuebel (1895), Carl Marquardt (1899), Heinrich Neffgen (1902, 1904), and Edu- ard Heider (1913). Dr Augustin Krämer, in a marked departure from his contemporaries, was one of the very few scholars of that era to attempt to provide a phonemic orthography throughout his writings. His impressive WZRYROXPHHWKQRJUDSK\RI6ëPRD1903), written in Samoan and Ger- man, makes effective and consistent use of diacritics and stands as a model for accurate early Samoan-language representations. The culmination of this early period of linguistic description was the production of a Samoan grammar by the Methodist mission (Churchward 1926). Although it was a more detailed description of Samoan than Pratt’s earlier grammar, Spen- cer Churchward chose to follow an inconsistent pattern of orthographic representations of Samoan. He did note, however, the phonemic nature of the glottal stop, which he called the “break”:
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Governor removes Satele Galu Satele from Samoan Affairs post

Governor removes Satele Galu Satele from Samoan Affairs post

online @ samoanews.Com American Samoa’s First Lady, Cynthia Moliga (right) along with Mrs. Le’iataua Leuga Turner during a March 28 visit to Le Fetuao Samoan Language Center in Hawai’i. Mrs. Moliga told the school, which teaches Samoan language and culture, that she was born and raised in Hawai’i before coming home to Amer- ican Samoa. She expressed sincere appreciation to parents for making it a priority to teach their children the Samoan language while living out- side of American Samoa, as it’s very easy to lose the language while growing up ‘outside’.
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From nothing to something: The talent development journey of New Zealand Samoan tenors, Pene and Amitai Pati

From nothing to something: The talent development journey of New Zealand Samoan tenors, Pene and Amitai Pati

Some of the core values of traditional Fa’aSamoa are those of aiga (family), taulala Samoa (Samoan language), gafa (genealogies), matai (chiefly system), lotu (church) and fa’alavelave (ceremonial and other family obligations). However it is important to acknowledge that “the Fa’aSamoa practiced in Samoa may differ from that in New Zealand. Not every Samoan has the same understanding of the concept. What remains constant is maintaining the family and links with the homeland” (Anae, 2012). Anae contests that aiga is the common element, and that “within the family, giving and receiving tautua (service), fa‘aaloalo (respect) and alofa (love) are crucial in Samoan social relations”. These values are expressed by Moses Mackey, a New Zealand Samoan baritone who sings with Pene and Amitai in their performance group Sol3 Mio, and studies with them at the Wales International Academy of Voice. He shares that “knowing that we can sing this type of music, that we love this type of music… we can
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PACIFIC STUDIES AND SAMOAN STUDIES

PACIFIC STUDIES AND SAMOAN STUDIES

The interdisciplinary emphases of Pacific Studies and Samoan Studies make them complementary to a wide range of other university courses and degrees. They can combine effectively with Archi- tecture, Art History, Criminology, Cultural Anthropology, Design, Development Studies, Economics, Education, Geography, History, Marketing, Political Science, Religious Studies, Social Policy, Sociology, Tourism and others. Va'aomanü Pasifika is the hub for Pacific-focused research and has become Victoria's contact point for government agencies, research commentaries, liaison with Pacific communities and public forums on Pacific- related issues. Pacific Studies displays particular research strengths in areas of gender and militarism; migration and diaspora; Pacific epistemologies and jurisprudence; health; globalisation and popular culture; and in critiques of the developing field of Pacific Studies itself. The research of Samoan Studies examines the political, social, and economic contexts shaping Samoan language retention and maintenance; the depth and nuance within the language; and the broader contexts for fa'asämoa in Samoan communities inside and outside Samoa.
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Exploring the Insiders’ Experience of Language Assessment of Bilingual Samoan-English Speakers with Aphasia: "it's hard"

Exploring the Insiders’ Experience of Language Assessment of Bilingual Samoan-English Speakers with Aphasia: "it's hard"

