This study was conducted in some selected markets of Katsina State. The Primary Data used were obtained using Structured Questionnaires administered to 120 Grain distributors / marketers in the study area. Descriptive Statistics was used to analyze the data. The result showed that 63% of the Grain Distributors / marketers were between 15 – 35 years, it also pointed that 95% of them were males and 80% were married. Most of the distributors / marketers (68%) had a family size of 1 and 10, findings also showed that 55% of the respondents had acquired both Qur’anic and Adult education. The major mode of transportation used to convey grains was Motorcar / Lorries. The major crop (grain) supplied to the respective markets was maize. The yield market channels accessible to distributors were both (i.e. rural assemblers, Wholesalers and Retailers). Also the average distance covered by the distributors to the markets was 209 km. Distance, availability of transport and poor road conditions were identified as the major constraints being faced by the distributors / marketers in the study area.
Over the past two decades, various development approaches have been devised by policymakers, international development agencies, non-governmental organisations, and other stakeholders aimed at poverty reduction in developing countries. One of these strategies, which have become increasingly popular since the early 1990s, involves microfinance schemes which provide financial services in the form of savings and credit opportunities to the working poor (Johnson and Rogaly, 1997). Traditionally, the formal banking institutions have been serving only the needs of the commercial sector and providing loans for middle and upper income groups. Microfinance institutions (MFIs) have become increasingly involved in providing assistance to the economically active poor, especially women whose control of their modest increment in income savings is assumed to empower them to improve the conditions of their lives and their children (Woller, 2001). Microfinance has proved a powerful way to bring financial services to the poor, who may otherwise be excluded from it. The problems caused by informational asymmetries that are typical of credit markets are exacerbated in poor countries, because poor people lack collateral to secure their loans and the weak legal systems cannot secure enforcement if a client reneges on their loan payment. The poor are therefore typically unable to borrow from formal financial service providers. This lack of access can create persistent poverty traps and income inequality (Beck et al., 2007; World Bank, 2008). Microfinance has
perishable and high-value commodities. It has been reported that market arrivals have increased at a much higher rate than the growth in production, indicating a widening gap between the increase in marketed surplus and the number of markets (Chand 2012). The benefits received by the farmers by sale of agricultural produce in main and sub-yards of regulated markets vary from area to area because of the variation in their spread over the regions and availability of infrastructural facilities in the yards of these regulated markets (Acharya, 2004). Basic infrastructure facilities are the requirement for an agricultural market to prosper. Availability of different marketing infrastructural affects the choice of technology to be adopted, reduces the cost of transportation produces powerful impetus to production and also affects income distribution for small and marginal farmers by raising their access to the markets (Ahmed and Donovan, 1992). Infrastructure plays a strategic role in producing large multiplier effects in the economy with growth in agriculture (Mellor, 1976).
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The present study analyzes the spatial integration through cointegration analysis on the wholesale monthly prices of potato in five selected markets of Assam for the period January 2013 to December 2018. The results of the analysis revealed that markets under study are integrated. The Granger Causality Test reveals 1bi-directional and 8 uni-directional causations under different market situations. However, the study finds no cointegration between Sonitpur (Dhekiajuli) and Nagaon (Dhing) market. Kamrup Rural (Upharhali) market was identified as the leader market. The study suggests the need to focus on building an improved market information system, one that is able to disseminate timely market information about price, demand and supply of products as well as strengthen market infrastructure facilities inorder to increase the efficiency of potato markets in Assam.
Nankishore, 2014 supported increased levels of heavy metals in leafy vegetables from selected markets in Onyana due to atmospheric deposits. Leafy vegetables have the ability to absorb metals deposited on plant surfaces explored polluted environments. Although certain heavy metals (Cr, Zn, Mn, Cu and Fe) are essential components for various biological activities within the human body, elevated levels of these can cause numerous health consequences to mankind. In contrast, Pb, Cd, Hg, and As are non essential toxic element which are associated with many chronic diseases in humans. Lead can cause several unwanted effects such as disruption of the Biosynthesis of hemoglobin and anemia, a rise in blood pressure, kidney damage, miscarriages and subtle abortions, disruption of nervous systems, brain damage, decline in fertility of men through sperm damage, diminished learning abilities in children (Watt, 2009).
