Second Temple Literature and HIstory

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Congruent ethos in the Second Temple literature of the Old Testament

Congruent ethos in the Second Temple literature of the Old Testament

the group responsible for the Daniel narratives decided upon a strategy of non-violence. They were neither willing to compromise by exercising Realpolitik, nor did they see any sense in the Maccabean revolt. This was not per definition pacifism, but rather a stance of no-cooperation. It was a matter of ‘patient pacifism’ (Rowland 1982:42). They opted for an ‘apocalyptic modification of ascesis’ (Venter 1997:90). Conflicting ethics can be illustrated on another level as well. Boccaccini (2002:26–27) reads Daniel 9 not only within the context of the rest of the book, but also within the context of ‘interactions among different “currents” or movements’. He is of opinion that Daniel 9 is not only the nucleus of the second section of the book (Dn 8–12) (Boccaccini 2002:181), but is part of the original composition. In that original composition it played a structural and theological role (cf. Boccaccini 2002:188). Both Daniel’s prayer and the angel’s interpretation in chapter 9 refer to Leviticus 26 as the ‘foundational text of the Zadokite tradition and a foundational concept of Zadokite covenantal theology’ (Boccaccini 2002:188). In contrast to Zadokite covenantal Judaism, however, Daniel ‘accepts the Enochic idea that history is condemned to inexorable degeneration’ (Boccaccini 2002:183). These two ‘Judaisms’ or rather streams of Judaistic thinking, also differ on the issue of the superhuman origin of evil. In apocalyptic thinking, it is the evil of this world and the transgression of humankind that caused the degeneration of evil. Between the Zadokite idea of covenant and the Enochic theory of the degeneration of history, Daniel presents his own message concerning the meaning of time. Conflict in ethical thinking is evident within the wider context of Jewish society, as will be indicated by our comparison to the penitential prayers in Ezra and Nehemiah.
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Psalm 22 and the "servants" of Isaiah 54; 56 66

Psalm 22 and the "servants" of Isaiah 54; 56 66

Second, we have to account for the fact that multiple social groups across a broad span of time used the Book of Isaiah to define themselves as righteous “ser­ vants” who would endure suffering and look forward to eschatological vindication and the coming of God’s kingdom. Again, we can point to other examples where groups throughout history self-identify with terminology taken from older texts: the use of the term “the poor” (Dr nsi) as a communal self-designation, frequent in the Psalter and used even in the first century c . e . (see Matt 5:3; Luke 6:20);58 or the use of the terms “the wise” (a ’blJWa) and “the many” (Q’31) in Second Temple sectarian literature, terms taken from Dan 12:3 but ultimately derived from Isa 52:13; 53:11.59 What is common to all these examples is the socially transforma­ tive nature of the texts being read. As James L. Mays notes, “The language of the hymn [Psalm 22] reflects a group who without separating themselves from the national society in a social way are thinking and speaking about themselves and their relation to God in a way that is beginning to redefine what it means to be Israel.”60 Psalm 22 continues a process that begins in the Book of Isaiah itself, a process in which earlier texts are picked up and extended by later texts in ways that define community identity and create hope.
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Who takes the initiative? Reading Ezekiel in the Second Temple Period and Late Antiquity

Who takes the initiative? Reading Ezekiel in the Second Temple Period and Late Antiquity

(Aldershot: Ashgate, 2007); Paul M. Joyce and Andrew Mein, eds., After Ezekiel: Essays on the Reception of A Difficult Prophet, LHBOTS 535 (New York: T&T Clark, 2011); Paul M. Joyce, “Ezekiel,” in The Oxford Handbook of the Reception History of the Bible, ed. Michael Lieb et al. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011), 64–76. Note also studies limited to specific time periods or corpora: Florentino García Martínez, “The Interpretation of the Torah of Ezekiel in the Texts from Qumran,” in Qumranica Minora II: Thematic Studies on the Dead Sea Scrolls, STDJ 64, ed. Florentino García Martínez (Leiden: Brill, 2007), 1–12; Gary T. Manning, Jr., Echoes of a Prophet: The Use of Ezekiel in the Gospel of John and in Literature of the Second Temple Period, JSNTSup 270 (New York: T&T Clark, 2004); Sverre Bøe, Gog and Magog: Ezekiel 38–39 as Pre-text for Revelation 19:17–21 and 20:7–10, WUNT 2/135 (Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2001); Beate Kowalski, Die Rezeption des Propheten Ezechiel in der Offenbarung des Johannes, SBB 52 (Stuttgart: Katholisches Bibelwerk, 2004); Angela Russell Christman, What Did Ezekiel See? Christian Exegesis of Ezekiel’s Vision of the Chariot from Irenaeus to Gregory the Great, BAC 4 (Leiden: Brill, 2005).
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Entity Resolution and Location Disambiguation in the Ancient Hindu Temples Domain using Web Data