This study highlights a number of clinical implications for Speech-Language Therapists, one of these being the importance of culturally appropriate assessments and materials. An important recommendation arising from the present study is for researchers to create an aphasia assessment in the Samoan language, or to adapt the BAT into the Samoan language. Cultural characteristics must also be taken into account in terms of planning for the assessment process and assessment tasks. The FM and the interpreter indicated that different tasks would have been more appropriate, for example cooking or attending church, and similarly the literature available regarding Samoan culture (Anae, 2010; Tamasese et al., 2005; Sobralske, 2006) suggests that Western approaches may not always be as suitable for this population. The activities suggested are more naturalistic which may be more appropriate for all participants irrespective of cultural background. Yet it appears highlighted that in this Samoan population, natural and meaningful activities may be the best approach for assessment. This study also suggests recommendations for
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MAKING THE TRANSITION TO INSULIN THERAPY: THE EXPERIENCES OF SAMOAN PEOPLE WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES IN NEW ZEALAND.

MAKING THE TRANSITION TO INSULIN THERAPY: THE EXPERIENCES OF SAMOAN PEOPLE WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES IN NEW ZEALAND.

Given that this research involves researching Samoan people whose first language is Samoan, three of my four interviews were conducted in Samoan as this was the preferred language for the participants – only one interview was carried out in English. This gave direction to this research and the Samoan language narratives are valued in the findings chapter that follows later. The feature of using Samoan narratives in the findings chapter embodies not only the cultural appropriateness of the Samoan participants but express cultural sensitivity unique to each life story of the participants as they each share their experiences of being diabetic and how they transitioned on to insulin therapy. My rationale for deciding to bring in Samoan texts from the interviews is primarily to provide us with lens and light into the participants‟ world. This allows us to holistically see what those experiences and the realities of living with diabetes for the rest of their lives in relation to the experience of transition on to insulin therapy. Sandelowski (1994) emphasised the growing recognition in narratives as “a means to achieve what is unique to nursing (p. 24) and to discover and to uncover knowledge, as well as recovering the art of nursing.
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Covenant Keepers: A History of Samoan (LMS) Missionary Wives in the Western Pacific from 1839 to 1979

Covenant Keepers: A History of Samoan (LMS) Missionary Wives in the Western Pacific from 1839 to 1979

Chapter 4 follows Samoan missionary wives and their husbands to the next mission fields on the islands of Tuvalu and Kiribati from the 1860s to the 1890s. The work of the Samoans on these islands was far more successful than in the previous field in Vanuatu and the Loyalty Islands. The chapter thus explores the factors that gave rise to this success. In particular is their closer proximity to Samoa as well as their shared social, cultural and linguistic links. It analyses the physical and material signs of conversion and the vital role of Samoan wives in such visible transformation. Despite such success the Samoans were also heavily criticised not only by LMS missionaries but also by other colonial observers. The chapter thus analyses these harsh criticisms, particularly those targeting Samoan wives, in light of the kind of Christianity that was developing in Samoa that informed the manner in which they carried out their work. The final two chapters focus on PNG, the last frontier for Samoan missionary wives and their husbands. These chapters traverse a large terrain of place and period from 1883 to 1979. PNG was where the majority of the Samoans were sent, and where many died due mainly to diseases like malaria and influenza. Chapter 6 looks at the first fifty years of the Samoans in PNG and the struggles that the Samoans faced not only in relation to diseases but because this was a vast and physically challenging field. It analyses how their perceptions of this impenetrable landscape were combined with their ideas of the “savage” and “dark” nature of Papuan customs and practices particularly those to do with the roles and status of Papuan women. It explores how such notions impacted on the manner in which they carried out their work. It looks particularly at the
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Evaluation of traps and lures for mosquito vectors and xenomonitoring of Wuchereria bancrofti infection in a high prevalence Samoan Village

Evaluation of traps and lures for mosquito vectors and xenomonitoring of Wuchereria bancrofti infection in a high prevalence Samoan Village

Fasitoo-Tai is composed of two neighbourhoods, one coastal and another inland, separated by plantations and forests. Coastal dwellings are located more closely to one another than those more inland. Western style homes are common on the coast while only open Samoan ‘fale’ are observed inland. The main breeding containers were both natural (tree holes, rock hole, rat-chewed coconuts, cocoa pods) and domestic containers (tyres, small plastic con- tainers, 50 gal drums, uncovered tanks).

