Science and Islam

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Siyāsah al sharʿiyyah (islamic political science) as a discipline of knowledge in Islam

Siyāsah al sharʿiyyah (islamic political science) as a discipline of knowledge in Islam

Since the classical period of Islam, Muslim jurists (al-fuqahā’) were the only group of scholars qualified to rule on practical problems. Their rulings pertaining to the art of governance developed into an independent study by the name of al- Siyāsah al-Sharʿiyyah, which maintained its classical form in terms of structure and methodology. However, during the Abbasid caliphate of the9 th century, there emerged several Muslim scholars who worked towards makingal-Siyāsah al- Sharʿiyyah a systematic system of government and administration such as IbnAbi Rabi’ (833-842 A.D. ) in his work ‘Sulāk al-MālikfīTadbīr al-Mamālik’, Imam Mawardī with his book ‘al-Aḥkām al -Sultāniyyahfī al-Wilāyah al- Dīnniyyah’, and Imam al-Ghazālīin his work ‘Al-Ṭadbīral - MasbūkfīNaṣīḥah al -Muluk.’ 37 Despite the number of Muslim scholars ehoenagaged this theme, only three were regarded as the first to discuss al-Siyāsah al-Sharʿiyyahin a comprehensive and systematic and as a separate discipline in Islam, namely IbnTaymiyyahin his work ‘al-Siyāsah al-SharʿiyyahfīIṣlāḥ al- Rāʿī al-Raʿiyyah’, followed by IbnQayyim al-Jawziyyahin his book ‘al-Ṭuruq al-Ḥukmiyyahfī al-Siyāsah al-Sharʿiyyah’. 38 The new term ‘Siyāsah al-Sharʿiyyah’ greatly assisted in the popular acceptance of the term to denote an independent discipline with Islamic studies. Although in its original connotation ‘al-āiyasah al-Shar’iyyah’ meant a narrowly ‘shari’atic political system’or system of government based on Islamic law. However one of the contemporary Muslim scholars, ʿAbd al-Wahhāb al-Khallāf has defined ‘Siyāsah al- Sharʿiyyah’ as “a flexibility in judgment given to a person in authority to take action based on the needs of the community (ummah), as long as it is not against any principle of
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Islam and Human Development

Islam and Human Development

First, there are exceptions to the two statements above throughout history. Even in modern history, there are exceptions and in fact many Muslims countries have achieved progress and development even in western sense of the term. Malaysia and Turkey are good examples. In last thirty years, even the countries like Bangladesh and Indonesia have improved on several development indicators. Moreover, there are millions of Muslims that live in Europe and North America that have contributed to their respective nations and achieved professional success in diverse areas including academics, science, technology, commerce and public offices. Increased acceptance of Islam in developed world support the notion that modern education and science has not given any reason to not believe in Islam to say the least.
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Concept of motivation in Islam.

Concept of motivation in Islam.

The connection with the ancestors, the mystery surrounding the suffering and finitude and an order not subject to psychological or social purposes are qualifications of the sacred. These can be described as the transitional area between the profane world and the God of religion. However, divine purpose, redemption and, in this context, hope clearly relate to religious qualifications, pointing to the Christian God. While, Pargament has located the arguments on the ground of the sacred, the researcher believed that it remains in the territory of the empirical, natural. Although of great depth, that psychology as a science can achieve. Certainly, people whose coping “religious” has the nature of being “sacred” mobilize coping cognitions, motivations, and drives that offer a new configuration of existence. It can reach through the immune system, the range of biological in man. I presume the natural religions and, to some extent, the religions of the word embedded in a pre-modern system desire the use of sacred. They may, therefore, be subject to a psychological judgment, even as its unique efficacy. The proper religious coping, on the contrary, I think escapes the reach of psychological look. The judgment of the effectiveness of this confrontation will be the purview of who administers the religious reality as such.
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Islam and the Concept of Justice