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Logistics management is an essential ingredient for organizations in gaining higher profitability. The goal of logistics management was to optimize the number, size, and geographical arrangement of plant and warehouse facilities, select transportation methods, and control distribution costs. There has been shortfall in the supply of cattle and its products due to the considerable spatial separation of production area from consumption area and other ancillary factor. Also, most livestock/cattle supplier in Nigeria do not employed effective logistics management which in turn negatively affect meat/cattle delivery to their customers, inventories, and profit performance. This study examined the effect of management information flow and warehousing management activities on profitability of cattle dealers in selected markets in Nigeria. This study employed descriptive survey design. The target population comprised 4, 248 cattle dealers across the eight approved Abattoir/ markets in Lagos State. A multi-stage sampling technique was adopted to select the sample size of 437. A close-ended well-structured survey questionnaire was adapted, validated and used for collecting data for the study. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficients for the constructs were 0.931. The response rate to the 437 copies of the questionnaire administered was 82.7%. Data were analyzed using structural equation model (SEM). Findings revealed that management of information flow had significant positive effect on the profitability of cattle dealers in selected cattle markets in Lagos State (β= 0.269, t=5.450, p- value<0.05). Warehousing management activities had significant positive effect on the profitability of cattle dealers in selected cattle markets in Lagos State β=0.391, t=9.085, p<0.05). The study concluded that logistics management had significant and positive effect on the profitability of cattle dealers in selected markets in Lagos State. It was recommended that internal structure and systems that allow free and timely flow of information between cattle dealers and primary producers/cattle farmers should be put in place. Further, there should provision adequate linkage between the different players involved in the meat production/ processing value chain. Also, a strategic approach to logistics management through embracing modern technology and employee training is recommended.
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So also, the results of the occurrence of different fungi isolated from the various selected markets in Gombe metropolis revealed highest frequency of occurrence by Aspergillus flavus with 19 (63%), followed by Aspergillus niger with 8 (27%), while, Aspergillus parasiticus showed the least frequency with 3 (10%). The highest frequency of occurrence by Aspergillus flavus might be attributed to a particular affinity of the Aspergillus flavus to the use of groundnut as a good substrate for growth. This correlates with the findings of Lanfont and Lanfont  that A. flavus have a particular affinity for groundnut as a substrate for growth. The result was also consistent with Chala, et al. who detected 5-11,900 μg/kg total aflatoxin from same samples suggesting heavy groundnut contamination by Aspergillus flavus and associated fungus in the region [28, 29].
as indicated by the trace and maximum Eigenvalues which were below their corresponding critical values at 5% significance level indicating that they shared the same stochastic trend in the system. In summary, it means that across the rural and urban markets of cowpea in the different region of the state, there was two cointegrating relationship. Since both tests across the rural and urban markets for cowpea confirmed that all the three selected markets under each scenario had two cointegrating vectors out of three cointegrating equations, it implies that in each scenario, the markets were well integrated and price signals were transmitted from one market to the other to ensure efficiency. The higher the number of cointegrating vectors the stronger the relationship between the variables in the system. Thus, Johnson cointegration test has shown that even though the cowpea markets under each case in the state are geographically isolated and spatially segmented, they were well-connected in terms of cowpea prices, demonstrating that the markets under each scenario
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This paper examined the effect of exchange rate fluctuations on economic growth considering the level of development of financial markets in selected developing countries over the period 1986 -2010. Our results suggest that financial development coefficient is negative and statistically significant at 95% level. This means that the effect of development of financial markets during the period 2010-1986 in selected developing countries on economic growth has been negative. Effectiveness of financial development on economic growth is not uniform across countries and across time. Levin et al. (2000) and De Gregorio and Guidotti (1995) have shown that effectiveness of financial development on economic growth depends on the level of financial development. That is, in developing countries, this effect may be negligible or statistically meaningless. The reason of the negative relationship between financial markets development and economic growth in developing countries is that the credits granted to the private sector include both the credits granted by private financial institutions, and the credits allocated by the central bank as well as state-owned banks. In developing countries, the share of public monetary institutions active in the money market is higher than that of private institutions. In these public financial institutions, credits are not granted based on the profitability of the project but as an imposition. Also, due to the existence of financial repression in these countries, the rates of facilities granted are much lower than the market rate. Therefore projects with lower profitability rates are also accepted despite the fact that they are not economical. Thus, in developing countries to pay these facilities will not necessarily increase the level of investment and economic growth. The direct effect of real exchange rate fluctuations
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The present study reveals that parasitic contamination rate in vegetables sold at Arba Minch local markets is significantly considerable. E. histolytica/dispar was the most frequently detected parasite. Vegetable types were determinant factors for variations in rate of contamin- ation that tomato was the most commonly contaminated vegetable. Vegetables directly supplied by farmers to vendors were more prone for contamination as com- pared to those supplied by large scale vendors. We rec- ommend to the local public health sector to establish a system for continuous monitoring of contamination of vegetables sold at local markets. The public health sector should also advocate to the community not to consume vegetables without adequate washing or proper cooking. Finally we call up further study considering seasonal var- iations in order to exhaustively assess associated factors.
