Regarding the differences between the schoolclimate perception, the findings indi- cate the existence of statistical significant differences for the gender, age, mother school level and school shift variables. In regard to gender, the results indicated that the fe- males reported higher school engagement and connections with teachers, whereas the males presented a more positive perception in the aspects related to connection with other students and disorder situations. This finding differs from other studies that re- ported that males tend to have a more negative perception of the school rules and stu- dent relationships compared than female students (Mitchell, Bradshaw, & Leaf, 2010; Wang, Selman, Dishion, & Stormshak, 2010; Fan, Williams, & Corkin, 2011). The dis- crepancy could be explained from a cultural perspective, such that it is possible that in our context the female students might have more difficulties in the interactions with their peers, whereas the male students may perceive more disorder situations in the school (Vega, González, Valle, Flores, & Vega, 2013).
Therefore, Rich et al. (2012) and Patapas and Smalskys (2013) revealed that outside the central culture of an organisation, deeds of an organisation’s workforce and internal organisational practices denote the behaviours. However, the worker behaviours that improve cultural co-existence and organisational practices are well maintained. Conversely, organisational practices are enhanced by successful organisations while the ones that did not strengthen internal organisational practices were found to fall behind (Patapas & Smalskys, 2013). In order to enhance performance management as an internal organisational practice, schools should be sending their teachers and leaders for professional seminars, workshops and technical training for better performance. These programs should promote TQM in providing the required knowledge in the respective areas of the school. With regards to recruitment, a school organisation should ensure that the needs of the organisational processes are met. The recruitment and selection processes should also clearly portray teaching competence (Trussa et al., 2013). Employers should be flexible in their administration of schools and should ensure teamwork which is highly valued in a schoolclimate. The managers and senior staff should demonstrate an understanding attitude towards the junior workers (Trussa et al., 2013). According to Welch (2011) and Chowne and Rayton (2014), TQM is the predecessor of job satisfaction, training, employee engagement, performance management, and development while worker development has to do with undergoing training programs to acquire new knowledge and develop skills through the sponsorship of the employer. In other words, the tools for quality management are gathered through training (Welch, 2011). Knowledge acquisition and training are necessary for any organisation since it is the genesis of knowledge base enhancement among workers/employees (Park et al., 2013). Unfortunately, many employers do not invest in training their workers because of the expenses and fail to take into consideration the foundations of development. It should be noted that the pros of worker training exceed the cons (Park et al., 2013). Training teachers/employees help to improve the weaknesses that they have in their fields (Welch, 2011). According to Shuck, Reio, and Rocco (2011), training helps the majority of teachers/employees improve their performance in the classroom/work, the result of which is increased job satisfaction and engagement (Park et al., 2013).
To answer the second question, I found that perceptions of schoolclimate relate to achievement outcomes, but not always as expected. After analyzing what contributes to student- level differences in perceptions of schoolclimate, it is important to analyze and understand how these differences may predict variation in student achievement. While there is not enough evidence to assign a causal conclusion, these findings are important for TDOE to consider as they decide how to allocate funds to schools. That is, because TDOE is invested in aligning every action with its goal to improve outcomes for students, TDOE should investigate further what characteristics predict those constructs that significantly relate to improved student achievement.
Links to social-emotional and academics. Schoolclimate has links to social-emotional development and academic achievement for students, making it an important area of focus for schools. Schoolclimate is consistently recognized as a predictor of a student’s social functioning and emotional health. Fostering a positive school environment can be conducive to improved academic functioning (Astor, Benbenishty, Ziera, & Vinokur, 2002; Payne, Gottfredson, & Gottfredson, 2003). Sulak (2016) used a multiple regression to observe the predicted academic achievement from schoolclimate variables including racial composition, school size, disciplinary referrals, and crime levels in neighborhoods. Sulak found that schools with a positive schoolclimate appear to promote higher academic achievement while schools with a negative schoolclimate can depress student academic achievement. A negative schoolclimate was characterized by high discipline referrals and low attendance rates. Sulak’s focus in this research was on the frequency of disciplinary behaviors in the school. Koth et al., (2008) found that a lower rate of disciplinary behaviors were associated with a higher academic achievement for the school paired with higher student perceptions of discipline and order.
