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Water Scarcity: Impacts on Food security at Macro, Meso and Micro levels in Pakistan

Water Scarcity: Impacts on Food security at Macro, Meso and Micro levels in Pakistan

proposed that self-sufficiency in food grain production could be achieved through the expansion of existing irrigation infrastructure, control of population, increased crop yield, development and management of water resources and the construction of small dams. The similar findings were also revealed by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), which came up with a conclusion that it is not the lack of arable land which will cut the food production; it is the water scarcity which will risk the food security in the coming decades (UNDP, 2007). Hanjra and Qureshi (2010) have also examined the impact of water scarcity on future food security in an era of climate change. Their study brings to close that the future food security is being threatened by a constant decline of water resources, climate change and energy shortfalls. In order to cope with such worsening state of food security and water resources across the globe, the policy measures such as investments in water conservation, modernization of irrigation infrastructure, preservation of land and mitigation of climate change are emphasized. Above all, food security and rural livelihood are fundamentally linked to water availability and consumption (Callow, 2002; Nicol and Slaymaker, 2003).Therefore; the United Nations development program (UNDP, 2007) has regarded the water scarcity as the most important determinant of food security.
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Impact of water scarcity on food security at meso level in Pakistan

Impact of water scarcity on food security at meso level in Pakistan

More than 95 percent of available surface is used for irrigation in Pakistan (kamal, 2001). The Indus irrigates around 34 million acres of land on its plain (Tariq, 2002). The capacity storage of this system is low at only 150 m3 per capita per year: only 30 days of supply. The system has significant losses; both Mangla and Tarbela have lost about 25 percent of their capacity. The water losses from canal heads, water courses and within water courses are commonly believed to be two third of the total water losses. The losses of poor transmission and seepage of canals are estimated to be around 76 MAF (GOP, 2007). Another loss of 25 percent also occurs in the farm fields (Kamal, 2001). There might be many reasons for these losses such as power management of water resources, government inefficiency and negligence, minuscule social mobilization on the part of the community, distribution inequalities from head, and middle and tail areas of the water channels and the inability of water users to pay the taxes (Pakistan’s economy running dry, 2009). According to the World Bank, a very small percentage of the irrigation water users pay for the irrigation while the costs of maintenance, repair and rehabilitation of the water infrastructure are high. These costs are incurred to the general taxpayers. These taxpayers pay the cost plus interests and no one pays for the replacements (Kamal, 2009). Due to bad management, institutional constraints and inability of water users to pay for the maintenance, only 45 percent of cultivable land is cultivated .Therefore, 97 percent water allocated to the provinces is not utilized fully ( Tariq, 2005). Under this scenario crop productivity goes low at 0.13 kg per cubic meter which is the lowest productivity in the world per unit of water. The reality seems distressing in the national discourse of water (Kamal, 2009). Nevertheless, national discourse accentuates the need of constructing dams. This discourse is politically controversial among the provinces. Sind raises objections to the construction of Kalabagh dam project which was approved in 2008 and is in suspension up till now. The storage capacity of Kalabagh dam was estimated to be 8.1 MAF and the power generation capacity of the dam was estimated to be 45,000 MW. The project was envisaged to benefit $ 600 million in the context of irrigation and $ 1.5 billion in the context of hydropower (Sher Baz Khan, 2008). The need for the construction of the dam was argued on the basis of seven points (a) more storage capacity (b) more water for agriculture and irrigation (c) more flood control (d) more hydropower (e) more food security (f) more carry over from wet months to dry months and vice versa and (f) offsetting the loss of existing dams due to silting (Kamal, 2009).
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Water Security – science and management challenges