Islam and the Concept of Justice

Thus, in order to understand what he means by place here refers to not only to his total situation in relation to others but also to his condition in relation to his self. For this reason, the Holy Quran frequentlt stresses the point that man when he does wrong is being unjust to himself and that injustice is a condition brought by man upon his self. Once more, we should go back to the concept of the soul‟s covenant with God and to the belief that man has a dual nature in regard of his two souls and body. That is why for those who does wrong or evil or denies God violates the contract his soul has made with God, thereby being unjust to his soul and also lied against his own self (Al-Attas, 1990). It is obvious to grasp why the doctrine of ressurection of bodies is fundamental in Islam, for the soul reconstituted with its former body will not be able to deny what its body had done, for its very eyes, tongue,hands and feets or limbs the organ of ethical and moral conduct will testify its acts of injustice to itself (Al-Attas, 1992).
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RIGHT TO EDUCATION IN ISLAM

RIGHT TO EDUCATION IN ISLAM

Women Education provides them, most vital qualities of confidence, capacity to work and thereby leads to their empowerment. Muslim women who by virtue of social norms and had suffered backwardness due to lack of education though Islam as a religious bigotry in it. Several organizations individuals, through theoretical and practical applications have lifted the backwardness of Muslim women and as a result Muslim women have conquered to dark areas of ignorance and fear. Muslim women welfare performers in different walks of life over a period of time.
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METAPHYSICS OF ISLAM (AN OVERVIEW)

METAPHYSICS OF ISLAM (AN OVERVIEW)

Islam is a revealed religion and not a manmade religion. It has its well defined Metaphysics and is called as Metaphysics of Islam. The philosophical perceptions of the Divine Essence and Attributes of God have been explained in a miraculous manner in Islamic literature and Qur'an interpreters are of the view that the only correct way to interpret Quranic verses is through experimental methods based on the secrets of natural phenomenon. Certainly, the experimental and scientific methods to deduce the meaning of the Qur'an with the help of natural phenomenon have been given justified importance, however some of the verses require more understanding of the metaphysical aspect of creation of universe and its creator.
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Sejarah ringkas Islam

Sejarah ringkas Islam

Walaupun hal ini mengakibatkan pergolakan dalam dunia Islam, namun Tamadun Islam berdiri teguh, dan sentiasa wujud dengan identitinya yang tersendiri dimana penganutnya mampu tersebar [r]

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Peringkat Permulaan Islam

Peringkat Permulaan Islam

Setelah mengetahui rancangan masyarakat Islam Mekah untuk berhijrah ke Yathrib, masyarakat jahiliah Mekah cuba menghalang mereka. Namun, kumpulan hijrah pertama berjaya sampai ke Yathrib. Masyarakat jahiliah mekah mula bimbang kerana penghijrahan ke Yathrib akan memberi peluang kepada orang Islam untuk mengembangkan agama mereka ke daerah-daerah Arab yang lain. Setelah hampir dua bulan berhijrah, seluruh masyarakat Islam di Mekah berjaya sampai ke Yathrib kecuali Muhammad, Abu Bakar, Ali dan beberapa orang yang daif. Masyarakat jahiliah Mekah kemudian memutuskan untuk membunuh baginda. Muhammad sedar akan perkara ini tetapi Ali mengambil keputusan untuk menggantikan beliau dah tidur di kamar baginda. Akan tetapi, kesemua pembunuh upahan tertidur pada ma- lam tersebut dan memberikan peluang kepada Muhammad untuk mula berhijrah ke Yathrib. Dengan berbagai taktik dan rancangan yang diatur dengan rapi, Muhammad akhirnya sampai dengan selamat ke Yathrib. Yathrib kemudiannya dikenali sebagai Bandar Rasulullah.
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Zaman Kegemilangan Islam

Zaman Kegemilangan Islam

Pada awal kurun ke-17, beberapa orang Islam di India mula menyokong pendapat Sirhindi. Hal ini disebabkan oleh fakta bahawa penyatuan dengan tuhan hanya boleh dicapai apabila orang-orang Islam mengikut undang-undang syariah. Shah Jihan, cucu kepada Akbar meneruskan polisi datuknya. Bukti utama adalah pada pembinaan Taj Mahal yang merupakan salah satu daripada tujuh keajaiban dunia. Pembinaan Taj Mahal ini adalah hasil karya seni gabungan di antara orang Islam dan Hindu. Pada waktu ini juga, kerja-kerja saintifik orang Islam diterjemahkan ke dalam bahasa Sanskrit. Walau bagaimanapun beliau lebih mementingkan Syariah berbanding Akbar.
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Islam and Environmental Economics