Entity Resolution and Location Disambiguation in the Ancient Hindu Temples Domain using Web Data

a significant fraction of such data (∼60%), is generated by the crowd over social multi-media platforms such as YouTube and Twitter. This data is ridden with subjective evaluations, opinions, and speculations. See Figure 1 for examples which we contrast with relatively objective and factual passages. The irrelevant posts in Figure 1 are speculative, subjective/opinionated or irrelevant. Our initial challenge is to weed out such speculative information carefully while holding on to sparse, factual and historical information. Additionally, the problem becomes more complex when the information about the domain is either poorly structured or unstructured. In Figure 2 we present an example snippet containing multiple temple names and multiple temple locations. We observe that a snippet can sometimes contain mul- tiple mentions of similar temple names and temple locations. Due to similar temple names present at mul- tiple locations, we also face the problem of Location Disambiguation (LD).
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“Already/not yet” : St Paul’s eschatology and the modern critique of historicism

“Already/not yet” : St Paul’s eschatology and the modern critique of historicism

period of the ‘Theological-Political Fragment’ in Reflections; Essay, Aphorisms, Autobiographical Writings, ed. Peter Nemetz (New York: Schocken Books, 2007), which is totally Marcionite or Basilidian, when seen from the perspective of the being abandoned to ‘happiness’ which is its intrinsic ‘rhythm of transience’) (see also Giorgio Agamben, The Open: Man and Animal, [Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2004]). At this earlier stage, his nihilistic world politics had nothing to do with the messianic, simply because the messianic and the historical could never intersect at any point. It is only later that Benjamin, having learned about the Lurianic sparks/traces, will adopt the idea of a ‘weak messianic power’ that is reflected in the ‘Theses on the Philosophy of History’. Yet, at the time of the ‘Fragment’, human beings are totally fallen and can aid the messianic ‘new creation’ only by ending this one as quickly as possible and hasting its ‘passing away’ (see Agata Bielik-Robson, ‘ Walter Benjamin: All Shades of Gnosis’, in Philip Goodchild and Hollis Phelps (eds.), Religion and European Philosophy: Key Thinkers from Kant to Žižek [London: Routledge, 2017], pp. 115-126).
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Virtual knights and synthetic worlds: Jediism in second life

Virtual knights and synthetic worlds: Jediism in second life

Baym and Markham note that in conducting qualitative research on the Internet, there are fewer bounded places than in the ‘real’ world (Markham and Baym 2008). This is especially true when conducting research in virtual worlds; there is very little space that is truly private. The user’s ability to move his or her vantage point allows visibility of just about every space. Anyone with a Second Life account can explore most spaces, can view the charters of groups and buy the regalia of most religions via the browser‐ based Second Life Marketplace. Groups may link spaces in the virtual world with web‐ based spaces such as web pages or discussion forums through the web‐on‐a‐prim functionality, whereby an object can act as a web link and either be displayed on the object or open a web page (Linden 2011).
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Locating British Hindus' sacred space

Locating British Hindus' sacred space

Discussion of UK Hindus’ sacred space, focusing as it mainly will on temples, can be set in the context of earlier accounts of the evolution of diasporic Hindu communities. Studies have focused on temples in Asia, 12 Africa, in particular the frequently caste- based temples of East Africa 13 and the late 19 th century and early 20 th century temples of Natal, South Africa; 14 and the late 20 th century burgeoning of temples in North America. 15 Raymond Brady Williams situates the establishment of temples in the USA in his five-stage model of religious organizations’ ‘adaptive strategies’ for ‘survival in a new cultural ecosystem’ 16 and identifies the ecumenical aspect of adaptation, with different groups worshiping together as in Dallas temple. 17
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The platform of the Temple of Venus and Rome

