The notions and perceptions of identity have changed over time. For example, the notable psychologist of the twentieth century Erik Erikson believed “that a person’s identity emerges through the adolescent turmoil of the body and the resolution of future career, parental role, and life uncertainties” (Weiner 2011b, p. 26). This perception of identity was considered more or less fixed and indicative of developmental maturity. However, the present perceptions of identity focus more on the nature of consciousness and the development of personhood. This development is often mediated by such factors as social class, gender, peer-groups, ethnicity, and language that provide individuals with various frameworks by which they make sense of the world around them. The contemporary theories of identity also maintain that identity is always fractured and in the process of change (see, for example, Giddens 1991). In this light, auto/biographical writings can be a medium of understanding individuals’ identity and the various factors that contribute to the fracturing and re-shaping of identities. These writings are important not only for the students but also for the teachers. By engaging in auto/biographical writings, students can understand how their identities are shaped and changed by various personal, social, spiritual, and material conditions. Moreover, the auto/biographical writings of the students can shape the practices of the teachers by informing them what matters most to their students. This understanding may be helpful for the teachers to incorporate the students’ interests in their teaching activities. Scholars such as Samaras (2002) place much emphasis on knowing the social and cultural influences that shape the development of students. Thus, the knowledge gained from students’ autobiographical writings can help teachers to facilitate effective teaching and learning activities.
It is evident from this body of research that there are strong social, psychological and instructional grounds for using humor in language instruction. However, the instructional function of verbal humor in ESL classrooms has received scant attention. A basic assumption is generally made that verbal humor offers opportunities to benefit secondlanguage learning and teaching. This derives from the view that communicating humor in a secondlanguage entails execution of various linguistic and cultural ‘knowledge resources’ (Raskin & Attardo,1994) instilled in different layers of the language, which then become accessible to the learners through the use of verbal humor. That is, besides the primarily linguistic input transmitted through the textual devices/means (e.g., semantic, syntactic and phonological elements) in the language, verbal humor hosts various sociocultural and sociolinguistic nuances which L2 learners must acquire in order to communicate effectively with native speakers who share that knowledge. In light of this, it can be said that infusing verbal humor into L2 instruction (at different levels but particularly advanced levels) can benefit learners’ L2 development and their overall “communicative competence” (Hymes, 1972).
academically, immigrant children perform better when they are in programs that are focussed on their needs, Valdés (2004) argues that segregation in classrooms does not offer linguistic minority students the chance to participate in discourse with native speakers of the secondlanguage and therefore limits their chances to develop academic language and the social practices associated with it. Giving immigrant children the education that they need should not result in segregation and exclusion from society – if these children and the education they receive are seen as inferior, this could affect their motivation to learn, and as a result will not provide them with the education that they need at all (Glenn & De Jong, 1996). Furthermore, as suggested by De Heer et al. (2016), it is beneficial for students to have the opportunity to develop friendships and connections before transitioning to mainstream classes, because already knowing people and having some familiarity makes the transition easier. Integration with mainstream classes prior to transitioning, then, will help immigrant children to establish connections with native speakers and to fit in easier. As Tago and Ots (2010) point out, social relations at school do not only have an influence on the identity of the students, but also on language proficiency and overall academic achievement.
Certain teaching methods used in secondlanguageeducation and in education generally that seem particularly suited to peace education are projects, role plays and simulations, and cooperative learning. Projects enable students to spend an extended period of time using their own initiative to go deeply into a particular topic, often one of their own choosing. Further, projects can serve as a vehicle for students to link classroom learning to the outside world and to take actions related to their chosen topic. Role plays (Ladousse, 1987) and simulations (Omaggio, 1978) fit well with peace education, because they encourage students to imagine themselves as different people, in different roles, and/or in different situations, again providing a connection between the classroom and the world beyond.
Since experts and researchers have taken sociocultural perspective of lan- guage learning in addition to cognitive and psychological point of view, it so- lidified the focus of language on cultural reproduction and transformation. Thus, it placed language as a mediating tool for literacy development, which can be investigated by means of social interactions and participation structures (Duff & Anderson, 2015). This idea informs scholars to consider literacy de- velopment in terms of everyday practices. In the paradigm of sociocultural per- spective, literacy practices refer to a course of social practices that can be in- ferred as events mediated by written text (Barton & Hamilton, 1998). It may include the construction of knowledge, values, attitudes, beliefs, and feelings correlated with the use of text in particular time and space (Gee, 1990; Street, 2000).
