We began by blocking focus-group data responding to questions about needs identification, regardless of whether the diagnosis was internal or external. We coded these data using descriptive start codes consisting of a three-level cate- gory system of responses to needs assessment by role (teacher, literacy coach, special education resource teacher, principal, diagnostician, curriculum con- sultant, senior administrator) and by diagnosis type (with and without external diagnosis). Through constant comparison within and between these start codes, we constructed emergent codes that reflected patterns in the data. These emergent, in vivo codes were based on relationships between the central phe- nomenon, external diagnosis, and factors influencing the phenomenon, espe- cially its consequences (e.g., effects on teacher morale). We selected from these emergent codes six themes that best represented the district’s experience with external diagnosis. We used the six themes to describe how external diagnosis contributed to schoolimprovement and interpreted the themes in the context of research on schooleffectiveness and schoolimprovement.
Value-added measures can also be used to provide information on the effectiveness of policy initiatives. Value-added measures yield indicators for schooleffectiveness. These indicators can be most useful for education authorities in identifying those schools with significantly above average value-added performance and those with clearly below average performance (OECD 2006). High-performing schools can provide examples of best practice which others may emulate, while remedial efforts can be directed towards schools who are struggling in terms of their students’ learning gains. As the OECD (2006) report argues: ‘When resources are limited, as they always are, this type of triage can be very useful’. Value-added measures can also assist policy-makers to more closely align policies, resources and teaching strategies with the needs of individual schools (Drury & Doran 2003) or help select schools for particular initiatives.
their university’s mandate for engaging with “geographical communities … of interest for mutual benefit” (Southern Cross University, 2012, p. 8) and the zeitgeist of the NSW educational reform agenda. A collective of interested school leaders and academics began planning, and did so in consultation with David Townsend, an Australian iteration based on evidence of success in Alberta school jurisdictions (Chaseling et al., 2016). A particularly attractive element of the Alberta work for the Australian experience was the potential to focus on developing leadership capacity in local schools as a key driver of whole-schoolimprovement. This aligned well with the Departmental policy, Local Schools, Local Decisions. Introduced in 2011, the policy gave New South Wales public schools greater authority for local decision-making while the NSW Department of Education still determined policies and guidelines (NSW Department of Education and Communities, 2011). Furthermore, in addition to the empirical results emerging from Alberta, the academic staff recognised evidence in the global research literature for the positive role of school leadership in affecting significant and sustainable school change (Ärlestig, Day & Johansson, 2016; Day & Leithwood, 2007; Fullan, 2010, 2014; Gurr & Drysdale, 2016; Leithwood, Harris & Hopkins, 2008; Hattie, 2009, 2015; Pollock & Hauseman, 2016; Robinson, Lloyd & Rowe, 2008).
employed within inter-school collaboration can depend in many ways on the nature of the collaborative agreement. For instance, as highlighted in the previous sub-section, the research by Lindsay et al. (2007) underscores shared leadership as a key characteristic of formal hard federations whereby two or more schools share a headteacher, often with the title of executive headteacher. In looser collaboratives the traditional leadership structure of a headteacher leading a single school remains the preferred model. In a similar study, Hopkins and Higham (2007) undertook case study research with 10 federations to explore the prevalent features of high performing lead schools partnering one or more underperforming schools, in order to bring about educational improvement. A strong and resilient leadership team was typical of all 10 federations with two models of senior leadership emerging most prominently. The first model comprised federations made up of one lead school and one partner school which tended to employ an executive headteacher operating across both schools with an associate or deputy headteacher based at each individual school site. This model tended to be employed in smaller federations between a lead school and a partner school where, given the size of the partnership, the executive headteacher was able to retain close involvement in the day- to-day leadership of both schools. The second model, more commonly employed at larger federations with two or more schools, also involved an executive headteacher operating across all the schools in the partnership. However, in this model, the larger number of schools meant each one tended to have an individual head of school with more autonomy than the associate or deputy role found in the first model. This allowed the executive headteacher in this model to play a more overarching, strategic leadership role, with less operational responsibility than the executive headteacher in the first model. In this research, the number of schools in the partnership dictated the model of
Protecting the anonymity of research participants is one of the more important ethical issues with this study. Using pseudonyms for all place names and participants throughout this report is a first step. Additionally, when disclosure of an individual’s demographics, such as ethnicity or family structure, could reveal identity, the information is not shared. However, given the larger contexts of the local region and state, most insiders to this context will have no trouble identifying the school setting used as a source for participants in this study. The research design can help with this ethical dilemma. In building a shared construct of the reality of school choice in this context, the findings do not belong or reflect back onto any single participant. The findings are a mosaic, agreed upon by members with differing constructs of reality. Though readers with insider knowledge of this region and context may recognize this particular setting, the case study report should provide protection of individual identities.