The platform of the Temple of Venus and Rome

We have established at a level of 27.4 m a.s.l., the highest point of the natural tuff rock in the area, below the transept of the church. This is the area in which the Colossus could be located. The remains of the Neronian cryptoportico to NW are at 25.30 m a.s.l. and at a depth of 3.75 meters from the existing street level above it, being the lowest space within the platform. The level of the transept of the church, identified by Prandi (1937) as the oldest part of the church is at the same level as the stereobate of the temple, i.e. 30.63 m a.s.l. The nave of the church, is at 29.22 m a.s.l, which appears to be the lower level of the Neronian Vestibule. The level was probably raised by around half meter during the Flavian construction of the Arch of Titus. Considering some marble pavements under the monastery, the next Neronian level appears to be to the same height that the temple stereobate. The existence of a further Neronian level at the level of the temple’s cella, 33.70 m a.s.l., will explain some rests of marble pavement (Fig. 3, coordinates E-D,III-IV), so far attributed to Hadrian, with the wall above attributed to Maxentius. This is material for further detailed research.
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Against and beyond   for sociology : a study on the self understanding of sociologists in England

Against and beyond for sociology : a study on the self understanding of sociologists in England

Whilst empiricism represented one target, functionalism with its main representative Talcott Parsons served as the main target and the point of critique for sociologists who envisioned sociological activity in a diametrically opposed way as a critical and transformative endeavour. Yet, the importance of Parsons’ work for our context goes beyond his significance as a scapegoat for critical sociologists. Whilst from a critical social science perspective, commentaries on Parsons’ work mostly center around Parsons’ notion of objectivity as the leading element of research and the framing of the sociologist as a seemingly value-neutral actor (Bottomore, 1975; Gouldner, 1970), his aim to conceptualise sociology as a synthesis of economics, psychology, anthropology and biology, thereby indicating sociology’s synthetic nature, makes him a major figure in the history of sociological thought (Holmwood, 1996). 5 Friedrichs describes functionalist theory as the ruling paradigm of the 1950s and 1960s, standing for a priestly mode of sociology in contrast to a prophet mode of doing sociology: ‘[T]he sociologist as prophet is consciously committed to an image of society that transcends any given social reality. He differs from the sociologist as priest not in any temptation to distort the reality of a given situation – he is equally dedicated to honoring the empirical facts – but in his awareness of the value-laden choices and implicit commitments confronting those who would extrapolate evidence of past order into the future and in his decision to respond to them in a way
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Reviewing history in apocalyptic literature as ideological strategy

Reviewing history in apocalyptic literature as ideological strategy

of much waters, the summit of a rock, a desert et cetera. Personal names are replaced with animal categories. The actors in events are bulls, cows and sheep that are ravaged by different types of wild animals. According to Tite (2001:110) this change to allegory could have been intended to affect the recipients of the vision in two ways: the dehumanisation of the opponents as monstrous beasts encouraging a holy war against them, and reinforcing the insider status of the recipients by presenting the events as coded allegories which only they could understand. Changing the history into an allegory of contrasting animals (bulls-cows/sheep against wild beasts) could have been also a technique to promote cult purity among the insider recipient group. 6 The author(s) also depict the “sheep” according to visual ability as either being blind, dim sighted or with eyes opened. The history of Israel shows a pattern of dichotomy between good and evil, pure and impure, being faithful and going astray. The motif is found in all of Israel’s history that people move from the one to the other. To present history in this way in this section of the vision is a technique to maintain community cohesion and warn against the severe consequences for those who go astray (cf Tite 2001:110-111).
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The Spirit and the 'other': social identity, ethnicity and intergroup reconciliation in Luke Acts

The Spirit and the 'other': social identity, ethnicity and intergroup reconciliation in Luke Acts

