The five Outcomes in this Framework, as outlined later, provide schoolagecare educators with key reference points against which children’s experiences can be identified, documented and communicated to children, families and other professionals. Educators can reflect on children’s wellbeing and how children have developed, how they have engaged with increasingly complex ideas and participated in increasingly sophisticated experiences. All children demonstrate their learning in different ways. Approaches to evaluation that are culturally and linguistically relevant and responsive to the social, physical and intellectual capabilities will acknowledge children’s abilities and strengths, and allow them to demonstrate competence. Evaluation, when undertaken in collaboration with children can support and empower them to see themselves as capable and foster independence and initiative. When educators reflect on their role in children’s lives they reflect on their own views and
The school-agecare for children of critical workers is intended for extreme circumstances in which no parent or guardian is at home, as all of the parents or legal guardians in the child’s household are Tier I critical workers. If it is a two-parent household and one is not a critical worker, a school is not required to provide free school-agecare to the family, but the school could choose to provide the care, if they have the capacity to do so while ensuring health and safety requirements can still be met. School districts and charter schools may also
In 2012, regulatory authorities determined which education and care services would be assessed during the year. For the purposes of the present evaluation, only services whose assessment and rating process was completed by 15 October 2012 would be included. By agreement, Outside School Hours Care (OSHC) services were not to be assessed and rated during this period in New South Wales and only Long Day Care (LDC) services were to be assessed and rated in the Northern Territory. The delayed passage of legislation in Western Australia resulted in a limited number of services being available for assessment by the cut- off date. Preschool services in Tasmania and Western Australia are not covered by the national legislation and were not assessed. Table 1 shows the distribution of services that were assessed during this period and available for analysis across all jurisdictions and service types. The population of services is presented in Table 10 in Appendix B.
that segregation in school and school-age childcare should be avoided. Notwithstanding this, pupils are being regularly placed in special types of school, where the teaching is mostly done in special groups in special localities and with special teachers. After-school centres, however, have rarely made a distinction between normal and special activities. The clear objective of pedagogical and activity goals has been that every child should be included in joint activities. In the beginning of 2000 clear come signals from the National Board of Health and Welfare suggesting that a number of municipalities gave clear evidence of gearing towards segregated after-school activities, i.e. activities in which solely children with intellectual disability are registered.
As our Outside School Hours Care (OSHC) Services fully comply with the requirements of the National Quality Standard for Early Childhood Education and Care and SchoolAgeCare; parents are able to receive Child Care Benefit (CCB) for all of our OSHC services.
Administrative response plays a key role in staff support after a crisis. Consider this situation. It was time for class to start and Jennie, a middle school Resource Room teacher had not arrived. Her classroom aide became worried and contacted the office. Jennie’s brother was home and answered the call from the office. He thought she had gone to work. He went to look for her and came back to the phone, out of breath, saying that he could not wake her up and was going to call 911. Jennie, not yet 50 years old, had died in her sleep. Staff members were shocked as they heard the information throughout the morning and were given the details in the staff room during their lunch break. Students were going to be dealt with individually since only a few knew her from the resource room. A substitute was brought in to Jennie’s classroom and, from all appearances, the school community as a whole didn’t skip a beat.
The age of the workforce matters because some users and their families may increasingly or initially want a care work- er of an age that they believe suits their needs or preferences. This may be because of physical requirements, shared inter- ests, or compatible personalities, but our study suggests that older workers are more often desired because age is seen to accompany experience. An older person may not want a young person whom they regard as potentially ‘flighty’ meeting their care needs, although some may wish for a care worker who is more ‘spirited’. The challenge remains of max- imising continuity of care and relationships where younger care workers are more likely to leave. Those who preferred someone older associated age with life-related experienc- es that they believed would tend to a better understanding of their needs, although an older care worker may not al- ways have the physical capacity to carry out all care tasks or want work-related travel. Examples of workers whose age was seen as appropriate to the client were provided by those working with people with learning disabilities or peo- ple with dementia that have distressing behaviour: if the care user was physically strong or active there were expressed ad- vantages in having a younger, fitter, care worker. The gener- alisability of this imputed relationship needs to be assessed. Some younger workers also shared hobbies or interests with care users and potentially saw this as a more appropriate peer relationship. There has been some interest in exploring the theoretical concept of homophily, the tendency to asso- ciate with people who are similar (Kossinets & Watts, 2009), and its implications for social care, but this has explored eth- nicity rather than age (Manthorpe et al., 2012).