Philosophers understood the usefulness of studying climate in relation to employee productivity, thus delineating organizational climate necessitates a more detailed and precise specification of the t-+heory. This has been established with the taxonomy of climate-related terms developed by Tagiuri (1968) which provides an effective sort system for categorizing the schoolclimate literature. This classification has become dominant view in organizational climate research as many studies reflect on it. In Taguiri’s assessment of schoolclimate, the environment is measured by how members of an organization perceived certain qualities to which they are sensitive to and which, in turn, influences their attitudes and enthusiasm. That is, summary of thoughts associated with the total environmental quality within an organization. Accordingly, four elements were enumerated to constitute climate, as much as a conformation of personal characteristics constitute a personality. This include ecology (Physical/material variables in the school that are external), its milieu (the variables that represents individual characteristics concerned with the presence of persons and groups), its social system (the social dimension concerned with the patterned relationships of persons and groups), and its culture (the social dimension concerned with belief systems, values, cognitive structures, and meaning). Nevertheless, none of the studies of schoolclimate have given due consideration to all the elements classified by Taguiri (Anderson, 1982); thus, this study used Taguiri’s taxonomy to guide this study.
Taskforce. Both initiatives called upon the Department of Education to assess and work on the issue of school safety and schoolclimate. Permission to use this survey was obtained (See Appendix E). The EDSCLS has three different domains: engagement, safety, and environment. There were no means and standard deviations available from the norm sample. The engagement domain is made up of three topics: cultural and linguistic competence, relationships, and school participation. The engagement domain has 17 questions, and it measures teacher perceptions of the connections between teachers, the community, and schools. It also measures how teachers perceive the relationship between teachers and students, as well as relationships between teachers and their administrators. The engagement domain is scored by summing together the values assigned to each of the participant’s answer. The safety domain is made up of five topics: emotional safety, physical safety, bullying/cyberbullying, substance abuse, and emergency
When considering the impact of this study on educational leaders, there are implications at the state, district, and school levels. State leaders should consider the results of this study and determine if this applies to other school levels or in other regions of Georgia. District leaders in urban settings or areas with high poverty should pay close attention to the results of this study. A strong positive relationship was found in urban schools (r=.884, N=17, p<.01) between schoolclimate and student achievement and in schools with high poverty (r=.673, N=23, p=.01). If schools in their district fall into at least one of these categories, district leaders would be wise to implement changes to the practices in their schools. Specific changes based on the data will be offered later in this section . The results of this study provide several practical implications for middle school leaders in the CSRA RESA region. The existence of a strong and positive schoolclimate is essential for the successful function of a school (Hoy & Hannum, 1997) and failing to nurture positivity in a school is the best way to ensure lower student achievement
How connected people feel to one another is fundamental to establishing a positive schoolclimate (Cohen & Geier, 2010). A 2007 climate survey of 108 schools found that unless positive relationships are established in difficult school environments, strengthening the instruction process will do very little to improve academic achievement (Perkins, 2007). A school creates a host of dynamic relationships among students, teachers, administrators, parents, and the community itself, and the nature of these relationships is a strong indicator of the overall climate of the school. Gangi (2009) reported that any learning environment in which all members do not interact well together negatively impacts mental health. The NSCC (2013) stressed the need for supportive, ethical and respectful relationships between staff and students to be a major standard in positive schoolclimate reform, and a lack of emotional bonding was
Bullying is the most common form of school violence and can have devastating effects on children who bully and who are bullied (Langdon & Preble, 2008; Turner et al., 2013; Vreeman & Carroll, 2007). The seriousness and consequences of bullying make it a priority in schools and there are various programs and interventions to address it. Individualized, group, or peer mediation interventions target the students who bully and the students being bullied. Such tactics have some support in the research community because they can teach empathy and problem-solving skills (Smith et al., 2005), but others believe bullying is a systemic issue requiring whole-school, cultural interventions (Whitted & Dupper, 2005). Whole-school approaches also vary in effectiveness (Merrell et al., 2008), but unlike individual or group interventions, they aim to improve the overall schoolclimate to prevent and reduce bullying.