The State of the Industry 2016 survey seeks your opinion on some of the challenges facing the tourism industry overall and, more specifically, in respect of changing markets, domestic tourism and issues associated with staff and skills. It also asks you what you think are the biggest opportunities in the current tourism industry. The survey concludes with a question about sustainability and gives you the opportunity to provide your own feedback about what you think of the State of the Industry. Even if your business/operations/responsibilities are not totally focused on tourism we would still like to know what you think about the State of the Tourism Industry in 2016.
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Abstract: The relationship between capital markets and macroeconomic variables is well documented in developed financial markets, but still developing in emerging financial markets. This paper looks at young financial markets from Central and Eastern Europe, focusing on two markets in the region: Romania and Hungary. Capital markets in these countries are analyzed from the perspective of two of their components: stock exchange markets and mutual funds markets and the effects of five macroeconomic variables (population, GDP/capita, inflation, unemployment, and savings) on the two components assessed. From a methodological point of view, the multiple regression analysis is employed for the period 2003-2019. The analysis is conducted in a comparative manner from two viewpoints: comparing stock exchanges with mutual funds markets and the role played by the macro-level determinants in the development of each and comparing the two national financial markets with one another. The study concludes that macroeconomic factors influence more the development of the stock exchanges than the development of mutual funds and that in the analyzed period, in Romania the impact of the macroeconomic factors on capital markets was stronger than in Hungary.
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The stock exchange organization is composed of different components such as the council of exchange. Two main deputies in the stock exchange organization supervise the activities of this financial institution and its subsidiaries. One is the deputy of supervision on the financial institutions of the stock exchange organization with the aim of arranging and improving the performance of the financial intermediaries and is responsible for a range of activities from issuing, suspending or canceling the license of the financial institutions to supervising the operations and inspecting their performance according to the provisions of the securities market act of the Islamic Republic of Iran. And the other is the deputy of supervision on the exchanges and issuers with the aim of organizing the activities of the issuers of securities, exchanges and markets and supervision on these activities. These activities include the activities in the primary and secondary market (Securities and Exchange Organization, 2013).
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This paper is focusing on the presentation of statistic exploratory procedures enabling the evaluation of the disparities in regional labour markets in the Czech Republic. Most of the data on labour markets are of multidimensional nature since both employment and unemployment can be described by a lot of various indicators oﬀ ered by the Ministry of Labour and Social Aﬀ airs of the Czech Republic and by the Czech Statistical Oﬃ ce. An analysis of the data collected hence, has to employ multivariate statistical procedures. The choice of indicators in the study presented has been carried out such that it can represent the phenomena basically aﬀ ecting the economic position of separate regions. The number of indicators analyzed has been limited by the level of applicability of the multivariate methods of statistical processing chosen. In order to reach the target of the paper the indicators of employment and unemployment have been applied to order the separate CR regions and to identify the regions outlying. To this end a composite indicator has been constructed by the so-called point method, one that is capable of aggregating the information supplied by all the separate indicators considered. The ﬁ rst section of the paper describes the way of construction of this aggregate indicator. In the next section then, some algorithms of the cluster analysis are introduced that have been employed to classify regional labour markets of the CR in more detail.