The estimation results are not presented to save space (available from the authors upon request). 5 Table 3 describes the probabilities which are predicted based on estimated coefficients (see columns 1-3). For robustness checks the estimations were performed separately for indicators of the midpoint of the age range of school entry (Panel A: MID), the earliest age of school entry (Panel B: EARLY), and the latest possible age of school entry (Panel C: LATE). In all three cases the eight coefficients "d" of the interaction terms (PE @ Entry) (see equation 2) were jointly statistically significant at least at the five percent level.
NRN Steering Committee Chairs: Alan H. Jobe, MD, PhD, University of Cincinnati (2003–2006); Michael S. Caplan, MD, Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Chicago (2006–2011); Richard A. Polin, MD, Division of Neonatology, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University (2011–present). Alpert Medical School of Brown University and Women and Infants Hospital of Rhode Island (U10 HD27904): Abbot R. Laptook, MD; Angelita M. Hensman, MS, RNC- NIC; Elisa Vieira, RN, BSN; Emilee Little, RN, BSN; Katharine Johnson, MD; Barbara Alksninis, PNP; Mary Lenore Keszler, MD; Andrea M. Knoll; Theresa M. Leach, MEd, CAES; Victoria E. Watson, MS, CAS.
BACKGROUND: Gunshot injuries are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the pediatric population. The Pediatric Trauma Society supports the use of tourniquets for exsanguinating hemorrhage in severe extremity trauma. The Combat Application Tourniquet (CAT) used with success in adults has not been prospectively tested in children. Our objective with this study was to determine if the CAT is successful in arresting extremity arterial blood ﬂow in school- aged children.
Subsequently, several methodologically similar papers examined school entry age effects for a broad spectrum of industrialized countries. Note that mandatory schooling in most countries is independent of school entry age, so that these studies identify the sole effect of (relative) school entry age. For instance, Bedard and Dhuey (2006), using data for 18 industrialized countries from the international TIMSS study, as well as additional data for the U.S. and Canada, estimate the effect of school entry age at the fourth and eighth grade using the birth month as an instrumental variable. They show that school entry age has a positive impact on test scores at these grade levels in almost all industrialized countries studied. Moreover, even though this effect is slightly smaller for the eighth grade than the fourth, the authors still find that in the U.S. an 11-month age difference increases the probability of college enrollment by 11 percentage points, a finding that contrasts with that of Angrist and Krueger (1992). Thus, the Bedard and Dhuey (2006) finding suggests a persistent relative age effect on educational outcomes. Likewise, Allen and Barnsley (1993) show that birth month (when it determines school entry age) affects schooling outcomes in Britain and Canada. Specifically, despite seeming to decline during the progression through school grades, the effects persist until the ninth grade. In British schools, birth quarter, in particular, has an impact on the school attended.
The results of the present study showed that the onset of pediatric migraine is usually around the pubertal age with non-significant sex difference in its incidence dur- ing this period despite the well-known higher female prevalence in studies carried out on adult onset migraine pointing to the possible role of female gonadal sex hor- mones in migraine pathogenesis. At the same time, the study revealed a high incidence of positive family history among migraineurs children pointing to the possible genetic role in its pathogenesis. These results are in har- mony with Jin et al.  as well as Timothy et al.  who found slight non-significant higher incidence of mi- graine among pre-pubertal boys with strong link be- tween gonadal female sex hormones and migraine development in post-pubertal women. On the other hand, Recober et al. 2018  found higher pediatric mi- graine female incidence among their studied patients possibly due to higher post-pubertal included patients and exerting their study on patients who required hos- pital admissions contrasting the outpatient included children of this study. The results of Teleanu et al.  documented the high incidence of positive family history migraineurs children, but the incidence in their study is higher than that of the present one (60% vs. 30%) pos- sibly due to the younger age of their researched children as they worked on the pre-pubertal age.