Because of the importance of individual perceptions, schools often assess how students or teachers or parents feel about their school, and schoolclimate has often been associated with improved school achievement, but rarely they take into account all these “actors” at the same time. The main aim of this work is to compare the results obtained in a population study on schoolclimate that involves students, parents, teachers and non-teaching staff. In this paper, we will present the results of parents’, students’, teachers’ and no-teacher personnel’s perception. We have administered 13,500 structured questionnaires addressed to students, parents, teachers, educational assistance personnel, involved in the four orders of schools (Pre-school, Elementary, Middle, High) of the province of Bolzano. Parental permission was obtained for young people. The present study has been conducted in the province of Bolzano, northern Italy, between January and April 2012. A SchoolClimate Perception Questionnaire (SCPQ), that can be completed in 10 minutes, has been developed to assess environments and climate of all Italian language schools. In order to determine the interrelationships among the questionnaire items, a Principal-Axis Factor Analysis was performed. The final scale was used for Confirmatory Factor Analysis that was done to assess its construct validity. We will present the results regarding the schoolclimate perceptions of teachers, parents and students and their comparison.
managerial leadership is supported by gaining an understanding of the relevance of the specific context of a school in building positive climate. This relationship is demonstrated in a qualitative study of schoolclimate. Drago-Severson (2012) conducted 25 semi-structured interviews of school principals with at least five years of experience, from kindergarten through twelfth grade (K-12) school settings with a variety of financial resources and locations, to uncover principals’ successful practices and strategies for shaping schoolclimate through teacher growth and development. Drago-Severson (2012) uncovered four themes that principals used to approach constructing a climate that was supportive of teacher learning: shared leadership, building relationships, helping people manage change, and fostering diversity. Nearly all of the principals that participated in the study prioritized respectfully involving teachers in shared decision- making to help build climate-valuing relationships among faculty. The principals in Catholic schools in the study focused on their role as spiritual leaders to foster a respectful community, while public school leaders focused on developing shared values, thus supporting the assertion of Reed and Swaminathan (2016) that understanding the specific context of a school is fundamental to implementation of successful shared leadership opportunities. A key factor in developing shared decision-making between principals and teachers across all types of schools was the focus on the development of a shared school mission and that mission’s connection to the faculty’s daily practices (Drago-Severson, 2012). Within the context of shared leadership, principals in the study cited the necessity to focus on supporting adult growth and learning, providing
Macneil (2009)observed, recognised and accepted that schools differ in their school climates, as measured by the ten dimensions of the organizational health inventory, with exemplary schools out-performing acceptable schools. The findings of this study suggested that student achieve higher scores on standardized tests in schools with healthy learning environments. Curry (2009) examined the connection between emotional intelligence of school leaders and schoolclimate as perceived by teacher are lacking. Findings indicated that emotional intelligence of school leader was not correlated to schoolclimate as perceived by teacher. However, there were significant correlations between the two when compared to some factors of the school level environment questionnaire.
The findings of the study may contribute to better understanding of the concept of transformational leadership and schoolclimate and helpful to developing literature of leadership behaviour and schoolclimate. The present investigation had tried to put a new viewpoint to understand the effect of transformational leadership on schoolclimate and its different dimensions. Present investigation is very useful for principals as they are the leader in the school and they have to perform many duties as academic and administrative. The Principal of secondary school is mainly responsible for what is going on in the school. He is the coordinating agency which keeps the balance and ensures the harmonious development of the whole institution. Findings of the study have implications for institution also as principal is the leader in the school. Findings of this study will be proved useful for college principals, head teacher and chairperson of the different departments in the universities. They may conduct different programs to enhance leadership qualities among students by providing problematic situation. The findings of this study are also useful for society because school is a small society and the people of the society should have the knowledge of different aspects of the schoolclimate. Findings of this study have the implications for school environment, it contribute to develop a good schoolclimate covering all the aspects of school.
The Maryland State Board of Education also developed and adopted a model policy to address bullying, harass- ment, or intimidation: Section 7-424.1 of the Education Article of the Annotated Code of Maryland. Maryland’s model bullying policy is one example of a state that makes explicit the link between bullying and schoolclimate. “This policy recognizes that the prohibition of bullying in schools and reprisal and retaliation against individu- als who report acts of bullying, as well as subsequent and standard consequences and remedial actions, cannot be effective as prevention and intervention methods unless they are included as a part of a whole-school prevention/ intervention program. The whole-school program would include the following elements: prevention, intervention/ remediation, and consequences.”
