Thirdly, we want to study the quality of university-wide service. So in Clark University, we have Registrar, Career service, Center for Counseling and Personal Growth, Healthcare service, payroll, Residential Life and Housing, Writing center, Student Accessibility service, Clark One Card Office, Safety Escort Services, Fitness Facilities, Academic tutoring, On campus dining, Goddard Library, Information Technology services, International Students Services Office (ISSO), ClarkYou Portal. We give five descriptions of our university-wide service provided to students: Excellent, Good, Average, Poor and Did not use. Most services have high scores and exceed 80% have Good and Excellent description.
energy and resources … to the activities designed to enhance learning at university” (Krause, 2005, p. 3). Engaged students achieve a higher quality of learning, and are more likely to continue with their studies (Tinto, 2009). Engagement is a leading factor in intentional curriculum design to support first year transition (Kift & Field, 2009). An engaging first year curriculum is supportive, integrated and coordinated. Engaged students “are more likely to connect with their discipline, go beyond the minimum prescribed learning requirements, and make connections with broader concepts and experience” (p. 4). A positive sense of professional legal identity engages students because it provides a constructive outlook for their future careers. Law students will be more inclined to engage with legal education in the present, knowing that they are working towards a future career goal that they value. When first year law students perceive the legal role positively, their engagement and well-being are supported because their studies are informed and contextualised by a sense of purpose for their future professional life (Field & Duffy, 2012a). A student’s affinity with their future legal role creates a sense of belonging and fit, both with the law school promoting that goal and with the legal profession. Engagement, belonging and fit are all critical components of the transition pedagogy and all can be said to promote student well-being (Duffy, Field & Shirley, 2011; Seligman, 2011, p. 16).
As well as changing PDS needs, the second year of teaching marked a major transition in schools' PDS strategies and processes. The targeted structured support, formal mentorship, dedicated development activities and reduced timetable that had characterised the induction year had disappeared in the second year of teaching in all but a very few of our case study schools. In around half of the schools induction tutors continued to provide informal support, although in some case this was because the second year teacher's induction mentor was also their line manager. This shift from formal mentorship to informal support mirrors the DCSF Becoming a Teacher survey of second year teachers (Tracey et al., 2008). Discrete training programmes for second year teachers were only provided in four of our case study schools, all of which were secondary schools. These focused on preparing teachers for career progression. These schools also provided high levels of other types of support and were high performing schools.
• Reasons for pursuing a degree. Students enter professional degree pro- grams for a variety of reasons that have implications for career services (Ander- son, 1998). Some pursue a degree as a credential needed to begin a career in a field or perhaps as an important step in the process of career advancement. For some, a master’s degree constitutes an extension of work studied as an undergraduate, for others a next-best alternative to a doctorate. Under- standing a student’s reasons for choosing a master’s program and how that rea- soning changes during graduate school can provide important insights into working with individual students. There also might be significant differences between students who are attending a master’s program immediately after their undergraduate degree and those who have taken some time between degrees. The Role of Career Services. By the end of a degree program, as stu- dents make the transition to the professional world, they should be able to answer some key questions: How do I employ the skills I have developed? How do I define myself in relation to my chosen profession? How do oth- ers perceive me as a professional (Weidman, Twale, and Stein, 2001)? Career services can help students find their own answers and realize their profes- sional identity. Services offered include career counseling, traditional place- ment services, and alumni and networking resources.
This research has outlined career success factors of women in the construction industry, which has helped them to achieve career advancements. The implication of this research to the industry, with regard to training it is clear that individuals are constantly striving to improve their skills. Training opportunities may be one way in which organisations can look assist the retention of those developing a professionalcareer. If opportunities are available within the organisation, employees will not look elsewhere in the external labour market. Related to the retention of staff, it does not appear that money is a motivating factor in the development of careers. Whilst salaries would be important in attracting staff, they are not the main driver behind career advancement.
Midlevel professionals can be classified as middle-line managers on the organizational hierarchy between those who perform basic services and those who provide vision and direction for the organization (Mintzberg, 1989). They may be distinguished by their position on an organizational chart, span of authority, control of resources, and complexity of programs and services supervised (Young, 2007). Midlevels may represent one of the largest areas of administrative personnel growth in higher education (Rosser, 2004). In the student affairs context, Fey and Carpenter (1996) defined midlevel as reporting directly to the senior student affairs officer or being one level removed from the senior officer and overseeing at least one student affairs function or supervising at least one professional staff member. Their function is primary to institutional success, as midlevels serve in key roles to interpret institutional direction and priorities to frontline employees, while communicating those frontline concerns up the ladder (Mills, 2009). They may have the greatest potential to influence collaboration and change within institutions (Young, 2007).
calmly, confidently, and energized in response to heightened levels of challenge. This phenomenon is experienced by individuals in all professions and jobs. Members of surgical teams often experience a sense of flow because they are engaged in challenging activities as members of a team while receiving immediate feedback about their successful achievement of the goals of the surgical activities (Csikszentmihalyi, 1997c). Flow can be work-related and varies based on the career area. Some managers prefer solving problems and writing. Some clerical workers prefer typing and keypunching. Some blue collar workers prefer fixing equipment. Novelty and variety produces the type of excitement that leads to flow on the job. However, some individuals find flow in jobs that are boring and depressing for others. For example, assembly line work sends some into flow (Csikszentmihalyi, 1997c). On the other hand, quiet activities such as vegetable gardening may also produce a state of flow (Csikszentmihalyi, 1997c).