ting since many older persons in our study were frail, or had co-morbidities and/or cognitive impairments. While aging in place is considered to be the best alternative for the older person , health declines due to disability, feelings of insecurity, and risk of falling  somehow indicate moving the person to a nursing home. However, older persons do request maintaining control and knowl- edge over their life span, since declining functional abil- ity and health may not be the only reasons for feelings of insecurity for that person , but also a reduction of control and knowledge of one’s prevailing situation. We therefore suggest increasing control and knowledge for older persons who are dependent on care from formal political intentions to a personal level, such as deciding what to wear. The category “sense of control and knowl- edge” in our study included one question about knowing where to turn if they wanted to complain, which could be seen as something natural for older persons receiving care. However, a recent study about complaints from older persons to the municipalities showed that very few complaints are received . The main reason for fewer complaints was considered to be lack of control and knowledge about where and to whom the complaints should be addressed . A concrete example of impro- vement could therefore be to facilitate clear instructions on the internet regarding, for instance, application forms and findings that affect the elderly, since locating this information on home web pages is sometimes difficult. Every municipality could also provide clearer instruc- tions on where to complain on their homepages for everyday situations, since not everyone has the oppor- tunity or knowledge of how to use a computer to access the internet.
that 2- to 3-year-old children living in the UK and Australia with developmental delays had more behavioral dif ﬁ culties than their TD peers. However, differences in social, environmental, and health care resources may preclude generalization of that study to US populations. Additionally, studies have mostly been cross-sectional. To our knowledge, only 2 longitudinal studies evaluated behavior problems among very young children with CD and both were limited by short follow-up periods and the use of con- venience samples. 10,12,18 Baker et al 7,10
The school-age pate was free of any microbial growth during 12 months storage at ambient temperature. Table 4 shows the effect of storage period on physico-chemical composition of the paste. As well as the results illustrated that, no significant difference (P≤0.05) in TSS% throughout stored at ambient temperature. This finding was agrees with the same as mentioned by Nour et al. (2011) for some varieties of Sudanese mangoes jam. Moreover, there were significant differences (P≤0.05) in pH and TAA, with a minor increased and slight decreased, respectively. Abdel-Rahman (2012) reported the same results for sweet potato jam. The total and reducing sugars were significantly enlarging from 31.69 to 32.41% P P and from 2.95 to 4.92 P P %, respectively.
Anthropometric measurements, the child ’ s walking status, and 34 items from the Functional Rehabilitation Evaluation of Sensori-Neurologic Outcomes (FRESNO, a validated measure of motor, self-care, social, communication, and cognitive functioning) 18 were also included as secondary outcomes. The items chosen from the FRESNO evaluate the amount of assistance required by the child to complete activities of daily living and advanced motor skills. Walking independently was deﬁned as walking without assistive devices or orthotics. We evaluated the frequency of neurosurgical procedures in the children. The presence of hindbrain herniation from the brain MRI and the presence of syringomyelia and
Multiple factors between birth and schoolage can influence developmental outcomes. This study con- trolled for commonly known factors that have an impact on developmental outcomes; however, other unknown or unmeasured factors may be present in our late preterm cohort biasing them to a more neg- ative outcome. Approximately 10% of the initial sam- ple of both the late preterm and term infants had missing data on hospital length of stay, which neces- sitated exclusion from the study. It is unknown whether these infants’ outcomes would have changed the final results of this study. Last, the outcomes cho- sen were based on statewide surveillance programs that identify children at increased risk for develop- mental delay or disability. The inclusion of children not identified in these statewide surveillance pro- grams could alter the final results; however, there is no reason to believe that this small sample of unob- served disabled or delayed children would be biased in its proportion of late preterm infants compared with the larger observed population. Although the overall incidence of each outcome may not have been esti- mated precisely, the significant difference between the 2 groups would not be expected to change.
The literature research was then extended to all-age schools overseas. The results of this search identified a few articles on all-age schools in Jamaica, Sweden and Australia. These schools had been established as a result of geographical factors, in communities in which there were too few students to create separate schools. The research conducted by the University of Wolverhampton on all-age schools in Jamaica showed that attendance among the students improved as did parental involvement. However, there was no analysis on student attainment (Jamaican All-Age Schools Project 2003: 8).