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School Size as a Factor in the Academic Achievement of Elementary School Students

School Size as a Factor in the Academic Achievement of Elementary School Students

In conjunction with the definitions used in this study, me- dium schools consisted of between 246 and 420 students, and large schools consisted of an enrolment of more than 420 stu- dents. When comparing these parameters with those of previous studies, the difference is notable. Throughout the literature, researchers who had found a relationship between school size and academic achievement, particularly those who found a correlation between small schools and higher achievement lev- els, had recommended an optimal enrolment of around 300 students (Goodlad, 1983; Meier, 1996; Sergiovanni, 1995). This specific level of enrolment coincides with this study’s definition of a medium-sized school. Upon closer inspection, the finding that students who attended schools of this size achieved highest in Grade three writing and Grade six math at Level 4, is not surprising. It seems, therefore, that it is not the findings that are contradictory, but rather the conflict lies with the school size parameters as defined by individual researchers. These results, and the review of the literature, have also raised some questions concerning the current initiatives pro- moting small schools. With such disparity in the findings, the investment of large amounts of money in small school projects becomes a questionable venture. Does the scientific evidence actually support the establishment of such expensive initiatives? Certainly the results of this study, as well as many others, indi- cate that not enough is currently known about the size and achievement relationship to make critical decisions for educa- tional reform. Howley (1995) had cautioned that some small school advocates were misrepresenting or misinterpreting re- search findings as a means of furthering their own agenda. With such ambiguity in the literature, advocation for schools of a specific size, based primarily on the achievement and size rela- tionship, should be cautioned. With activist groups, like the People for Education, campaigning for the maintenance of small schools throughout Ontario, it is clear that more research is needed so that fully informed decisions can be made.
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An Analysis of Elementary School Size in North Carolina: When Does a Small School Become Too Small?

An Analysis of Elementary School Size in North Carolina: When Does a Small School Become Too Small?

Educational reforms abound as issues of accountability press educators to consider variables that could impact student achievement. Historically, the concept of school size has been one of several popular areas for change. Debates continue over the question of whether size correlates to student success. In relation to educational organizations, size can be defined in several ways and may have many implications. For example, in reference to a specific school unit, size can be discussed relative to student population numbers, building capacity, class membership, or number of teachers. Other interpretations from a district perspective include geographical span of the district as well as the number of schools, teachers, or students within the school district. There are different implications for small schools in large districts where similarly configured schools can exist. In comparison, some districts may only have one or two schools with smaller numbers of students. Consideration of the district’s composite as well as individual school enrollment is essential when examining small school research and data. Several studies have found implications for student success within each scope and definition of size. Although there is an interrelatedness among all of these delineations, this study focuses on student numbers within the school unit.
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SCHOOL SIZE AND STUDENT ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN IDAHO HIGH SCHOOLS

SCHOOL SIZE AND STUDENT ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN IDAHO HIGH SCHOOLS

human interactions and ties become more formal (Weber, 1947). When schools and districts become large, a new structure develops and the relationship between individuals becomes less personal. Some researchers suggest that a large school district size can have a negative effect on student performance (Newman, 1992; Maxner, 2005). If district level decisions limit local school autonomy, the heterogeneous needs of pupils in large districts might not be met (Driscoll et al., 2003). This can result in large schools having poor communication between parents and schools and contribute to creating problems and reducing accountability.
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Vol 4, No 2 (2019)

Vol 4, No 2 (2019)

Included in the student planning are school census, school size, class size, and effective class (De Nobile, El Baba, & London, 2016). Student admission comprises of the wisdom of student admission, the system of student admission, criteria of student admission, the procedure of student admission, resolution of student admission problems. The new student‟s orientation is consisting of the rulings of the first days of students at the school, student‟s orientation week, approaches used in the student‟s orientation, and the student‟s orientation techniques. Arranging attendance and absence of students at the school. Included inside are: students who skip classes, come late, and leave school before it is due. Managing the grouping of students both based on equal function and different functions. Arranging the student‟s evaluation, whether in improving the learning process, supervision, and counseling or in the student‟s promotion interest. Arranging the rate increase of students. Organizing mutated and dropped out students. Constituting code of ethics, trials, and improvement of student‟s discipline. Arranging student services including academic counseling and administrative service. Student supervision and counseling regulate the student‟s organization, including Inter-Students Organization and Alumni organization. This research aims to find out the student management, problems of student management, and solutions regarding the student management problems in SMA Muhammadiyah in Yogyakarta.
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Impact of Resource Utilization in Education as Perceived by Teachers in Secondary Schools in Mathioya District, Murang'a County, Kenya

Impact of Resource Utilization in Education as Perceived by Teachers in Secondary Schools in Mathioya District, Murang'a County, Kenya