Thematic approach to curriculum – An approach based on organizers that motivate students to investigate interesting ideas from multiple perspectives. The central theme becomes the catalyst for developing the concepts, generalizations, skills, attitudes, etc. Themes should encourage integration or correlation of various content areas. The rationale is grounded in a philosophy that students learn most efficiently when subjects are perceived as worthy of their time and attention and when they are activity engaged in inquiry. These themes may be broad-based or narrow in scope; may be used for one class, designated classes, or the whole school; and may last for a few weeks up to several months.
One success claimed for the National Curriculum is that it has encouraged more girls to study science, however it has more generally run into the criticism of leading to a restriction of pupil experience by emphasising the core curriculum areas of literacy, numeracy and science. Although the QCA state that the National Curriculum is only part of the school curriculum and that schools are free to choose what else they teach their pupils, there is, in fact, very little time to do much else. Since league tables are produced from the results and targets set in the three core areas, it is not surprising that schools concentrate heavily on these. The National Curriculum is said to be a success in raising standards in the core areas, but this is measured in self-referential terms, therefore it is hard to judge whether there really has been a rise in literacy and numeracy compared to previous generations. The Government has failed to meet its own, somewhat unrealistic targets. Though results have improved rapidly since 1997, it missed by 5% its 2002 targets for Key Stage 2 tests for 11-year-olds, which required 80% to reach level four in English and 75% in maths. Nevertheless it is pressing on with its target of 85% for level four English by 2004, still maintaining the pressure on schools which is not conducive to broadening the curriculum.
of teaching and learning. Thus the Ofsted Handbook (1992a-2002a) includes key processes relating to resource management: the allocation of resources, planning and budget-setting, using resources and evaluating past use of resources and a feedback of this information for future decision-making. Resource allocation is concerned with how both financial and physical educational resources - staff, services and materials - are deployed to achieve specific learning outcomes. Ofsted amplified its stance on school planning in a document entitled Planning for Improvement (Ofsted, 1995c). This included the expectation that a school’s plans would be backed by information about a school’s performance as judged by a series of key school indicators together with league tables of school examination results. By relating such school outcomes, particularly those applying to higher levels of pupil attainment, with the allocation of financial resources an individual school can be judged on the basis of “value for money”. Planning is based on “valid” and “appropriate” data, which allow any strengths and weaknesses to be identified, so that the school can respond accordingly. Thus the Ofsted Handbook include criteria that are concerned with the use of resources to
Teachers in the Watertown High School will begin to do home visits as part of the outreach to the community of Watertown. Home visits will assist in boosting community involvement in the education system. Rather than blaming one another, teachers and parents will come together, in a unique setting, as equal partners, to build trust and form a relationship where they can take the time to share dreams, expectations, experiences, and tools regarding the child's academic success. Once a relationship is formed, the partners are empowered, finding accountability with each other to make the necessary changes to insure that students experience academic and social success. The Parent Teacher Home Visit Project will be utilized to train and implement a successful home visit model at Watertown High School. In other school districts, the PTHV Project has been successful in part by raising the test scores of students from Socio-Economically Disadvantaged families. The test scores were raised by a considerable amount in these school districts. It has also been instrumental in raising attendance rates in these schools.
A pilot needed to be conducted, because a new survey was developed, based on existing surveys. The pilot took place in one school in the Netherlands, where the respondents were secondary teachers in this school (N=68). The validity of the survey was checked by conducting two focus groups with four teachers and one expert in each of the groups. Those focus groups also established the time for filling the survey in and whether the items were clear. It was found out that on average, it took a participant about 15 to 20 minutes to fill out the survey. Based on the results from the focus group, minor adjustments were made, mostly in terms of formatting the items more specifically. An example of adjustment that was made after the session with the focus group, was a change in the translation from the original survey from English to Dutch. In the English survey in question 10 “To what extent do you use data to adapt instruction based on the needs of the gifted students”, the word “gifted” was changed to “better” because according to the teachers it is more likely that that there is a group of good students, than a groups of gifted students; gifted student might be one in class rather than a group of students. The teachers could contact the researcher if they had questions about the survey (both before and afterwards). Personal details of teachers were not asked. The results was reported on school level. After this pilot, the survey was administered to the 54 schools in our sample and 14 schools responded.