Water Security – science and management challenges

Abstract This paper briefly reviews the contemporary issues of Water Security, noting that current and prospective pressures represent major challenges for society. It is argued that, given the complex interdependencies and multi-faceted nature of these challenges, new trans-disciplinary science is needed to support the development of science-based policy and management. The effects of human society on land and water are now large and extensive. Hence we conclude that: (a) the management of water involves the management of a complex human-natural system, and (b) potential impacts of the human footprint on land and water systems can influence not only water quantity and quality, but also local and regional climate. We note, however, that research to quantify impacts of human activities is, in many respects, in its infancy. The development of the science base requires a trans-disciplinary place-based focus that must include the natural sciences, social sciences and engineering, and address management challenges at scales that range from local to large river basin scale, and may include trans-boundary issues. Large basin scale studies can provide the focus to address these science and management challenges, including the feedbacks associated with man’s impact from land and water management on regional climate systems.
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Fluid Identities: Toward a Critical Security of Water

Fluid Identities: Toward a Critical Security of Water

understanding of others through communicative practice.” 336 A permanent openness to dialogue is necessary for the equitable management of shared water resources, especially as new and unexpected changes occur to available water sources (most notably from climate change) and the political structures which currently manage them. By eliminating the structural constraints that inhibit active participation in decision-making procedures, progress is made towards the critical pursuit of the constant enlargement of freedom. 337 3) It is cosmopolitan. The necessary corollary to the first two components of emancipatory water security is the expansion of the moral community of stakeholders. A view is taken towards a post-sovereign understanding of political identity, whereby individual allegiances and understandings are not reducible to a homogenous localism, but exhibit cultural pluralism and heterogeneity. The focus on cosmopolitanism here as “interactive universalism” entails a reconfiguration of political and ethical boundaries away from established borders towards a more globally-oriented space where no clear lines can be drawn between inside and outside, domestic and foreign. There is a universal recognition of individuals to be consulted in the decisions which affect them. This allows for greater inclusion and dialogue among human beings to express shared water concerns and vulnerabilities. The normative requirement here is an epistemological shift towards an understanding of shared reality, whereby individuals treat one another as equals, rather than as competitors or threats. This undercuts the traditional focus on national self- interest as the ordering dimension of environmental security.
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Resilience and water security in two outback cities

Resilience and water security in two outback cities

accepted by townspeople or the mining companies. As chief engineer for the Water Supply Company put it, from the point of view of the mines, the issue was a matter of “What is the amount of security you are prepared to buy?” (Hardy, 1968). Departmental policy over the next decade was one of gradual improvement of the existing systems but again apathy set in. Throughout the 1930s, Broken Hill enjoyed a decade of stability and increased wealth. The silver city had become one of the largest producers of lead and zinc in the world. This up-turn assured the longevity of Broken Hill’s mining industry. This new conception of the city saw new standards of civic pride emerge. Further parks and sporting fields were constructed; its streets were lined with trees and its barren southern and western sides were subjected to a native plant regeneration effort within designated regeneration areas. By 1938, a confident NSW Government approved plans at Yancowinna Glen and the construction of a sewerage system. By the end of the 1930s, Broken Hill and the NSW Government had been lulled into a false sense of security. Increasing demands for water from the mining industry coupled with the more liberal attitude to water from local residents placed greater pressure on existing water supplies. The lessons from the last decade had been forgotten.
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WTO agreements and dimensions of india’s foreign trade: food security,  water and environment

WTO agreements and dimensions of india’s foreign trade: food security, water and environment