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Marcus Mariota makes history: becomes 1st Samoan to win Heisman Trophy By B. Chen

Marcus Mariota makes history: becomes 1st Samoan to win Heisman Trophy By B. Chen

Marcus Mariota, who became the first Samoan Heisman Trophy winner, last Saturday, has the best fans in American Samoa: his family.. Pictured is Marcus (back row center) standing next t[r]

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The role of London Missionary Society : Samoan Missionaries in the evangelisation of the South West Pacific 1839-1930

The role of London Missionary Society : Samoan Missionaries in the evangelisation of the South West Pacific 1839-1930

Letter to European missionaries of the Samoan Mission on behalf of the Samoan pastors in the Gilbert and Ellice Islands, Nui, 11 August original, Dept Pac.. Letter from Kalaigolo 21 Dec.[r]

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Evaluation of traps and lures for mosquito vectors and xenomonitoring of Wuchereria bancrofti infection in a high prevalence Samoan Village

Evaluation of traps and lures for mosquito vectors and xenomonitoring of Wuchereria bancrofti infection in a high prevalence Samoan Village

Fasitoo-Tai is composed of two neighbourhoods, one coastal and another inland, separated by plantations and forests. Coastal dwellings are located more closely to one another than those more inland. Western style homes are common on the coast while only open Samoan ‘fale’ are observed inland. The main breeding containers were both natural (tree holes, rock hole, rat-chewed coconuts, cocoa pods) and domestic containers (tyres, small plastic con- tainers, 50 gal drums, uncovered tanks).

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Human resources in a South Pacific community : the Western Samoan labour force, 1951-1981

Human resources in a South Pacific community : the Western Samoan labour force, 1951-1981

employment problems or to the general problem of rapid population growth. Countries like New Zealand which has in the past been the main recipient of Western Samoan migrants has grown reluctant to accept migrants at the rate it has done before. This is due in part to the problems of migrant assimilation into the host country. Also, it is the result of economic conditions in New Zealand which shall not be detailed here. The quicker processing and dissemination of census information on the economically active population is necessary for the users to reap maximum benefit from the materials gathered. Past censuses have been
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Gestational weight gain among American Samoan women and its impact on delivery and infant outcomes

Gestational weight gain among American Samoan women and its impact on delivery and infant outcomes

Gestational weight gain among American Samoan women and its impact on delivery and infant outcomes Hawley et al BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth (2015) 15 10 DOI 10 1186/s12884 015 0451 1 RESEARCH ARTICLE[.]

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A Pilot Study of the Phytochemical Composition of Ethanolic Extracts from Eight Samoan Medicinal Plants

A Pilot Study of the Phytochemical Composition of Ethanolic Extracts from Eight Samoan Medicinal Plants

The objective of the present study was to carry out a pilot study on the phytochemical composition of eight commonly used Samoan medicinal plants to provide not only a scientific basis for their usage as traditional medicines but also insight into their full potential. This was achieved by quantitative analyses of five of the major classes of phytochemicals - alkaloids, phenols, saponins, tannins and flavanoids – present in ethanolic extracts of eight commonly used Samoan medicinal plants. The overall objective was to provide initial critical mass for future in depth studies by the National University of Samoa.
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The extensive networks of frequent population mobility in the Samoan Islands and their implications for infectious disease transmission

The extensive networks of frequent population mobility in the Samoan Islands and their implications for infectious disease transmission

Ethics Statement. The 2010 study received ethical clearance from the American Samoa Institutional Review Board, the Medical Research Ethics Committee of The University of Queensland (2010000114), and Queensland Health Forensic and Scientific Services Human Ethics Committee (HREC/10/QFSS/1). Permission was also sought from the Department of Samoan Affairs and village chiefs before village visits. Ethics approvals in 2014 were granted by the American Samoa Institutional Review Board, the Human Research Ethics Committees at James Cook University (H5519) and The University of Queensland (2014000409). The study was conducted in collaboration with the American Samoa Department of Health, and official permission for village visits was sought from the Department of Samoan Affairs and village chiefs and/or mayors. Verbal and written information on the study were provided in Samoan and/or English according to the participants’ preference, and written informed consent was obtained from all participants or their parent or guardian if under 18 years of age. All data were de-identified prior to analyses. All methods were performed in accordance with the relevant guidelines and regulations.
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Distribution of genome-wide linkage disequilibrium based on microsatellite loci in the Samoan population