While there has been some research on the importance and positive outcomes related to both of these topics (e.g. Bradshaw et al., 2009; Horner et al., 2009; Kupermic et al., 1997; Wang, 2009; Wang & Dishion, 2012), the evaluation of these variables is limited in both breadth and depth at the high school level. Many of the well-controlled research studies that have been conducted, as well as examples from the field, focus primarily on elementary and middle school settings. Additionally, despite increasing PBIS implementation in high schools each year, they continue to lag behind elementary and middle schools (Swain-Bradway et al., 2015). Similarly, previous research has indicated that schoolclimate perceptions are significantly more negative among high school students compared to elementary and middle school students (Bear et al., 2017). As practices in schools continue to shift, practitioners will continue to look to the literature on the importance and effectiveness of variables such as schoolclimate, discipline practices, and PBIS implementation, as well as how to best improve these practices in high schools.
Abstract: Teachers are important figures in forming the schoolclimate, including in inclusive schools. Their perception will influence the learning process and indirectly affect students’ achievements. This study aimed to identify teachers’ perceptions of schoolclimate in inclusive schools. Mixed method was used in this study. Quantitatively, questionnaires were given to 127 teachers from 2 inclusive vocational schools and 4 inclusive high schools in Jakarta, Bandung, and Surakarta, using accidental sampling technique. In each class, there were 2 – 3 students with special needs, which encompassed different types of disability such as physically disabled, low vision, slow learner, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and autism. Qualitatively, school observations and interviews were conducted with 10 teachers. The results showed that their perceptions of the schoolclimate in high schools and vocational schools tended to be positive although the knowledge and application of inclusive education still needed to be improved. There were differences in several perceptual aspects due to the duration of teaching and the type of school.
resided mainly in the urban middle school setting, although a few studies research high schools and elementary schools. To date the studies examined gang violence, discipline, attendance and socioeconomic effects. Literature already existing on school uniforms yielded some pros and cons. There were proponents who felt that uniforms were a positive addition to schools. Uniforms support reduction of gang violence in schools and contribute to other positive outcomes such as decreased behavioral problems, increased learning, enhanced schoolclimate, improved self-esteem, better school spirit, and greater academic achievement (Brunsma and Rockquemore, 2003). Opponents feel differently and suggest that school uniforms infringe upon students’ rights and are a superficial approach to underlying problems. Viadero (2007) found that schools cited benefits of uniforms, but researchers were seeing a different picture.
In addition, each Montclair school has a program or programs in place to improve schoolclimate and teach social problem solving, according to that school’s needs. The Montclair Fund for Educational Excellence, through its Turner Social-Emotional Learning grants, has funded social-emotional learning programs in the schools for the past decade, including “Responsive Classrooms” and UMDNJ’s “Social Decision Making/Social Problem Solving Program,” as well as projects created by individual teachers. The Partnership has brought to the middle schools Rutgers’ program “Improving SchoolClimate for Academic and Life Success,” which creates a framework to help schools coordinate existing programs and see where improvements to schoolclimate are needed.
field. While all teachers agreed about teacher challenges, including difficulty with classroom management, stayers displayed a higher level of optimism, positive emotion, and self-efficacy. Leavers attributed difficulty to their own personality, which leads to emotional burnout. The stayers acknowledged that assistance of administrators helped to set emotional lines between teachers and students so they don’t take negative behaviors or actions personally. These studies, along with the fact that teachers are leaving the profession, it is suggested that some attrition could be avoided (Cox, Parmer, Tourkin, Warner, & Lyter, , 2007; Goldring, 2002, Ingersoll & May, 2011). Ultimately, a teacher’s ability to teach is impacted by students who act out which adds to frustration levels (Aloe, Amo, & Shanhan, 2014; Reeves, 2012). The impact of student behavior on teacher retention is especially seen in urban schools that typically experience a higher turn-over rate than suburban and rural schools (Keigher, 2010). Increased behavior problems occur because of inexperienced staff, but teachers appear less likely to stay in school where there are persistent behavior problems. The lack of preparation of real-world experiences in teacher education programs for new teachers also causes them to be more susceptible to teacher burnout and attrition. An adjustment has to be made by new teachers to students, parents, school demographics and climate, and district policies; however, a failure to adjust leads to a feeling of being overworked and stressed (Marinell & Coca, 2013). Thus, job satisfaction is a key measure of school-climate (Papay, 2012). Influence of Discipline Referrals