This included the use of instructional materials in the teachingllearning process, human resource utilization, school building design, impact of physical facilities and school size on st[r]

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Religious vocation as a latent identity for school principals

Religious vocation as a latent identity for school principals

Three personal age, sex and religious vocation and three situational variables school socio-economic status, school size and location of school were used in the analysis which combined t[r]

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Effectiveness of active school transport interventions : a systematic review and update

Effectiveness of active school transport interventions : a systematic review and update

Thirteen studies examined potential moderators. Hinckson et al. [17, 18] noted that longer follow-up pe- riods, smaller school size, higher school SES, and higher pre-intervention rate of AST predicted higher rates of AST at follow-up. Safe Routes to School interventions using multiple strategies (as defined by the 6P model) achieved larger increases in AST [42, 43], and a longer follow-up period was also associated with more substan- tial increases in AST [43]. In contrast, a short follow-up period was discussed as a potential reason for the lack of a significant mode shift in other interventions [20, 46]. Mammen and colleagues [19] reported that parents of older students, those living closer to school and attend- ing urban or suburban schools (relative to rural) were more likely to report “driving less” following the imple- mentation of an STP. Of the potential moderators
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Interrelationship Among School Characteristics, Parental Involvement, And Children’s Characteristics In Predicting Children’s Victimization By Peers: Comparison Between The United States And Three Eastern Asia Countries

Interrelationship Among School Characteristics, Parental Involvement, And Children’s Characteristics In Predicting Children’s Victimization By Peers: Comparison Between The United States And Three Eastern Asia Countries

In terms of discussing ways that school contexts influence peer victimization on campus, schools in which students are enrolled are considered a vital component of children’s development because school type, along with the relative prosocial nature of the school climate, can create a school environment that might affect students’ delinquent behaviors (Lee & Song, 2012). Therefore, the problem behaviors of students as perceived by school officials have been linked to student victimization, including physical injury and the feeling of being unsafe at school. Lack of school resources also has been associated with student victimization (Welsh, 2000). Because peer victimization in the school setting can occur in hallways, playgrounds, lunchrooms, parking lots, and behind buildings (Card & Hodges, 2008), it is worth considering school size a risk factor in predicting peer victimization.
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Is Large More Effective than Small is Beautiful? Size and Performance of Primary Schools in Poland

Is Large More Effective than Small is Beautiful? Size and Performance of Primary Schools in Poland

Our analysis showed that there are indeed two conflicting influences on student achievements related to school size. A very small school finds it difficult to use its resources effectively, especially teacher and space resources, however when the school size becomes excessive the negative effects appear, probably due to poor control over student behavior and learning, inability to adjust the curriculum and instructional methods to students needs etc. When the student specific factors (SES and similar) and the school specific factors (teacher qualifications and similar) are controlled, the average student outcomes initially improve as school size grows, and then begin to decline (see Figure 1). The optimal size of Polish primary schools (for the whole sample) seems to be about 690 students of the whole school, and about 120 students in the final sixth grade. This means that most of Polish primary schools are on the increasing part of the curve, and some degree of consolidation would be beneficial. On the other hand, there are also primary schools with an excessive number of students for effective functioning of the school.
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Seismic risk management: A system-based perspective

Seismic risk management: A system-based perspective

application of system-based risk management within multiple regions prone to varying seismicity has been extensively discussed by Vahdat et al (2014 a,b). Vahdat and Smith (2014) also demonstrated the application of system approach in prioritizing the seismic risk of school buildings. According to these studies, the application of system approach in school buildings is critical in three aspects. First, it identifies the potential impact of earthquakes on school buildings in terms of multiple dimensions. Second, the new model offers a systematic method for aggregating risk factors and for studying the characteristics of seismic risk assessment of school safety. While, the conventional screening models can handle a limited number of retrofitting projects manually, which is costly, time consuming or require a great amount of information and experienced; the new models offers a systematic method, capable of handling large number of cases. Third, it demonstrates the importance of a multi-level hierarchy for structuring seismic risk. The advantage of this structured knowledge is providing a deeper insight to the seismic risk and its relevant impacts in different categories in a systematic manner. Unlike previous frameworks focusing only on physical aspects of seismic risk, the system-based approach improves the existing models, providing a comprehensive picture of seismic risk that allow incorporating multidimensional aspects such as socioeconomic criteria in the decision process. Consequently, any systematic methodology for aggregating, selecting and ranking risk must be within a system-based framework to systematically balance the multiple criteria, alternatives and stakeholders involved.
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Are Class Size Differences Related to Pupils' Educational Progress and Classroom Processes? Findings from the Institute of Education Class Size Study of Children Aged 5-7 Years