Islam and Environmental Economics

Afterlife accountability encourages observing ethical values which are not easily enforceable through legal systems made by humans after all. Question of fairness and equity can only be sufficiently dealt with and incorporated into the preferences and behavior with belief in religion. Islam besides having a comprehensive perspective on justice, also re commends „Ihsan‟ which requires people to bring about fairness and equity with resources they have as blessings of Allah and which they should regard as a trust and act always with spiritual rationality of afterlife accountability.
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Reflections on Islam and pacifism

Reflections on Islam and pacifism

It is sometimes said that jihad is the sixth pillar of Islam. This is manifestly not the case, however, because Islam has five pillars, not six. But let us accept, for the sake of argument, that jihad is an obligation on all Muslims, and that jihad has, in certain circumstances, a military meaning. This was the first form of the ‘discourse of incompatibility’ between Islam and pacifism that was identified in the introduction, and it is indeed a persuasive argument. In contrast, however, it can be argued that it neglects the necessary priority of islam over jihad. The former concept can be translated as peace, or being at peace (through submission to Allah), and it is, of course, the name of the religion under discussion (and the name ‘Islam’, unlike ‘Christianity’, is not an accident of history, but the name that the Qur’an asserts was given to the religion by God [Surah 5:3]). So, for all meanings of jihad, it is jihad that is a tenet of Islam, not vice versa. So jihad must be interpreted in the context of islam, or struggle in the context of peace. It is not unreasonable to suggest that this logically entails a rejection of war as incompatible with peace, and so it is possible to make this suggestion within, rather than against, an Islamic discourse. Incidentally, Farid Esack suggests that jihad is an aspect of iman rather than islam, or faith rather than practice, which separates it still further from the discourse of incompatibility between Islam and pacifism.
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Growth, environment and Islam

Growth, environment and Islam

Our discussion of some of the variants of sustainability shows that the concept of development seems to have kicked up more haze than light. Development by nature is a value loaded term and implies the achievement of stated economic and social objectives at a perceived pace. Sustainability on the other hand connotes the ability of development to continue over time indefinitely. Thus seen, sustainable development is a constrained process of dynamic change for social betterment. The common element underpinning the indicated approaches to such development is conservation of resources and maintenance, if not reduction, of pollution levels. The debate on sustainable development thus centers on the concern about the deteriorating environmental quality. The deterioration continues unabated also in the Muslim world even as Islam preaches moderation in consumption, exhorts to avoid wasteful use of natural resources, reminds people of delicate proportions in the universe and enjoins on mankind to maintain the natural balance. It warned that greed will tempt mankind to disturb the proportions and tilt the balance. The following verses of the Qur’an bear ample testimony on the point. The following verses support the maqasid and their implications for sustainable development as discussed earlier. 6
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Religious experience in Islam

Religious experience in Islam

A man came up to the Prophet whilst he was sitting with some of his Companions. He was unknown to any of them and wore white clothes. His hair was very black. He sat close to the Prophet and placed his hands on the Prophet's knees. He asked Muhammad, 'Tell me about Islam?' The Prophet replied, 'Islam is to bear witness that there is no God but Allah, and that Muhammad is His Prophet; to perform the prayer; to pay zakat (the poor tax); to fast in the month of Ramadan; and to undergo the Hajj if it is possible.' The man replied, 'Correct, you have spoken the truth.' Then the man asked, 'What is iman?' The Prophet replied, ' Iman is to believe in Allah, His Angels, His Books, His Prophets and in the Day of Judgement; and to believe in what has been ordained whether it is good or evil. The man responded again, 'Correct, you have spoken the truth.' The man then asked, 'Tell me about ihsan ?' The Prophet replied, ' Ihsan is to worship Allah as though you see Him for it is certain that He sees you." Later the Prophet told Umar that the man was Jibreel (Gabriel) who had come to teach them their religion. 28
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Inner Peace in Islam

Inner Peace in Islam

While the literature on inner peace is growing, most of the sources are based on religions other than Islam or no religion. The lack of literature on inner peace from an Islamic perspective is a matter of language and conceptualisation more than anything else. Otherwise, the strong affiliation between Islam and inner peace cannot be underestimated. First, the very fact that Islam means peace (salā m) is an important indicator of this point. This notion of peace also encompasses inner peace through the resultant state experienced when Islamic faith is internalised and there is a willing submission to the one God (tawhi ̣̄ d). In other words, there
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The 5 Pillars of Islam