insists to establish a fair and market oriented system through the process of negotiations of commitments on support and protection through operational rules and disciplines in the areas of market access, domestic support saged that progressive reduction in agricultural support and protection over an agreed period of time would result in correcting distortions in world agricultural markets resulting in greater r member countries particularly the developing There are many studies on impact of trade liberalization and WTO agreements. They show that the At present we are in the position to view seriously the impact of increased Indian foreign trade on three important and closely related areas that are food security, water and environment. Study on the impact of foreign trade on these areas becomes need of the hour on the following verely threaten by stagnant food production; shrinking in food production area; slow down in yield of food crops; overall slow down in the growth of agriculture; and, increase in absolute size of lability is decreasing sharply in the recent years; and, widespread water conflicts occur among water using sectors. Environment becomes another important area which is closely connected with the external trade. Because, every production discharges residual, and thus increased production with the view to export definitely brings pressure on the environment. Thus the study aims to view the size of external agriculture trade in the liberalized era through WTO agreement; to examine the change in direction d pattern the trade; to investigate impact of the trade on food security, water and environment; and to suggest policy measures to ensure the Indian food security, protect water resources and save the environment through trade is carried out in this direction. In order to get clear picture of impact of foreign trade on the above respect, a comparative analysis is done between two periods ie. before the implementation and
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First Nations Water Security: Security for Mother Earth

First Nations Water Security: Security for Mother Earth

knowledge enhance water security? In this paper, I inves- tigate the inter-relationships between First Nations and Western approaches to water, and the opportunities and barriers to collaborative water governance to support First Nations water security. I focus on the ways that traditional Anishinaabe perspectives on water within the Great Lakes region can support water security by providing important guiding principles that recognize, maintain, and make paramount critical social-ecological relationships that are necessary for more responsible natural resource and environmental management practices. Interviews with five Anishinaabe Elders conducted in 2010 and 2011 form the basis of the paper, and document sources fill gaps and elaborate on the themes and elements that emerged from the interviews. In several instances, included are comments from government actors and water “experts,” so-labeled for their extensive knowledge and experience with both Indigenous and Western approaches to water. The names of those who participated in the research are excluded to maintain the confidentiality assured during data collection. However, I do wish to acknowledge and express my deep sense of respect and gratitude for the honour of listening to the Elders and for learning from their water wisdom.
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Conceptual framework to ensure water security  in Ukraine

Conceptual framework to ensure water security in Ukraine

In general, for today the issue of the development of leg- islative, organizational, legal, scientific and methodological bases for the formation of water security of the country in terms of climate change and its impact on environmental and economic security of the state, becomes a key aspect and requires to be one of the national security issues followed by the further refining of scientifically grounded manage- ment decisions at the national level. Therefore, the Presidium of the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine appealed to the National Security and Defense Council of Ukraine with the proposal to consider at a meeting of NSDC the question “On the state and objectives for improving water security in Ukraine” as one of the priority issues of national security of Ukraine.
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Hydrological sciences and water security: An overview

Hydrological sciences and water security: An overview

Abstract This paper provides an introduction to the concepts of water security including not only the risks to human wellbeing posed by floods and droughts, but also the threats of inadequate supply of water in both quantity and quality for food production, human health, energy and industrial production, and for the natural ecosystems on which life depends. The overall setting is one of constant change in all aspects of Earth systems. Hydrological systems (processes and regimes) are changing, resulting from varying and changing precipitation and energy inputs, changes in surface covers, mining of groundwater resources, and storage and diversions by dams and infrastructures. Changes in social, political and economic conditions include population and demographic shifts, political realignments, changes in financial systems and in trade patterns. There is an urgent need to address hydrological and social changes simultaneously and in combination rather than as separate entities, and thus the need to develop the approach of ‘socio-hydrology’. All aspects of water security, including the responses of both UNESCO and the International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS) to the concepts of socio-hydrology, are examined in detailed papers within the volume titled Hydrological Sciences and Water Security: Past, Present and Future.
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Water Security Research and Policy: EPA’s Water Security Research and Technical Support Action Plan

Water Security Research and Policy: EPA’s Water Security Research and Technical Support Action Plan

federal agencies, national laboratories, non- governmental water industry research groups, and the private sector to build on existing strengths, share the workload, and take advantage of related research already underway. One example of this is the Distribution System Research Consortium, formed by NHSRC and WSD. The consortium meets twice a year to address research and technical support issues around distribution systems. Members include representatives from the Department of Homeland Security, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, and the U. S. Geological Survey, among others. Work in progress will also be shared in open forums such as journals, conferences, and workshops. If the information is sensitive, it will be shared through more limited venues such as the WaterISAC.
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Joint Digital Water Marking for Medical Images for Improving Security