The portfolio therefore has scope for being much more then just a historical record of development. It can also be used as a vehicle for engaging in self assessment and personal development planning. Evidence used within the portfolio can be used to undertake a personal review of where you currently are in terms of your development and consider where you want to be. A SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) analysis can be a simple but useful tool to analyse your professional strengths (skills, knowledge and ability) and weaknesses (areas for development.) These can then be considered in the context of the opportunities for development and the potential threats or barriers to development. An action plan can then be developed ensuring that these are addressed. Box 3 provides an example of this.
STUDENT GRIEVANCE POLICY Most student complaints can be handled at first point of contact with the school. Student complaints are addressed using the policies and provisions of the enrollment agreement, student catalog, and academic requirements of the school. Students who have a complaint should contact their instructor regarding academic issues or a student service supervisor regarding servicing issues. The instructor or student service supervisor will provide a verbal or written response depending on the student’s preferred choice of communication. If the student believes that the complaint has not been properly handled at that point, the student should use the following procedure to register a grievance.
above). The salience then of career, in accommodating multiple role expectations and socially constructed definitions of the point of the life course that the client has reached, cannot be overemphasised. It makes careertransition coaching all the more important, since here the mid-lifer looks back to early adulthood but also forward with awareness of finitude (Jaques, 1965, who coined the term mid-life crisis and its link to the growing awareness of the imminence of personal death). In this historical (1950s and 1960s) perspective on the mid-life, the irony was evident: the adult was encouraged to excel at his/her chosen activities, whether work, family or personal but also expected to relinquish some of these and hand them over to a rising, more productive generation, with the consequent loss (of a more vital and valued social role, for example, or “some insult to his youthful narcissistic pride” (Levinson, 1988, p. 26)) and disengagement. The current, more fluid view, however, acknowledges that adults have to and want to work longer (“consumer driven agelessness”, Biggs (2003, p. 369)) and because people do live longer, the midpoint may actually be at a much older age than 40 (Donaldson-Feilder & Panchal, 2011; Kets de Vries, 1978). While not minimising the challenges of mid-life career transitions, this is not so much a period of aging, decline and disengagement but more about reappraisal and re-evaluation (as opposed to crisis) of personal identity, relationships and social roles; this results in different (existential) life course priorities, new perspectives and choices (in the Jungian conception) of the second half of life (Biggs, 2003, p. 375; see also Kidd, 2003; Levinson, 1988; Talbott, 2013). According to King (1980) mid-life issues are essentially a recapitulation of oedipal problems passed through the lens of adolescence, requiring the working through of the developmental phases of puberty and adolescence, confronting issues of dependence and independence, identity (self-perception and the perception of self by others) and the marshalling of inner resources to ride out narcissistic trauma and wounds to self-esteem. The reactions to these assaults and reversals are evident in the form of acting out.
This publication presents the results of the stra- tegic piloting of the ELKCA instrument in 31 schools in eight countries during the school year 2011/2012. The primary goal of the strategic pilot was to im- plement the instrument in real-life cases in a vast variety of institutions, national curricula, teacher training programmes, etc. The expected outcome of the strategic pilot was a set of documents that each school had to submit and give their report on the implementation of the instrument as well as their recommendations for steps forward – together these documents would give a clear review of the instru- ment and its applicability. One of the key documents
Philadelphia’s K-8 schools, which in some cases enrolled more than 520 stu- dents, were each assigned one counselor during the 2007-08 school year. In our interviews, several people noted that there were just not enough coun- selors in K-8 schools; as a result, parents could not get enough attention dur- ing the high school application and admissions process. One parent pointed out that there were disparities between schools in the ratio of students to counselors, such that students in smaller schools had a distinct advantage in getting better information and support. Counselors may have been overbur- dened by their workload and simply did not have adequate time to help eighth graders during the application process while simultaneously complet- ing their other duties. Therefore, the lack of counselor support for families may have been, as Hemphill suggested, an issue of inadequate resources. Furthermore, several students and parents reported that counselors some- times altered the list of schools on high school applications after the parent had signed off. One student explained that this happened to him: “I told him I wanted Bok. I wanted Swenson. He only put one of them down. I wouldn’t have ever put down [a large neighborhood school]. That’s what he put down.” In another example, a student explained that a counselor removed one of the neighborhood schools that she had selected:
Philip Burke, LL.B, BL Philip is a graduate of the University of London and the Honorable Society of King’s Inns. He was called to the Bar in 1998 and established Griﬃ th College’s Professional Law School in the same year. He was Head of the Professional Law School at Griﬃ th College for nine years, and Joint Head of its Undergraduate Law School. He was also a member of its board of directors. Philip founded Independent Colleges in 2007, and served as its Chief Operating Oﬃ cer and Joint Head of Law. In 2011 he established City Colleges (incorporating Ashﬁ eld College), a professional education provider specialising in Law, Accountancy, Business & Computing, Childcare and Psychology. He has also co-writt en a text on Irish Tort Law for Thomson Roundhall, and is the co-founder of Clarus Press Limited, a legal publishing house.