Are Class Size Differences Related to Pupils' Educational Progress and Classroom Processes? Findings from the Institute of Education Class Size Study of Children Aged 5-7 Years

One danger that should be warned against is to see all the benefits of smaller classes in terms of increased opportunities for individualised teaching. We need to be careful not to overlook the benefits that can stem from other contexts for learning. In particular there is no guarantee that smaller classes will automatically lead to more productive work in groups. We found that there was if anything less cooperative group work in smaller classes and that teachers did not seem to recognise the possible benefits of smaller classes for more productive group work (Blatchford, in press,a). There may be particular implications here for teachers in larger classes. We have seen that pupils are likely to interact more with each other in larger classes, and one way teachers might make the most of large classes is to consider helping the children toward effective group work. However, in parallel research we have found, at both primary and secondary school stages, that teachers had little faith in students’ abilities to work in groups, and groups were not set up or prepared with a clear educational purpose. Students themselves were worried about working in groups (Blatchford, Kutnick, Clark, Macintyre and Baines, 2002). We argue that groups within the class should be considered not just in terms of increasing teacher attention to pupils, but in terms of taking seriously pupil self- directed group work in classes. A teacher need not be a ‘sage on the stage’ at all times. Even in small classes she can afford to be a ‘guide on the side’!
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London Education and Inclusion Project (LEIP): A cluster-randomised controlled trial protocol of an intervention to reduce antisocial behaviour and improve educational/occupational attainment for pupils at risk of school exclusion

London Education and Inclusion Project (LEIP): A cluster-randomised controlled trial protocol of an intervention to reduce antisocial behaviour and improve educational/occupational attainment for pupils at risk of school exclusion

What we know thus far is that young people who are ex- cluded tend to be ‘hard to reach’ , disruptive and in many cases aggressive towards adults and/or other pupils, as the statistics above attest. They often have communication difficulties, which may compromise their ability to benefit from the curriculum as well as behave in prosocial ways. Further, children who have experienced exclusion some- times carry with them the burden of difficulties their par- ents had with school, or come from home environments that are far from conducive to educational attainment (or more basically, have problems training young children how to behave). Yet in spite of these issues, many thou- sands of children, who already have a constellation of risk factors for a range of negative life outcomes, are (some- times repeatedly) exposed to yet another risk factor by be- ing excluded from school. The irony being that those excluded may not like school in the first place, perhaps partly as a result of finding school difficult due to their educational needs. Indeed previous research has shown that children view exclusions as akin to school sanctioned holidays (Dupper et al. 2009). A risk is also that exclusion
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School leadership, school climate, and school performance:  experiences  of some asian countries

School leadership, school climate, and school performance: experiences of some asian countries

Although the construct of school climate has been studied extensively in the United States, and other western countries, a small attempt have been made to observe relationship among school leadership, school climate and school performance in selected Asian countries: Japan, China, India, Bangaladesh, and Nepal. The following matrix tries to clarify the situation of school leadership, school climate and school performance including the philosophy of school education of the selected five countries. In China and Japan, due to strong professional preparation for school principals and the practice of shared leadership the overall performance of the school has observed praiseworthy. In the case of India, Bangaladesh and Nepal comparatively inadequate professional preparation of the principals was perceived. Moreover, the reflection of socioeconomic condition and the role of cultural transformation have also experienced strong variables regarding the performance of India, Bangaladesh and Nepal. It is obvious that the school performance is the result of multidimensional constructs. The physical school environment encompasses the school building and all its contents including physical structures, infrastructure, furniture, school location, surrounding environment directly and indirectly influences the school climate (WHO, n.d.). A safe and orderly environment for learning, safe and sufficient play ground; and school greenery are the key physical feature of the Japanese school. In China, there is comparatively large classroom with adequate and appropriate furniture and other physical setting which are conducive to learning. The condition of physical school environment of most of the schools of India, Bangaladesh, and
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Predicting Student Performance: A Statistical and Data Mining Approach

Predicting Student Performance: A Statistical and Data Mining Approach

Predicting the performance of a student is a great concern to the higher education managements. The scope of this paper is to identify the factors influencing the performance of students in final examinations and find out a suitable data mining algorithm to predict the grade of students so as to a give timely and an appropriate warning to students those who are at risk. In the present investigation, a survey cum experimental methodology was adopted to generate a database and it was constructed from a primary and a secondary source. The obtained results from hypothesis testing reveals that type of school is not influence student performance and parents’ occupation plays a major role in predicting grades. This work will help the educational institutions to identify the students who are at risk and to and provide better additional training for the weak students.
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The social effects of new technology in schools : the SENTIS report