Joint Digital Water Marking for Medical Images for Improving Security

Digital watermarking is one of the most efficient techniques to provide the highest secureness to the transmission of data like images or videos over the internet. Quite over the medical data which incorporates the EHR (Electronic Health Record) and medical images and conjointly the military data are crucial whose protection and privacy is extremely a lot of essential issues. To secure this data, the Digital watermarking plays a major role so that it will guarantee authentication, integrity, confidentiality and reliability. In the case of medical images, even a small change or modifications are strictly prohibited as it might lead to the incorrect diagnosis of the disease. Therefore, securing medical image is extremely essential. So as to provide high security for each patient’s data and also the various medical scanning images, we can employ the Digital Water Marking (DWM) technique. The DWM technique may be implemented in two ways: Spatial domain technique and Frequency domain technique. Although the spatial implementation is extremely straightforward and a very simple method, most of the implementations are done using frequency or transform/remodel domain strategies since it provides additional details and high effectiveness. The DWM may be implemented using numerous transform/remodel techniques like Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT), Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT), also with the combination of these remodel techniques. Nowadays the work is also extended using a combination of transforming/remodel and spatial domain techniques. In this article the Digital Water Marking is being implemented by employing a combination of a transform technique DWT and a spatial domain technique SVD to provide security to the medical images and also the system efficiency is checked for numerous attacks.
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Impact of water scarcity on food security at micro level in Pakistan

Impact of water scarcity on food security at micro level in Pakistan

More than 95 percent of available surface is used for irrigation in Pakistan (kamal, 2001). The Indus irrigates around 34 million acres of land on its plain (Tariq, 2002). The capacity storage of this system is low at only 150 m3 per capita per year: only 30 days of supply. The system has significant losses; both Mangla and Tarbela have lost about 25 percent of their capacity. The water losses from canal heads, water courses and within water courses are commonly believed to be two third of the total water losses. The losses of poor transmission and seepage of canals are estimated to be around 76 MAF (GOP, 2007). Another loss of 25 percent also occurs in the farm fields (Kamal, 2001). There might be many reasons for these losses such as power management of water resources, government inefficiency and negligence, minuscule social mobilization on the part of the community, distribution inequalities from head, and middle and tail areas of the water channels and the inability of water users to pay the taxes (Pakistan’s economy running dry, 2009). According to the World Bank, a very small percentage of the irrigation water users pay for the irrigation while the costs of maintenance, repair and rehabilitation of the water infrastructure are high. These costs are incurred to the general taxpayers. These taxpayers pay the cost plus interests and no one pays for the replacements (Kamal, 2009). Due to bad management, institutional constraints and inability of water users to pay for the maintenance, only 45 percent of cultivable land is cultivated .Therefore, 97 percent water allocated to the provinces is not utilized fully ( Tariq, 2005). Under this scenario crop productivity goes low at 0.13 kg per cubic meter which is the lowest productivity in the world per unit of water. The reality seems distressing in the national discourse of water (Kamal, 2009). Nevertheless, national discourse accentuates the need of constructing dams. This discourse is politically controversial among the provinces. Sind raises objections to the construction of Kalabagh dam project which was approved in 2008 and is in suspension up till now. The storage capacity of Kalabagh dam was estimated to be 8.1 MAF and the power generation capacity of the dam was estimated to be 45,000 MW. The project was envisaged to benefit $ 600 million in the context of irrigation and $ 1.5 billion in the context of hydropower (Sher Baz Khan, 2008). The need for the construction of the dam was argued on the basis of seven points (a) more storage capacity (b) more water for agriculture and irrigation (c) more flood control (d) more hydropower (e) more food security (f) more carry over from wet months to dry months and vice versa and (f) offsetting the loss of existing dams due to silting (Kamal, 2009).
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Developing and applying water security metrics in China: experience and challenges