Since the early 1980s, the area of sport-careertransition has gained increased attention in the sport psychology literature (Coakley, 2006). Schlossberg (1981, p. 5) describes a transition as “an event or non-event which results in a change in assumptions about oneself and the world and thus requires a corresponding change in one’s behaviour and relationships”. Ceciü Erpiþ (2003) posits that while the onset of a transition may be linked to one identifiable event (in this study transition from elite sport), transitions are a process that are influenced by four major sets of factors, namely situation, self, support, and strategies. In addition, Schlossberg, Waters and Goodman (1995) suggest that there are three components in the transition process, namely approaching transition, taking stock of coping resources (inter alia physical and psychological resources to cope with the transition), and taking charge of transition (inter alia being able to take control of the process). The current study focuses on the last component. This stage requires an athlete to adapt to post-sports life on a psychological, social, physical, and socio-economic level (Ceciü Erpiþ, 2002), thereby imposing a set of specific demands requiring adjustment by him/her. Alfermann (2000) suggests that instead of focusing on the difficulties and trauma associated with transition out of elite sports, one should rather view the transition as a life event, which influences an athlete’s future well-being and development.
The Florida Education Finance Program (FEFP) is the primary mechanism for funding the operating costs of Florida school districts. A key feature of the FEFP is that it bases financial support for education upon the individual student participating in a particular educational program rather than upon the number of teachers or classrooms. Students are counted four times per year—in July, October, February and June. FEFP funds are generated primarily by multiplying the number of full-time equivalent (FTE) students in each of the funded education programs by cost factors to obtain weighted FTE
hope that study might lead to an academic career as a teacher educator. In other words, one comes to teacher education by first becoming a professor. This academic pathway has characterised most teacher education in North America since the 1950s. For example, Bullough (2005) highlights mentoring interns as a pathway into teacher education. Dinkelman, Margolis, and Sikkenga’s study (2006) exemplifies a typical graduate teaching- assistant pathway. More recently, this pathway has become the increasingly typical one in the UK and Australasia, yet it is not unproblematic. Brown (1998), in a British context, highlights the fact that new teacher educators ‘‘need a great deal of time to catch up with the scholarship, research skills and research experience’’ - more so than colleagues in other disciplines, and particularly for those educators who come with strong school-based experience. Acker’s (1997) study of women teacher educators in Canadian faculties of education, for example, describes this typical ‘doctoral’ or ‘professorial’ pathway into the North American academy, and identifies several issues that characterise the career patterns for those traversing it. Among the 30 women studied, the most common career pathway was ‘from school teaching to doctorate to university professorship’, although for some, in particular the younger women, this sequence excluded school-teaching experience and consisted of only the last two steps. The stories for those entering later, or mid-career, were ones of ‘catching up’, of difficulties with upgrading qualifications and finding appropriate employment in tenure-track positions, of feeling they were not being taken seriously, and of struggling to reach ever-rising expectations of academic productivity and the research output of younger, research-track high-flyers.
This paper suggests that, regardless of the significant challenges they encountered, participants’ attempts to re-enter their former professions provided a sense of purpose and hope. Therefore, while extant literature suggests that encountering these barriers may be problematic, as we have reported it might also bring some benefit. Specifically, we propose that attempts to reestablish professional identity can function as a bridge between past and present for refugees. First our thematic analysis highlighted the salience of professional identity for refugees. That they continued to try to re-establish themselves as medical or teaching professionals, rather than exploring opportunities in other fields (professional or otherwise) in the UK is not surprising given the reported strength of such identities and the associated perceived social status (Pratt, et al., 2006; Slay and Smith, 2011; Willott and Stevenson, 2013). This paper adds to research on struggles and tensions in professional identity work by arguing that attempting to restore and maintain professional identity, even in the face of extreme barriers, may be both sustaining and limiting (Alvesson, 2010; Beech et al, 2016). Previous work has shown that a strong identification with a particular professional identity presents a barrier to adjustment and entry to a new labour market which may lead to ‘identity crisis’ (Zikic and Richardson, 2016; Gabriel et al., 2010). However, this study suggests that due to the complexity of the context within which refugee professionals attempt to re-engage with and re-enter their profession, a strong professional identification also