Ganz and Simpson (2004) taught PECS to three young children, between the ages of three and seven years old, and who had autism and developmental delays. All three children, who had limited functional speech, rapidly mastered PECS and showed increases in length and complexity of word utterances. Charlop-Christy et al. (2002) reported a decrease in problem behavior and increase in speech after a rapid PECS acquisition by three children with autism. These children also demonstrated increases in PECS and verbal requests and non-verbal initiations. Kravits et al. (2002) used PECS to teach a six-year-old girl with autism communication skills. Results showed increases in spontaneous communication skills, an increase in PECS initiation and increases in interaction time with peers both at home and in school. Since much published studies have shown the positive effects of PECS training in eliciting communication skills in children with autism, the purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of teaching PECS to a young child with autism using his secondlanguage, English, since attempts to increase his communication skills in his first language, Mandarin, in home settings, had not been successful.
Other studies that looked into students’ SA experiences yielded different results. Ingram (2005)  investi- gated students’ experiences during a three-week stay in France as part of a third semester French course in their home institution. He found that students had a positive experience that influenced their desire to enroll in more French courses upon their return. Kitao (1993)  investigated the perceptions of Japanese students who went on a 5-week SA to the US and found that students believed there was an improvement not only in their language skills but also in their motivation and confidence. They also developed a positive view of Americans and the US. Similar results were found by Stitsworth and Sugiyama (1990)  who surveyed two groups of a total of nearly 700 Japanese teenage students who went on a 1-month study-abroad to the US. The results indicated that there was a positive change in the students’ attitudes who reported becoming more “sociable, extroverted, self-confi- dent, and independent” in comparison with the group who stayed in Japan. McLeod and Wainright (2009)  found that students who had successful experiences during their SA developed more self-confidence and were aware of changes in their self-perception as well as their perception of the world.
Meta-cognitive strategies involve functional planning, and thinking about production and comprehension. In addition, learners who use these strategies are said to be engaged in directed and selective attention, self-man- agement and monitoring, delayed production, note-taking and self-evaluation. Research by renowned figures in the field gave rise to a new group of learner strategies referred to as socio-affective strategies—those that take consideration issues such as co-operation, classroom interaction, question for clarification, and learning envi- ronment (Cohen 1; O’Malley & Chamot, cited in Otagburuagu (1999) English as a SecondLanguage, 110; Ri- vera-Mills & Plonsky, 2007: pp. 1-2). Nunan’s (1991) classification of language learning strategies followed a different slant from those of the other scholars before him. He matched each of the five categories of his learner strategies with macro and micro-skills, and in some cases gave examples of tasks. The five categories of Nu- nan’s language learning strategies include:
The growing importance of English in Malaysia has been shown through the changes in its education policy since English plays a vital role in realising Vision 2020, set by Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad, the former Prime Minister of Malaysia, to help transform our country into an Information Technology (IT)-based scientific society where English is necessary for assimilating IT in developing our country.
Despite the existence of a vast growing literature on secondlanguage acquisition (SLA) research and a heated debate among secondlanguage (L2) researchers about the applicability of research to practice, there is scanty empirical evidence in this area (Nassaji, 2012). Accordingly, this paper reports on a study investigating in-service teachers' perspectives on the interface between SLA research and L2 teaching. A total number of 119 English language teachers responded to a questionnaire which collected both qualitative and quantitative data. The results revealed teachers' familiarity with SLA research. Although they held positive views towards the relevance of SLA research to language teaching practice, a low percentage of them indicated that they seek insights from research articles. Lack of time and ability were the most frequently reported reasons for not conducting SLA research. Similarly, teachers' lack of time and the difficulty associated with SLA research articles were the most frequently reported reasons for not reading these articles. Majority of the teachers appeared to conceive of teachers' and researchers' works as related and connected. However, in almost all cases a considerably higher percentage of MA teachers than their BA counterparts viewed SLA research as more relevant and useful for teaching purposes. Teachers also expressed their expectations from SLA research to address practical issues. Further, they highlighted practical aspects of SLA research as more relevant to their practice.
Technology-enhanced multimedia instruction benefits foreign language vocabulary acquisition because students receive information via multiple channels and then can recall information better. Dual coding theory states that when information is presented through visual and auditory channels, it facilitates retention (Pavio, 1986). „Combining pictures, mental imagery, and verbal elaboration could be an effective method in promoting understanding and learning from text by students ranging from grade school to university level‟ (Pavio, 1991). Technology furnishes opportunities for interaction, allows for immediate feedback, increases learner autonomy, simulates real-life situations and experiences through video, audio, and graphics (Chun & Brandl, 1992; Legenhausen & Wolff, 1990). Integration of images and sounds together with text enhances vocabulary acquisition (Chun & Payne, 2004; Chun & Plass, 1996). Research showed that the combination of textual and visual information is more effective in facilitating vocabulary acquisition than definitions of foreign language words alone (Akbulut, 2007; Jones & Plass, 2002; Nikolova, 2002). Liu (1994) found that technology offers tools and opportunities to enhance vocabulary acquisition. The use of visuals can enhance language teaching as they help teachers bring the real world into the classroom, thereby making learning more meaningful and more exciting (Brinton, 2000). Research shows that low verbal ability students especially benefit from visual aids and input (Peek, 1993).