There were a range of options with which first-century Israelites could answer the question: What does being a faithful Israelite mean with respect to the ethnic ‘other’? Texts that describe Diaspora, exile, return from exile, or Israelite responses to subjugation in the land provide good test cases from which to survey the effect of threatened (thus intensified) Israelite identity on the ethnic ‘other’. This brief survey of Second Temple texts will reveal that there was no singular Israelite response to the ‘other’, but that responses could range from social creativity to, more infrequently, social competition. A certain ambiguity in (even apparently negative) Israelite responses to the ‘other’ arises from the fact that the strengthening of Israelite in-group boundaries was frequently done with a conscious awareness of Israel’s status as God’s elect people. Thus, in-group bias arising from increased in-group solidarity can be largely positive. However, as we saw earlier, in-group bias is closely constitutive of out-group antipathy. The variegated responses to the ‘other’ in these Second Temple texts provide a context
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Mural Paintings of the City of That Phanom: History and Literature

Mural Paintings of the City of That Phanom: History and Literature

Cultural mixture between capital and local artistry senses: Regarding the relationship of the artists who created mural painting in all three temples, their, expressions are interrelated in that all mural paintings’ styles are the mixture of the capital and that of a local. The chief artists who drew mural painting at Hua Wieng Rangsi are Luang Chan Aksorn who was the standout pupil of Master Wirote Rattanobol. Therefore, it was inevitable for him to possessed cultural diffusion concept in light of mural painting-passing on painting style used in this temple to his other artistry pieces. In the same regard, though Puttasima temple’s mural paintings were created at around the same time, though the style expressed through the work was that of a local artist like Mr. Kamsing, there is still a mixture of capital artistry style which Luang Chan Aksorn and his pupils from Hua Wieng temple used. As for Poe Kum temple, the abbot who was Master Wimon Bundit (Luang Paw Kum Tun) was also then the key pupil of Master Wirote Rattanobol back when Pra That Phanom was being restored. Though Master Wirote Rattanobol had gone back to Ubon Ratchathani, Master Wimon Bundit still constantly received affection from Master Wirote Rattanobol. Such was evident when the coin relic was made with Luang Poo Tun’s (Master Wimon Bundit) name on it. The relic coin was made in approximately 2483 AD and is now very rare. Luang Poo Rod or Master Wirote Rattnobol had ordered the coin to be made to celebrate the monk’s rank of Luang Poo Tun or Master Wimon Bundit. In the front of the coin is the portrait of Luang Poo Tun and in the back is the picture of Master Wirote Rattanobol. Such is the evidence that mural painting in Siam was strongly influenced by Master Wirote Rattanobol.
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Second World War History: Memory Conflict and Dialogue

Second World War History: Memory Conflict and Dialogue

For me, March 16th is a day of commemoration, because I saw all of that up close and felt the hope we had during the German occupation. How the men consoled each other, saying we’d have weapons, that we’d be able to secure [Latvia] here. I think there must have been some sort of betrayal, because the 19th Division was supposed to retreat through Riga, but it was diverted elsewhere. The Estonians succeeded; they had an independent government for a few days before the Russians came in again. But afterwards all that was forgotten, because it wasn’t advantageous to the Allies back then; it was all “rolled into the asphalt”. The life story then turns into oral history, because the narrator’s opinion about the final segment of the war, about the Kurelians (Kurelieši) [21] – who, in his mind, are a completely different story than the Legionnaires – enters the story. He tries to remember but doubts the precise date; he thinks it may have been in 1943 that the German occupying forces allowed the local national guard organisations to be renewed and wear their own uniforms. The guardsmen are even said to have given oaths of allegiance to the Latvian army. Of course, they also included men who were in the German army. And he adds that to this day the actual truth has not yet been determined. The Kurelian leadership was shot on the beach in Liepāja; Upelnieks, too, whom I sometimes saw visiting at my father’s house. The 19th Division stayed here. Everything should have been different... [a long pause] And therefore, for me, this day [March 16th] is a day of commemoration for all of those who died.
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Chess in Jewish history and Hebrew literature.