Distribution of genome-wide linkage disequilibrium based on microsatellite loci in the Samoan population

We estimated the heterozygosity of the autosomal (X- linked) markers using data from the (female) unrelated indi- viduals and the first (female) sib from each family. We then compared the Samoan heterozygote frequencies with the observed heterozygote frequencies in the CEPH and NASC families. We found the average heterozygosity (0.67) in Samoan data was 0.12 less than in the CEPH families (0.79) and 0.10 less than in the NASC families (0.77). Eighty-seven per cent of markers in the CEPH data and 83 per cent of markers in the NASC data had greater heterozygosity than the corresponding marker in the Samoan data; a sign test showed that both of these differences were highly significant
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An examination of the complex web of influences on the educational achievement of Samoan and Tongan male students in Auckland secondary schools

An examination of the complex web of influences on the educational achievement of Samoan and Tongan male students in Auckland secondary schools

The provision of their language as a curriculum choice at either junior or senior level was considered important, although not all the participants did choose a Pacific language as part of their programme. The chance to use their language both at home and in their schooling was highly valued by six participants who had studied a language at school. Regardless of whether they studied a language or not, all the participants saw it as the opportunity to study a Pasifika language as a positive for Pasifika students in terms of being able to use their cultural capital in a valuable and worthwhile context. This finding is also recognised in previous studies as one key element in reducing conflicts of identity and a motivating factor for Pasifika students in schools (Pasikale 1999, cited in Coxon et al., 2002). Furthermore, Nash, (2004), suggests that student achievement can be negatively affected if a student’s culture is not respected or recognised in a school. The connection between underachievement of Pasifika students’ achievement in New Zealand and a student’s culture has also been linked to a student’s experience at home being quite different to what they find at school. A culture clash that can at times make it difficult for students to understand how to respond to expectations at school (Meade, PuhiPuhi & Foster-Cohen, 2003). Pasifika students can feel part of two worlds, the world of their culture at home and then the world of being a student at school. This can create difficulties in relating to their identity which can in turn lead to learning issues at school. Coxon et al., (2002) suggests that, “Identity can mean the difference to continued academic failure and educational success based on the realities of future Pacific Island generations” (p.34). The participants of this study suggested that they had experienced these kinds of cultural challenges. However, they perceived that they could be overcome by schools being culturally responsive and creating positive communication with parents and families.
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Fa'a Samoa : an aid to livelihood recovery following the Samoan tsunami? : a case study examining two Samoan villages : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Development Studies at Massey Uni

Fa'a Samoa : an aid to livelihood recovery following the Samoan tsunami? : a case study examining two Samoan villages : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Philosophy in Development Studies at Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand

One of the first questions anyone asked me in relation to this thesis was, ‘why the Samoa tsunami?’ The first answer I invariably gave was that it is appropriate to my teaching. As a Geography teacher I have taught about the 2009 Samoan tsunami as part of Level 1 Geography since 2010. Not only did I find this topic fascinating, so did my students, and this fostered in me a desire to discover more about Samoa and the ways in which Samoa responded to and recovered from the tsunami. This led me to undertake two trips to Samoa in 2011. Another factor influencing my choice was my family. They are the most important thing in my life so it was vital to me that I was able to return to them quickly, if needed. Likewise, as a wife and mother, my safety was important. Consequently, Samoa as a politically and socially stable developing country, which is close to New Zealand, was an attractive research destination.
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Language Indian Language Kit

Language Indian Language Kit

The different languages on your computer are supported by software known as the script system. A script system makes a character set available for a particular language, tells your computer which characters to display when you type, specifies the direction of text flow, and provides other information such as sort order, date, time, number, and currency formats. If you are working in English on your computer, your system uses the Roman script.

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