Developing and applying water security metrics in China: experience and challenges

Chinese scholars usually defined “water security” as a state (and a capability) of sustainable utilization of water resources, adequate in both quantity and quality, for human well-being, socio-economic development and ecological conservation, and an acceptable level of risk of water-related disasters [6-13]. The key elements to water security in these definitions are similar to those defined by international institutions and researchers, e.g. Global Water Partnership [14], Asian Development Bank (ADB) [15], United Nations University [16], and Grey and Sadoff [17]. Since people have different perceptions of the adequacy of water quantity and quality and the acceptability of risk, Cheng et al. [7] argued that public perception of water security should also be part of the concept in addition to physical water security, which raised the same issue as discussed by OECD when developing a risk-based approach to water security [18]. Most recently, researchers from the Development Research Center (DRC) of the State Council, a major think-tank of the central government of China, have added peaceful and stable international relationships, with respect to transboundary rivers, to their definition of water security at the national level [19]. Similar concern over the impact of transboundary rivers on water security has also been discussed by international publications, e.g. [16,20]. Therefore, Chinese researchers generally share the same understanding of water security as their international peers.
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Water and Human Security

Water and Human Security

The internet’s initial mandate is still one of the best: to allow communication between researchers around the world to exchange information and enhance collaboration. The surfeit of primary data currently threatens an information overload in the developed world, while the most basic information can be lacking in the developing world. University programs such as the Institute of Earth, Oceans, and Space at the University of New Hampshire are working to ferret out useful global hydrological data, while encouraging greater collection and dissemination capabilities where they are lacking. Data availability not only allows for greater understanding of the physical world but, by adding parameters from the socio-political realm, indicators showing regions at risk in the future can be identified. Such projects are taking place for human security at the University of Victoria, and for indicators of water dispute at Oregon State University. Finally, universities are slowly recognizing that water is, by its nature, an exceptionally interdisciplinary resource and that the attendant disputes can only be resolved through active dialog among fields as diverse as science, law, economics, religion, and ethics. It is difficult enough to find university programs at the graduate level which adequately train students in water from a truly interdisciplinary perspective, allowing for exposure to both the science and policy of water resources (there are maybe four such programs in the entire United States) but there is no program which explicitly adds the international component.
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Security for Water Source of Mekong River and  Impacts on Vietnam National Security

Security for Water Source of Mekong River and Impacts on Vietnam National Security

Countries that share the Mekong River are using this river according to their interests, with their own strategies and exploitation plans. The impact of each country on this river has implications for other countries. Meanwhile, upstream countries with many advantages have taken full advantage to exploit for the purpose of their socio-economic development, even use these to threaten national security and dominate other countries in international relations. And the countries downstream have suffered the most severe consequences. Although countries have cooperated and shared to exploit and use, there are still many differences in benefits so it has not achieved much results. Moreover, in the future, increasing demand for electricity, fisheries and irrigation for agriculture may lead to conflicts. Therefore, water security is still a great risk to the national security of the countries concerned, including Vietnam.
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WATER IN THE CONTEXT OF SECURITY