Chess in Jewish history and Hebrew literature.

culture " its distinguishing way of life - through the awareness of its history, might seem in some ways to offer a parallel to the Persian yearnings for a past age of which I have spoken. The historical consciousness gave sustenance to the exiled Jewish community in Babylon, as recorded in the Old Testament; and it m anifested itself most rem arkably in the era fo llo w in g the destruction of the second Jewish comonwealth by the Romans in 70 AD - when the devastation of Jerusalem and Judaea sent a flood of refugees to join the settlem ents of Jews who had remained in Babylon and prospered there. But this Jewish sense of history which eventually found its embodiment in the Talmud was grounded on system and continuity - on the concern of each generation to record its own social and legal arrangements while methodically studying and preserving the heritage of the past. The labours devoted to past and contemporary laws and customs by the Talm udic Academies - a process of firs t repeating, then adding, and finally codifying - resulted in a body of writing which not only contains revised and updated principles of the law, but supplies us with an authentic chronicle of the daily life of the tim e .
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Why is Simeon dancing? The unity of exegesis, theology and devotion in the work of Bonaventure

Why is Simeon dancing? The unity of exegesis, theology and devotion in the work of Bonaventure

Turning now to the text, Bonaventure treats the Presentation of Christ in the Temple, along with the Purification of the Virgin, as part of the Second Fruit (The Humility of his Mode of Life) under the heading “Jesus Submissive to the Law.” In this passage he will quote the gospel passages Luke 2:27 and Luke 2:29. The ensuing discussion explains the Gospel mystery in part by employing three other Scriptural quotations: namely Song of Songs 3:4 “I held him and would not let him go” and two from St. Paul combined into one: (Galatians 4:5): “that he might redeem those who were under the Law and (Romans 8:21) free them from the slavery of corruption to the
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Pataleswarar Temple at Thiruppadhiripuliyur in South India: A Study of Its History, Art and Architecture

Pataleswarar Temple at Thiruppadhiripuliyur in South India: A Study of Its History, Art and Architecture

The temple is facing the east and it has all the usual inner structures of south Indian temples live the ganbagraha (sanctum) antarala, arthamandapa, mahamandapa, inner corridor, prahara, raja gopura, and the tank.The significant architectural features of this temple reside in its rajagopuram.The rajagopuram leads to dwafasthanbamandapa which is filled up with nandi, kodi and palipitam it is actually connecting the inner enclosure wall. Adjoining the inner enclosure wall is a fine corridor famous for sculptures. The actual sanctum with its arthamandapa and mahamandapa is situated in the centre of the corridor.The central shine is facing the east. The cella which enshrines a linga on a circular pedestal in the middle is a square chamber, where the presiding deity pataleswarar is housed. It is encircled by a stone wall, which is rising to a height of about 3 metes from the ground.
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Intellectual history

Intellectual history

approaches to intellectual history that have been advanced by two very different schol- ars: Mark Bevir and Dominick LaCapra. Informed by post-analytic philosophy – and hence no easy read for historians unfamiliar with the philosophical discipline – Bevir's Logic of the History of Ideas, published in 1999, provides a normative second-order study of intellectual history and the human sciences in general, exploring key concepts of the field such as tradition, meaning and belief. As Bevir explained in one of the numer- ous debates on his book, the Logic may also be read as an attempt to put the approach of the Cambridge School on a surer philosophical footing. 39 Taking his cue from the philosophical strands of "holism", "postfoundationalism" and "folk psychology", and drawing on philosophies of mind, language and action as developed by Wittgenstein, Quine and Davidson, Bevir maintains that ideas cannot have any innate meanings but possess meaning only in relation to agents, which alone are able to provide the "back- ground theories" that lend meaning to ideas. Therefore, ideas only exist as beliefs, which historians are to ascribe to people while being governed by logical presump- tions in favour of sincere, conscious and rational beliefs – "rational" being defined as "consistent". These beliefs are, moreover, part of wider "webs of belief" which arise against the background of intellectual and social traditions. "Webs of belief" is one of the Logic's pivotal terms, one which Bevir borrows from Quine and Ullian's classic in- troduction to the study of rational belief, 40 and which is, in fact, at the heart of Bevir's
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AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF THE FAMOUS RELIGIOUS PLACES OF SOUTH  ODISHA

AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF THE FAMOUS RELIGIOUS PLACES OF SOUTH ODISHA

kingdom of Orissa had spread from Ganga to Godavari. The flourishing maritime trade with South-East Asian countries i.e. Java, Borneo had brought in a golden era of affluence and opulence. The Kalinga School of architecture flourished from the 7th to 13th century A.D. The most important monuments of this period can be seen in and around Bhubaneswar and Puri. The Mukteswar Temple is the finest piece of architecture of Kalinga. The Lingaraj Temple of Bhubaneswar, the Jagannath Temple of Puri and above all the world renowned world heritage Sun Temple at Konark are the epitome of temple architecture and sculpture of Orissa. The modern Orissa came into existence in April 1, 1936. The Britishers declared it as a separate province. In 1948 and 1949 the area of Orissa was almost doubled and the population was increased by a third with the addition of 24 former princely states. In 1950, Orissa became a constituent state of India. It is governed by a chief minister and cabinet responsible to an elected unicameral legislature and by a governor appointed by the president of India. Utkal Gaurav Madhusudan Das was the architect of Modern Orissa and subsequently Sri Nabakrushna Chowdhury, Dr. Harekrishna Mahatab, Sri Biju Patnaik and others engineered their best efforts for catapulting Orissa to himalayan heights of fame and glory. In fact, Orissa has become a multi dimensional, multi coloured, many splendoured, vibrant and boisterous modern state all set on its journey in the present millenium to make its presence and voice felt in the nooks and crannies of the world through the Universal Cult of brotherhood, its unique cultural heritage, luxuriant forests and wild life, sprawling Chilika Lake, bountiful coastline, wide range of tribes and colourful canvass of art and culture. Orissa has been resurgent again rejuvenating and resuscitating its ancient glory, glamour and greatness. Its lush green countryside and fertile plains, tiny hamlets fringed with palm, coconut trees and mango groves offer the charm of rural beauty while the urban pockets, the four cities in particular, with the splendour of modern technology provide the amenities necessary for a comfortable stay. This wonderful land of fascinating beauty boasts of colourful festivals round the year. Orissa is also the land of unique handicrafts and other excellent artefacts.
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The Jerusalem Temple in Luke Acts

The Jerusalem Temple in Luke Acts

accompanied by detailed descriptions of the architecture or ritual system which would satisfy the curiosity of antiquarian or eclectically minded readers (cf Pliny, Nat Hist 5). While these factors could indicate that the temple is of marginal significance for Luke, there are nevertheless passages where the temple is integral to the narrative and to his apologetic purpose. References to the temple in Luke-Acts, along with other central and distinctive features of Jewish identity and culture, serve to define the continuing significance of Jewish institutions in the light of the Christian Gospel, and the relationship of the Church to Judaism, and therefore merit particular attention (Brawley 1987:107-32; Juel 1983; Tiede 1983). In this respect at least we need to consider whether Luke-Acts was addressed to a (Diaspora) Jewish as well as a gentile readership.
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The Role of Frontline Leadership in Organizational Learning: Evidence from Incremental Business Process Improvement

The Role of Frontline Leadership in Organizational Learning: Evidence from Incremental Business Process Improvement

the Anglo-Saxon glosses, The Wonders of the East, the Sermo Lupi ad Anglos and other homiletic texts, in the Charms and the Riddles, and of the narrative structure of the Grendel’s mother episode of Beowulf, I will attempt to demonstrate that the Anglo-Saxon wælcyrge is a viable and valuable form of the Northern war-woman and that the Anglo- Saxon conception of the Valkyrie was rich, intricate, and dynamic. The wælcyrge was an Anglo-Saxon gloss for underworld goddesses, and the Old English embodiment of a female monster who corrupts her victims with venom. She was an integral part of the medicinal charms in which the invisible world of spirits and specters factored heavily on the health and well being of real-life persons. She was a monster living in far distant lands in the Old English writings in the mirabilis genre. In the homilies, the wælcyrge was used by the bishops of late Anglo-Saxon England as a rhetorical device to denounce sinful behaviors and practices among the populace. The wælcyrge was used by the riddle-makers in the Exeter Book as an alternate answer to clever riddles that pun on elements of Northern mythology. Throughout this project, I will argue that these various forms of literature reflect the wælcyrge as a complex and multifarious figure in Anglo-Saxon England.
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