The social effects of new technology in schools : the SENTIS report

class size N 57 Figure 13 - Linear fit for computer use IN school against corrected group integration 65 Figure 14 - Correlation coefficient for computer use in school and corrected grou[r]

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Effects of a peer led Walking In ScHools intervention (the WISH study) on physical activity levels of adolescent girls: a cluster randomised pilot study

Effects of a peer led Walking In ScHools intervention (the WISH study) on physical activity levels of adolescent girls: a cluster randomised pilot study

The present intervention failed to increase levels of moderate intensity PA, with slight decreases observed in moderate and vigorous intensity PA at 12-week and six- month follow-up. Within the present study, the walk leaders were responsible for ensuring the walks were performed at a brisk pace, i.e. to elicit moderate intensity PA from participants. The findings from the present study suggest that the self-selected walking speeds of these peer leaders may not have been of sufficient pace to help adolescent girls achieve moderate intensity PA. Previous interventions provided heart rate monitors to participants to ensure walks were at least moderate in- tensity [27]. To ensure future interventions engage ado- lescents in levels of MVPA, heart rate monitoring or pedometers could be used to enable a real-time checking of exercise intensity. Previous walking studies targeted at adolescents have either failed to report outcomes in rela- tion to walking intensity or have shown no changes in MVPA [45]; however, MVPA was measured using a self- report instrument within this study, making compari- sons with the objective measures used within the present study difficult. Furthermore, the limitations involved in asking children to accurately recall exercise intensity should be noted, given their reduced ability to recall time and intensity compared with adults [46]. School- based walking interventions have been previously shown to increase objectively measured levels of MVPA in chil- dren, through the implementation of walking school buses [24, 26], highlighting that walking can be an effect- ive means of increasing MVPA in youth. Increasing levels of MVPA in youth is of particular importance given the associated substantive health benefits pro- duced by activity performed at moderate intensity [47].
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The impact of school sixth form size on educational attainment of pupils at Key Stage 5: 23 November 2016

The impact of school sixth form size on educational attainment of pupils at Key Stage 5: 23 November 2016

4.19 Changing the dependent variable to ‘at least three A*-C grade A levels’ suggests no statistically significant size effects either of the sixth form, of year 12, or of the rest of schools (Appendix A, Table 8). But when the KS4 capped controls are excluded (and the sample therefore increased to include 2011) the coefficients on Year 12 and Year13 when both variables are included are significant but equal and opposite so in effect cancel each other out (Equation 3, Appendix A, Table 8). The remainder of the effects are broadly similar to the A level points model (i.e. Table 5) except that there is some evidence of an improvement in pupil performance in the most recent year
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Effects of Household Size on Cash Transfer Utilization for Orphans and Vulnerable Children in Rural Ghana

Effects of Household Size on Cash Transfer Utilization for Orphans and Vulnerable Children in Rural Ghana

Since the LEAP cash transfer scheme is subject to certain types of behaviour, such as caregivers ensuring that orphans and vulnerable children in their care have access to nutritional food (NSPS, 2007), beneficiary households food security was explored. In this regard, questions relating to (a) the number of meals consumed per day by beneficiary OVC and (b) how household size influenced spending decisions on food were asked by the researchers. It was found that twenty-four OVC had three meals in a day and and nineteen had two meals in a day. Also, the caregivers reported spending a greater part of the cash transfer on food items due to the large number of children (both beneficiary and non-beneficiary) in their households. According to them, the cash was used up during the first week and afterwards it was difficult providing enough food for the children in their respective households. This suggests that the in-flow of the LEAP cash every two months could not sustain the households till the next payment; the length of time the cash transfer remained in the households was therefore very short.
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Relationships Between Gender and Alberta Diploma Scores

Relationships Between Gender and Alberta Diploma Scores

Although all the correlations for the relationships between gender and school-awarded scores are in the small effect size range, the changes in correlation direction and the relative d[r]

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Determinants of Parents’ Choice in Selection of Private Schools for Their Children in District Peshawar of Khyber Pakhunkhwa Province

Determinants of Parents’ Choice in Selection of Private Schools for Their Children in District Peshawar of Khyber Pakhunkhwa Province

The regression results show that father education level does affect the decision of school choice made by the parents. The three levels of education SSC, BA and MA emerged as determinants of school choice. The parents with SSC level of education showed positive impact on parents’ choice however the result was not statistically significant. Education level at BA also showed its effect but with unexpected opposite sign. The parents with MA level Education showed a significant positive relationship with the school choice which showes that highly educated parents strongly prefer private sector to educate their offspring’s. Family size affects almost all decision made by the households. The regression results show a negative significant relationship between the family size and school choice. It indicates that the higher the family size, the lower will be tendency to choose private school.
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