MODULE 2: The Direct Method (DM): The direct method, also called the natural method was introduced by Charles Berlitz. This method grew in the 19 th century in Germany and France during the period when modern scholars had established the reform movement as a reaction against the traditional “old school” systems which had become unsatisfactory. Berlitz argued that there was a strong similarity between learning the first language and learning a secondlanguage and so, learning a second or foreign language should involve more interactive activities orally, spontaneous use of language, no translation and little or no grammatical or syntactic structure. DM emphasized that spoken language had to be acquired and that grammar was not the best means of teaching language. The main aim of DM is to immerse the learners in English, using realia, visual aids, demonstration and repetitive patterns. One of the proponents of this method was Harold F. Palmer (Tamura 2006:173). Significant principles of DM include:
Although we have found ourselves generally in agreement with Ellis’s charac- terization of the important role of frequency in SLA, we suggest that a complex task lies ahead. Ellis has presented a convincing picture of the role of fre- quency in many facets of language. However, an issue of central importance that remains to be addressed relates to exactly how frequency effects interact with other aspects of the SLA process. We are optimistic that Ellis’s article will eventually drive more empirical studies of the role of frequency in SLA. We believe that longitudinal studies of the effects of input frequency and L2 learning outcomes, involving learners at different stages of learning and consid- ering the role of the L1, are crucial next steps in the ongoing debate and inves- tigation of frequency effects. Another area worthy of research attention is the relationship between maturational constraints and frequency effects. It is pos- sible that age differences relate to sensitivity to frequency of input and stor- age, and that this may also help to explain differences between L1 and L2 acquisition. The role of individual differences in SLA, including the importance of working-memory capacity in frequency-based accounts, together with learner strategies, also seems worthy of empirical work. Finally, a better un- derstanding of the role of noticing of the input (in particular, of different levels and types of noticing), and especially in relation to the salience of input, seems crucially important in our ongoing investigations of SLA processes in the context of a frequency-based explanation. It is our hope that this debate will continue.
Limited availability of labour market focussed language training at the Colleges was repeatedly identified as an important gap in the system by all types of service providers and learners throughout the province. This is significant in light of the fact that a high percentage of incoming immigrants are arriving with job skills and/or professions but lacking language ability. The economic loss to the province is enormous when workers cannot re-enter the work force at levels at least close to those they held in their home country. A key challenge is to be able to provide combined skills training without sacrificing the need for instruction related to settlement and adjustment. To enhance labour market and combined skills language training, it would be important to consider:
Developed originally to account for L1 perceptual development in infants, Kuhl’s Native Language Magnet (NLM) Theory has been applied to the study of L2 speech as well (Kuhl and Iverson, 1995; Ellis, 2006). In particular, the revised and expanded Native Language Magnet Theory (NLM-e) enumerates a number of basic principles, several of which help account for aspects of L2 perception (Kuhl, Conboy, Coffey-Corina, Padden, Rivera-Gaxiola and Nelson, 2008). First, the L1 learner progresses from perceiving speech in a universal manner (i.e., not specialized for the L1) to perceiving it in an L1-specific manner, a transition that is driven both by the detection of distributional patterns in the ambient L1 input and by the enhanced acoustic properties of infant-directed speech. Second, exposure to the L1 leads to a neural commitment to L1 speech patterns, which biases future speech learning (cf. the “selective perception routine” of the Automatic Selective Perception Model, discussed in Section 2.3). Third, L1 phonetic learning is influenced by social interaction. Fourth, L1 acquisition involves forming links between speech perception and speech production (i.e., perception-production links are developed through experience rather than innate). 1 Fifth, early perceptual abilities, as well as neural responses, on
As a constantly evolving discipline in the fields of linguistics and psycholinguistics, secondlanguage acquisition was initially concerned with cognition and over the years has moved to exploring affect (Chambers, 2007) as well as other areas in language development. Despite such dynamics, the role of silence in L2 education has been treated with great caution and, as far as research findings are concerned, has hardly been connected to learning abilities in optimistic ways. Scholarly research in the 1970s pointed out that children who remain reticent in class were often perceived as socially and intellectually incompetent (Gordon & Thomas, 1967) as they make poorer school progress than their peers (Feshback et al., 1974; Stevenson et al., 1976; Colligan, 1979). In fact, silence in SLA discourse until the 1980s was mentioned as resistance to speech (Harder, 1980), difficulty in performance, and lack of comprehension (Dulay et al., 1982; Gibbons, 1985). While acknowledging silence as the initial stage of language study, SLA scholarly research until recently remains uncertain about how to proceed to address the continuing role of silence in the ‘post-silent era’ – a term which indicates the end of silent film era and which is mentioned to criticise how excessive talk can weaken the subtlety of communicative silence. Although this debate in the movie industry seems irrelevant to language learning, it reminds us that silence should be seen more than just a period when we were hopeless due to the inability to produce speech and that silence continues to play a significant role in L2 development. In fact, SLA shows less interest in private speech than overt production (Saville-Troike, 1988) and seems ‘insufficiently curious about silence as part of the secondlanguage learning process’ (Granger, 2004, p. 30).
Language transfer is a major process in L2 acquisition. Its importance, however, has not been fully appreciated in SLA research, pedagogy, or classroom contexts. Although the notion has been around for almost a century, its significance has been reevaluated several times within the last few decades. Early research in language transfer can be traced back to the 1940s and 1950s, during which the field of linguistics was heavily influenced by Behaviorism, which viewed learning simply as a habit formation process. Transfer from the native language was, thus, considered as a form of influence of L1 habits on L2 learning. Fries (1945), one of the foremost behaviorists, argued that L1 interference is a major problem for those who are learning a secondlanguage. He further argued that comparisons between a learner’s native language and the target language are essential for both L2 theory and pedagogy. Lado (1957) also stressed the importance of the native language, considering it a major cause of lack of success in L2 learning. He then proposed what has been known as the Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis (CAH) as a way of explaining the role that L1 plays in L2 learning. According to this hypothesis, L2 learners’ productive and receptive skills are influenced by their L1 patterns and that similarities and differences between L1 and L2 are important predictors of ease and difficulty of L2 learning.
Other critical approaches have linked explicit study of language with issues of social identity and power relations (cf. Norton, 2000; Toohey, 2000; Ibrahim, 1999). Working with Chinese migrant students Morgan (1997, 2004) focused on issues of subjectivity through phonological patterns and modality. The project looked at how intonation and modality constituted particular gendered and cultured selves in texts and how this connected with student experience. Alim (2009) describes critical Hip Hop language pedagogies that build student metalinguistic awareness of sociolinguistic variation, patterns in their own use of language varieties, lexical innovations in Hip Hop culture, and the unique words of BL. Students conduct fieldwork to learn about linguistic profiling, that is, linguistic discrimination based on inferences about race, geographic origin, gender, class and sexuality made from speech. The aim in these and other programs is to move beyond a celebration of personal experience to critical engagement with students’ knowledge, to both valorise and interrogate student voice (Ibrahim, 2009).
(10) My first contact with English happened in 1987, when I was eleven years old. It was an English course in my neighborhood. Actually it was just an introductory course, really focused on basic English. The classroom activities followed a traditional method, by using non authentic materials, and teacher cen- tered all the time. Then I went to high school, where English classes are simply awful. Every year the same subjects were taught to us, such as verb to be, negative forms, interrogative forms etc. However, the sport I have been practicing from that period so far is full of English words and expressions, what made me more interested in English. In fact skate- board has been a “catapult” to my English learning process. It is common to meet native English speak- ers in skateboard contests, so I had to communicate with them in order comment the contest, or even about my turn in it, for instance. This first steps where then, related to communicative learning proc- ess, since real use of language was required in order to communicate. Slangs and jargons were used all the time, and I did not know what exactly they meant, but I could get their meaning through the context we were in. After that, my interest have in- creased in many aspects of English, such as music, art and sports, what is just the continuity of the process that I began with when I was a child.
Acquisition of existential quantifiers in a secondlanguage (L2) presents a variety of learnability problems, due to the considerable cross-linguistic variation in this domain. The problem is made more interesting by the fact that in many languages, the basic existential meaning ( ∃ ) is wrapped inside a set of licensing requirements that restrict in various ways the occurrence of the resulting lexical item. English any, Chinese renhe ÔanyÕ, and the existential use of Chinese wh-words are all polarity sensitive, meaning that their distribution is restrictedÑalthough each in slightly different ways (Cheng, 1994; Giannakidou, 1997, 2006; Klima, 1964; Wang & Hsieh, 1996; Zwarts, 1995; among others). Korean and Japanese, like Chinese, can form existential quantifiers from wh-words, but in these languages, their distribution is not restricted (Gill, 2004; Nishigauchi, 1990; among others). The range of properties of the existential quantifiers in the above-mentioned languages offers an ideal paradigm within which to characterise the specific acquisition tasks that LardiereÕs recent Feature Reassembly proposal about L2 development (Lardiere, 2005, 2008, 2009) calls for: namely, a mapping task and a feature reassembly task (outlined below). The goal of this paper is to bring together existing data on the L2 acquisition of existential quantifiers, in order to investigate how the Feature Reassembly proposal can be applied. As a key step in achieving this goal, we provide a unified, feature-based representation of existential quantifiers in these languages.