The 5 Pillars of Islam

collected for zakah “is to be kept in the ‘public treasury’ and spent for public and religious services and works” (Nasr, 96). These services and works make up “eight categories of people named in Qur’am 9:61:‘Zakah is for the poor and needy, and those who collect zakah, and those whose hearts are to be reconciled, and to free captives and debtors, and for the cause of Allah, and for the wayfarers; a duty imposed by Allah. Allah is Knower, Wise’” (Brown, 129-130). To put it simply “alms are to be used to support the poor, orphans, and widows, to free slaves and debtors, and to assist in the spread of Islam” (Esposito, 92).
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Marriage and Divorce in Islam

Marriage and Divorce in Islam

Islam occupies the middle ground between Christianity and Judaism with respect to divorce. It has taken all possible measures to make marriage a happy and lasting relationship. Marriage in Islam is a civil contract between a man and a woman to live together as husband and wife. It automatically confers mutual rights and duties upon the parties which both must remain mindful of. The Qur‟an and the holy Prophet (Peace be upon him) have stressed that both partners should act kindly and fairly with each other. However, for all married couples to have disagreements now and then is quite natural. In case a serious disagreement occurs a procedure is recommended in Islam to help reconcile the situation before a divorce.
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The Position Of The Prophets In Islam

The Position Of The Prophets In Islam

Abstract: The article highlights the theme of dogmatic theology, namely faith in the prophets. Faith in the prophets is one of the pillars of the "iman" a (faith) in Islam. Here, the lexical meanings of the terms “nabi” (prophet) and “rasul” (messenger) are analyzed. The differences between Nabi and Rasul, as well as information on their number, are highlighted. In addition, the article describes the goals and objectives of the prophets. In addition, information is given about the supernatural powers given to the prophets.
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Islam and Terrorism: An Overview

Islam and Terrorism: An Overview

But despite all these clear evidence that Islam stands for peace, its enemies, who compel the whole world to do their bidding, still find it convenient to link it, as a religion, to terrorism. No Muslim who allows himself to be guided in his belief and action by the teaching of Islam will be spared. Every true Muslim is seen as a potential terrorist. Anybody who does not support the American attack on Afghanistan, Iraq, Iran, Syria, and Libya is a terrorist, as former president George Bush put it, ‘You are either with us or against us’.

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Women, Islam and modernity

Women, Islam and modernity

God and the laws laid down by Him; the West has replaced divine laws with a man-made social system and moral values. This religious analysis of modern society, which takes as its point of departure the contemporary social and moral crisis of advanced industrial Western societies, was of great significance for those social groups which had reason to fear the consequences of 'progress'. The image of modern society that Qutb created as a social system lacking any sacred and moral elements helped to restore the self-confidence of many Muslim believers and encouraged them to go on the offensive to shed their inferiority complex towards the 'culture of the stronger'. Instead, they retained confidence in their own culture as superior because of its divinity. In effect, the notion of a modern jahiliyyah provides the anti-modernity campaign with a powerful ideological tool against those groups who present modernity as an ideal leading to progress, civilization and economic prosperity. On the contrary, the Muslim revivalists argue that modernity with its evident social, economic and spiritual crises is not something to be aspired towards; modernists who advocate imitation of Western ways are mere fools, if not also traitors. In addition, modernity is not only a failure, it is the culture of imperialists and religious opponents, whose ultimate goal is the erosion and elimination of Islam as a social system.
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Islam, Peacemaking and Terrorism

Islam, Peacemaking and Terrorism

The eighteenth-century theologian, Muhammad ibn ‘abd al-Wahhab (1703–1792), led a movement in central Arabia against the Ottoman Empire to recreate as nearly as possible the conditions of Muhammad’s time. He was strongly influenced by the Sunni jurist Sheikh ibn Taymiyya (1263–1328), who rejected the authority of the four schools of jurisprudence that helped form the taqlid (‘imitation’, or blindly accepting a precedent or legal decisions). Taymiyya asserted a right to interpret Islam independently and with extremely belligerent views, claiming that religious leaders (ulema) had authority over political rulers (imams). His views were strongly condemned at the time; he was imprisoned several times and branded a heretic. 48
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