WATER IN THE CONTEXT OF SECURITY

Abstract Economic losses caused by hydrological extremes – floods and droughts – have been on the rise. Hydrological extremes jeopardize human security and impact on societal livelihood and welfare. Security can be generally understood as freedom from threat and the ability of societies to maintain their independent identity and their functional integrity against forces of change. Several dimensions of security are reviewed in the context of hydrological extremes. The traditional interpretation of security, focused on the state military capabilities, has been replaced by a wider understanding, including economic, societal and environmental aspects that get increasing attention. Floods and droughts pose a burden and serious challenges to the state that is responsible for sustaining economic development, and societal and environmental security. The latter can be regarded as the maintenance of ecosystem services, on which a society depends. An important part of it is water security, which can be defined as the availability of an adequate quantity and quality of water for health, livelihoods, ecosystems and production, coupled with an acceptable level of water-related risks to people, environments and economies. Security concerns arise because, over large areas, hydrological extremes − floods and droughts − are becoming more frequent and more severe. In terms of dealing with water-related risks, climate change can increase uncertainties, which makes the state’s task to deliver security more difficult and more expensive. However, changes in population size and development, and level of protection, drive exposure to hydrological hazards.
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Resilience and water security in two outback towns

Resilience and water security in two outback towns

Aerial view of the Perth - Kalgoorlie water supply pipeline.. Level of situational awareness[r]

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The Reality of Food Security in the Arab World

The Reality of Food Security in the Arab World

Food security and water security are two identical and complementary elements. The missing of one affects directly the other. Food insecurity affects the development of a society, its welfare and its continuity. It may lead to displacement and migration of people, and the spread of multi- social phenomena. In addition, food insecurity leads to the confusion of the agricultural sector, thus it leads to an imbalance in food production because of the lack of the necessary protection for producers and workers and it may be repellent to investors. Some social phenomena fulminated in the past centuries; the most common one was famine that led to the usage of all social violence means to obtain food, as what happened in some African countries. Therefore, food security is regarded as a secure and safe element for people, due to its great value in the prosperity and welfare of the societies. It also protects the societies from any dangers that may annihilate people because of food insecurity. The availability of food for all members of the society is the responsibility of the state. There is a fascinating statement by Abu Dar (one of the Prophet Mohammad’s companion):" I am astonished from those who do not have the sustenance at home, why they do not go out to people wielding their swords."
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A blueprint for sustainable groundwater management in Balochistan, Pakistan

A blueprint for sustainable groundwater management in Balochistan, Pakistan

Currently, 85 per cent of the world’s human popu- lation live in the drier half of the Earth. All regions – particularly Africa – face serious freshwater chal- lenges, albeit in different contexts. Our water resources are under increasingly severe pressures from climate change and other global changes such as urbaniza- tion, intensified agricultural and industrial production, and population growth. Combined with the current economic and financial crisis, this situation endangers the significant progress achieved over recent decades in providing safe drinking water and adequate sanitation. Almost 800 million people still have no access to safe water; nearly 2.5 billion lack access to basic sanitation; and 6-8 million die each year from water-related disasters and diseases. Climate change is aggravating this situa- tion, as is the fact that almost 85 per cent of the world’s total wastewater is discharged without adequate or any treatment. Women, children and those living under conditions of poverty suffer most of the burdens caused by the water crisis. In some parts of the globe, they often walk for hours to fetch unsafe water, sometimes under life-threatening conditions, jeopardizing their chances for education. The water crisis contrasts with the goal of ‘water security’ – that is “the capacity of a population to safeguard access to adequate quantities of water of accept- able quality for sustaining human and ecosystem health on a watershed basis, and to ensure efficient protection of life and property against water-related hazards – floods, landslides, land subsidence, and droughts.” 2
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HESS Opinions "Urgent water challenges are not sufficiently researched"

HESS Opinions "Urgent water challenges are not sufficiently researched"

Tensions arise where problems of water scarcity, sanitation, food security, water pollution or extreme events occur. What type of research is required to prepare ourselves to deal with increasingly fierce competition over water between rival wa- ter users that seems inevitable in the near future? Table 10 shows that there is a clear fascination in the literature for wa- ter conflict, as there are many more research papers that men- tion water conflict in their title than there are papers on water cooperation. Table 11 shows that this skewedness is even more extreme in the research output of developing countries. Conflict rightfully attracts attention and requires to be un- derstood before it can be resolved. But the fact that there is more talk and thought about water conflict than about water cooperation may have a self-fulfilling effect. Is this focus
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