During the study period, annual pe- destrian injury rates decreased 33% (40.9 injuries per 10 000 in 2001 to 27.4 per 10 000 in 2010) in school-aged children but remained fairly stable in other age groups (Fig 1, Table 1). Among school-aged children, the 5- to 9-year-old group experienced the larg- est decline in pedestrian injury rates (42% [95% CI: 37 – 46]) followed by the 10- to 14-year-olds (35% [95% CI: 31 – 39]) and the 15- to 19-year-olds (18% [95% CI: 11 – 24]), respectively (Fig 2). During the 10-year study period, a total of 4760 school-aged pedestrian injuries occurred during school-travel hours. The rate of school-aged pedestrian in- jury during school-travel hours in 2001 was 4.4 injuries per 10 000 population, which decreased to 3.8 injuries per 10 000 population in 2010 (P = .01). The proportion of school-aged pedestrian injuries in census tracts with SRTS interventions that occurred from 7 AM
This research sought to find out whether and how the analysis of the mean scores as utilized in Gitugi zone impact on the schools’ effectiveness and improvement with regard to performance in KCPE. The research had three objectives, namely) to determine whether there is any significant difference between the KCPE mean scores among the schools,ii) to determine whether there is any significant difference between the KCPE mean scores among cohorts and,iii) to find out whether or how summative and formative evaluation can be used to improve performance in KCPE in Gitugi education zone. Nine out of the fifteen schools were chosen through systematic random sampling. Document analysis was done for both the summative KCPE results and the formative evaluation in class eight, 2011. Piloting was done in one school in the zone. The data collected is presented in tables and graphs and, analyzed using inferential statistics using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Spearman’s Rank correlation coefficient. The schools show a downward trend in performance in KCPE in the zone except two from 2007 to 2011. There is significant difference in the KCPE means among the nine schools, while there is no significant difference across cohorts. This ANOVA results point to differences between schools which need further investigation to explain the observed consistent differences in KCPE performance. Annual calculations of mean scores and ranking continue to generate anxiety without addressing the causative agents. It is recommended that analysis of trends in KCPE performance should be embraced as a useful tool in examining the differences among schools and cohorts and also used to develop strategies to raise schools’ effectiveness geared towards enhancement of KCPE scores in Gitugi education zone, Murang’a County, Kenya. [281 words]
Federal, state, and local authorities have worked hard over two decades to develop and implement turnaround strategies. Yet these approaches lacked vertical cohesion and rarely allowed for the flexibility necessary to develop interventions and improvement plans that met individual schools’ needs. Whereas many states were previously doling out resources to struggling schools and districts, the funds were disconnected from robust, contextualized plans for improvement and failed to leverage stan- dards, assessments, and clear accountability for students, educators, and schools.
The role of the research activity is to analyze the problem and come up with possible solutions. Therefore, the writer of this research hope that answer to the research questions above may provide information about the factors affecting effectiveness of school supervision which intern leads to understanding of the major problems. It also benefits the student researcher by being the first step and experience to conduct such studies. It is also helpful for education policy makers in providing information about the curriculum development of the woreda. It can be also serve as a base for who is interested to conduct a research on a similar topic.
Amsarani (2002) made a study on "Teacher Effectiveness of Second Language Teachers in Higher Secondary Schools". The tool was used were 1. The Teacher Effectiveness Inventory prepared and validated by Amsarani and Chandrakumar (2002) (rated by the students) 2. Personal data sheet (for the teachers). The sample consisted of 50 teachers and 1000 students selected from various Higher Secondary Schools in Nellai Kattabomman District. The major findings were : 1. The teacher effectiveness of Post Graduate English teachers is neither low nor high, just moderate in terms of cognitive aspect, is just moderate in terms of affective and psychomotor aspects, it ranges from moderate to low. 2. The Post Graduate English teachers of Government school, d minority school, Government aided – non minority school are moderate in their teacher effectiveness and cognitive and affective aspects. In the case of psychomotor aspects only Government seem to go down from moderate to low where as the Government aided – minority non minority school teachers Kagathalal (2001) aimed to find out the relationship between teacher effectiveness and (a) sex, (b) educational qualification, (c) experience of teaching, (d) types of school, (e) caste and (f) the area of schools. Teacher Effectiveness Scale and Creative Personality Inventory were used as tools. The scale was administered to 1800 teachers (1290 male and 510 female) of secondary schools in different parts of Gujarat. The major findings were : 1. The teachers of urban area posses more teacher effectiveness than the teachers of rural area in Gujarat. 2. alification and caste on the effectiveness of teachers. 3. The effect of experience of teaching on INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL