Abstract: The secondlaw of thermodynamics states the increase of entropy, ∆S > 0, for real processes from state A to state B at constant energy from chemistry over biological life and engines to cosmic events. The connection of entropy to information, phase-space and heat is helpful, but does not immediately convince observers of the validity and basis of the secondlaw. This gave grounds for finding a rigorous, but more easily acceptable reformulation. Here we show using statistical mechanics that this principle is equivalent to a force law 〈〈𝑓〉〉 > 0 in systems where mass centres and forces can be identified. The sign of this net force - the average mean force along a path from A to B - determines the direction of the process. The force law applies to a wide range of processes from machines to chemical reactions. The explanation of irreversibility by a driving force appears more plausible than the traditional formulation as it emphasizes the cause instead of the effect of motions.
Abstract Given the degree of disbelief in the theory of evolution by the wider public, scientists need to develop a collection of clear explanations and metaphors that demon- strate the working of the theory and the flaws in anti- evolutionist arguments. This paper presents tools of this sort for countering the anti-evolutionist claim that evolu- tionary mechanisms are inconsistent with the secondlaw of thermodynamics. Images are provided to replace the traditional misunderstanding of the law, i.e., “everything always gets more disordered over time,” with a more clear sense of the way in which entropy tends to increase allowing a thermally isolated system access to a greater number of microstates. Accessible explanations are also provided for the ways in which individual organisms are able to minimize entropy and the advantages this conveys.
It is always important to get a better insight and understanding of the sources of energy degradation so that a better and efficient system may be designed to achieve higher efficiency. Exergy destruction estimation with the application of first and secondlaw of thermodynamics is the best way to analyze these systems. Coverage of discussion of this paper is done via energy and exergy methods. The influence of the ambient temperature, turbocharger pressure ratio and effectiveness of regenerator is investigated on the system performance. A thermodynamic modeling based on energy and exergy analysis of a wet ethanol operated HCCI engine integrated with organic Rankine cycle and further for cogeneration application has been carried out. In addition, a parametric study is conducted to examine the effect of varying the key operating variables on the first and secondlaw efficiencies of the HCCI engine cogeneration system.
describe very different processes and originate in very different fields (Figure 1). Yet the marriage of these two concepts is one of the most strongly-held, albeit pseudo- scientific, arguments that creationists and supporters of intelligent design commonly ascribe to. In this view- point, evolution is the drive towards more complexity, more order (for example, Morris 2000, Chick 2000) and the secondlaw of thermodynamics drives systems to less complexity, less order. Thus their argument is that be- cause the secondlaw drives systems towards less order, evolution (towards more complexity) is falsified. How- ever, both of these interpretations are patently incorrect and are couched in misunderstandings and misconcep- tions (that is, inherently biased conclusions always result from false assumptions and/or incorrect data).
The secondlaw of thermodynamics has been used to explain the finite time duration of stationary states and simultaneously, both the processes of intrinsic progressive loss of functionality for non-living dissipative sys- tems, and the processes of intrinsic progressive loss of organic function in the living dissipative systems. Some of the theoretical results (as Equation (10)) show in a direct way that all kinds of dissipative system have a maximum of continuous time operation inversely proportional to the specific dissipative Raleigh’s function of the system, and directly proportional to their K s , characteristic of each specific type of dissipative system. This
violation of entropy not necessarily will occur at all times. For example, if the time-evolution of nodal temperatures (see Fig. 3a) is computed for subsequent times for the case of the initial condition T shown in Fig. 2, it can be observed from Fig. 3b that the entropy rate will violate the secondlaw of thermodynamics only at the first times of the simulation. Of course, such violation will have an impact in the future temperature behavior. At least one anomalous behavior can be detected in the predicted evolution of nodal temperatures shown in Fig. 3a: at initial times, the nodes that have the minimum temperature (T i = T min = 1, i = 3, 4), instead of showing
Quite similarly to the examples mentioned above, this informative research paper deals with the issue of the compatibility of spatial discretizations with respect to Clausius’s pos- tulate of secondlaw of thermodynamics, at nodal level. The issue is revealed by studying the general structure of spatial discretizations of the heat equation. From the resulting semi-discrete equations it is seen that their discrete operators must satisfy certain alge- braic conditions in order to guarantee that only thermodynamically compatible nodal heat-ﬂuxes exist. If these conditions, named here discrete thermodynamic compatibility conditions (DTCC), are not satisﬁed non-physical reversed heat ﬂuxes will appear between nodes, violating Clausius’s postulate. Other types of DTCC related to other thermody- namic aspects, like energy conservation, may exist and will not be considered here.
The correspondence between the laws of thermodynamics and black hole mechanics was noted, as a curiosity without physical implications, in a seminal paper by Bardeen, Carter and Hawking . At around the same time, Bekenstein  was advocating a rather more radical approach. Noting the area theorem of black holes, which states that the total area of black hole event horizons can never decrease, he observed that this is analogous to the ordinary secondlaw of thermodynamics, i.e. the total entropy of a closed system never decreases. He proposed that, multiplied by appropriate powers of the Planck length, Boltzmann constant and some dimensionless constant of order unity, the black hole area should be interpreted as its physical entropy. This proposal was given physical support by the discovery of Hawking  that black holes radiate at a temperature
Irreversible processes are described by the SecondLaw of Thermodynamics, the statement that entropy S can never decrease for closed systems: ≥ 0. This law is corroborated ubiquitously at the usual macroscopic level of experience. However, there remains great uncertainty and debate regarding exactly how it is that these commonplace irreversible processes arise from an ostensibly time-reversible level of description. Specifically, it is commonly assumed that the quantum level obeys only the unitary dynamics of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation, which is time-reversible. In addition, classical mechanics can be obtained as the small-wavelength limit of the quantum evolution, as Feynman showed in his sum-over-paths approach . So where does the observed macroscopic irreversibility enter?
The principle of "a calorie is a calorie," that weight change in hypocaloric diets is independent of macronutrient composition, is widely held in the popular and technical literature, and is frequently justified by appeal to the laws of thermodynamics. We review here some aspects of thermodynamics that bear on weight loss and the effect of macronutrient composition. The focus is the so-called metabolic advantage in low-carbohydrate diets – greater weight loss compared to isocaloric diets of different composition. Two laws of thermodynamics are relevant to the systems considered in nutrition and, whereas the first law is a conservation (of energy) law, the second is a dissipation law: something (negative entropy) is lost and therefore balance is not to be expected in diet interventions. Here, we propose that a misunderstanding of the secondlaw accounts for the controversy about the role of macronutrient effect on weight loss and we review some aspects of elementary thermodynamics. We use data in the literature to show that thermogenesis is sufficient to predict metabolic advantage. Whereas homeostasis ensures balance under many conditions, as a general principle, "a calorie is a calorie" violates the secondlaw of thermodynamics.
Popovia johnrolandi n.sp. displays a morphological trend through time that provides us with a bio- stratigraphic example of the secondlaw of thermo- dynamics. The taxon displays a clear propensity towards increasing complexity of wall structure through time. This evolutionary development follows four distinct stages (Figure 3):
droplet in SCT is greater as compared to larger size droplet. Water temperature drops due to evaporation of the outer layer of the droplet; outer layer takes the heat of evaporation from the inner part of the droplet. For the smaller size of water droplets direction of heat transfer is reverse (air to water) along the SCT height, thus the temperature of smaller size water droplets starts increasing after a certain distance along the height of SCT. Figure 4 denoted as inlet air DBT increases, exit mean water droplet temperature relatively increases; it also shows that the highest mean water droplet temperature reduction is achieved by 24 0 C inlet air DBT, and it cools down up to 21.38 0 C. Total system exergy is the sum of total air and water exergy (Table 3), the same decreased along the height due to irreversibility and due to water droplets and air interaction. Rate of total system exergy destruction is very high initially but it gradually reduces and becomes asymptotic after about 0.3 m of height (Figure 6). Exergy of water is lost to air due to heat transfer by convection and evaporation. Figure 7 shows the thermal efficiency of the cooling tower increases by increasing the inlet air DBT because as the air DBT increases its wet bulb temperature also increases. Maximum and minimum thermal efficiency of the cooling tower is 91.06 and 58.28%. Secondlaw efficiency at the exit of SCT increases with increase of the inlet air DBT (Figure 8) because exit total exergy of the system relatively increases with increase of the air DBT.
There are many irreversible processes that cannot be described by the heat-engine or refrigerator statements of the secondlaw, such as a glass falling to the floor and breaking or a balloon popping. However, all irreversible processes have one thing in common – the system plus its surroundings moves toward a less ordered state.
In this study. Currently GT 1 and HRSG#1 are active while GT 2 and HRSG#2 are both inactive, so thermo-physical properties is available only for GT1 and HRSG#1. Energy analysis of an active CCPP (Combined Cycle Power Plant) is performed with the help of the actual operating data taken from the computer control unit of the plant. For the thermo dynamical performance assessment of the plant, energy analysis, related with the first law of thermodynamics is performed.
For this reason, Casinos and lottery use it. Nevertheless, in nature, fairness does not mean equal probability to all the boxes N, but equal probability to all the microstates (configurations). The equal probability of all the microstates is the secondlaw of thermodynamics, which, exactly for this reason, causes heat to flow from a hot place to a cold place.
Abstract The concept of time travel captures the imagination of scientists and nonscientists alike. Though theoretical mathematical treatment of the issue in the realm of physics has offered potential means, albeit, wormholes requiring some rather strange conditions such as negative energy, what does thermodynamics suggest for the potential of time travel? Examination of the thermodynamic state functions of enthalpy and entropy from the Gibbs free energy relationship suggest that the final enthalpy after travel will be greater than the initial enthalpy before travel. The final entropy after travel will be greater than the initial entropy before travel. Transfer of mass from one multiverse to another would seem to violate various mass energy conservation laws, as well as strictures on the SecondLaw of Thermodynamics for the originating and a target multiverse.
There is a general agreement among science teachers on the importance of choosing the teaching of energy as a focus of interest in the science curriculum, since this is a central idea which provides an important key to our understanding of the way things happen in the physical, biological and technological world .The conception of energy ‘as capacity for doing work’, whose origin goes back to the 17th century (Trumper 1990), was still used by many 19th century scientists such as Maxwell (1877). However, when the SecondLaw of Thermodynamics was established, it became clear that not all energy is able to perform work.Energy issues have personal, social and environmental implications that may help to enhance students’ interest in learning. Understanding these implications is necessary in order to make informed decisions
The general energy supply and environmental situation requires an improved utilization of energy sources. Therefore, the complexity of power-generating units has increased considerably. Plant owners are increasingly demanding a strictly guaranteed performance. This requires thermodynamic calculations of high accuracy. As a result, the expenditure for thermodynamic calculation during design and optimization has grown tremendously. The most commonly-used method for evaluating the efficiency of an energy-conversion process is the first-law analysis. However, there is increasing interest in the combined utilization of the first and second laws of thermodynamics, using such concepts as exergy, entropy generation and irreversibility in order to evaluate the efficiency with which the available energy is consumed. Exegetic analysis allows thermodynamic evaluation of energy conservation, because it provides the tool for a clear distinction between energy losses to the environment and internal irreversibilities in the process. Exergy is defined as the maximum theoretical useful work (or maximum reversible work) obtained as a system interacts with an equilibrium state [2,3]. Exergy is generally not conserved as energy but destructed in the system. Exergy destruction is the measure of irreversibility that is the source of performance loss. Therefore, an exergy analysis assessing the magnitude of exergy destruction identifies the location, the magnitude and the source of thermodynamic inefficiencies in a thermal system.
Wen-Lu Weng and Bin-Chang Huang (1995) used the Iwai-Margerum-Lu equation of state in their study of the thermodynamics performances of a variety of fluid circulating in an ideal heat pump cycle. Their evaluations were implemented at three operating conditions. Their result showed that the normal boiling point and the critical pressure of compounds are the key properties for selecting the thermodynamically proper working fluids. Several potential non-CFC compounds were suggested for the heat pumps with respect to each application depending on the compressor type.
For some reasons quantity of motion usually is not used when describing heat phenomena, perhaps due to the nature of the heat systems. However, the more quantities of motion exist, the more conservation laws would exist, and, consequently, the greater number of computational equations would be needed for calculations – that’s why thermal phenomena are so difficult to quantify. For this reason, in contrast to the deterministic description of Newton's classical mechanics, when studying thermal phenomena it would make sense to introduce microparameters and their averaged values in the form of macroparameters, because thermodynamic systems are indeterministic (probabilistic). Classification of systems into open systems (capable of exchanging mass and energy with the environment), closed systems (capable of exchanging only energy with the environment), and closed-loop systems adds additional complexity to the formulation of conservation laws. Thus, the usual formula of the first law of thermodynamics for closed systems (the energy supplied to the system in the form of heat is spent on the change in the internal energy of the system , and doing the work ) needs to be adjusted if the thermodynamic system is open. In this case, it is necessary to take into account the change in energy of the system as a result of the entering or leaving system’s N particles with the energy γ of one particle. Then the first law of thermodynamics can be written out in the form of (1):