Finally, as noted, the market for technology literature sees intellectual property rights as defining the value of inventions, and so encourages suppliers to trade their technologies without fear of their value being expropriated. But recent work by Galasso, Schankerman and Serrano (2011) has identified a new source of profitable specialization along the vertical chain from invention to commercialization. They argue that markets for inventions may produce both private and social welfare gains if firms trade on the basis of their comparative advantage in patent enforcement. This gain stems from the fact that companies which are better at enforcing patent rights tend to resolve disputes without resorting to courts, and thus save on litigation costs (which can be substantial). Empirically, they find that traded patents are less likely to be litigated, which implies that markets for inventions induce firms to trade according to their comparative levels of comparative enforcement advantage.
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Some researchers argue that models for electricity pricing should encompass time-varying volatility and jumps in the electricity prices (Deng, 2000; Knittel and Roberts, 2001 and Escribano et al., 2002). As Goto and Karolyi (2003) point out, when demand for electricity increases, which in turn pushes up prices, there are greater incentives for more expensive generators to enter into the supply side, so some degree of mean-reversion is expected. The following collection of research takes account of jumps, spikes and mean-reversion in the spot electricity markets. Deng (2000) extends the commonly used Ornstein-Uhlenbeck mean–reversion process, which is borrowed from financial economics to assess the dynamics of spot electricity prices. Deng (2000) observes that the spot prices can be considered as a state variable or as a function of several state variables and can be suitably modelled by jumps and stochastic volatility processes. The change in price is a function of the deviation of the price from equilibrium (which consists of the long-run average price and the rate of mean-reversion) and a random volatility or jump intensity component (involving a standard Wiener process). This basic model is extended to a time-varying model by including systematic variations such as time-of-day and seasonal effects in the mean-reversion component. Using a number of models and assumptions (including mean-reversion, jump-diffusion and regime-switching), Deng (2000) aims to more accurately reflect the physical characteristics of electricity in commodity spot price behaviour models as a first step in applying a real options approach to valuing physical assets in the electricity industry. Deng (2000) demonstrates that the mean-reversion jump-diffusion models of the energy spot prices can be used to explain the high levels of implied volatility in the market prices of traded electricity options in the US markets.
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Whenever multiple markets do not respond to new information concurrently, one market predominates other and whenever these kinds of lead-lag relation comes into existence, the dominating market is referred as to facilitate price discovery. There is scrupulous factors influence price discovery for financial market for credit risk. Four predominant factors are liquidity, cost of transaction, credit ratings and maturities. Employing the equity as per defined time span, bond and CDS market data, it can be found that the various market segments such as stock market, bond market, credit derivative market and bond market these all are co-integrated for certain long term credit risk price discovery. For some small span of time, both stock market as well as credit derivatives market dominates the bond market for accomplishing credit risk price discovery. Then while, the credits risk price discovery affiliation amid stock market and credit derivatives market is uncertain in both circumstances of short term as well as long run.
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Fresh carrots were purchased from various markets located at different areas of Akure, Ondo State (Oja-oba, Isinkan, FUTA area and Shasha). Each sample was kept in different clean polythene bags and labeled appropriately according to the place of purchase and then taken to the Microbiology Research laboratory FUTA for analyses.
In modeling financial time series data, it is well known that most econometric models are unable to capture the required features due to the fact that they have characteristics exhibiting large values and usually not normally distributed and the variance of the errors not been constant thus known to be heteroscedastic. The ARCH model pioneered by Engle (1982) is mostly preferred in studies related to volatility clustering. The model assumes that large shocks in data series tend be followed by another large shocks within a period of time. With reference to Engle (1982), the ARCH model assumes conditional variance and also depends on certain key elements of information set in an autoregressive manner. Since the introduction of the ARCH model,modeling of volatility in financial time series has grown over the years, leading to different extensions to the original model. It is important to note that, multivariate GARCH (MGARCH) models aid in forecasting and estimating correlations and covariances that exist among the set of variables used into the study. MGARCH models specifically help in the estimation and forecasting of covariances and correlations and are time-varying in nature (Brooks, 2008). For the purpose of this study, the principal focus is on modeling the co-movements, risks between markets, shock transmission and correlation and among stock and foreign exchange markets, therefore imperative to consider the MGARCH models.
'financial' coverage in the news media and periodicals. Language limitations often proved a barrier but it was possible to obtain useful insights into depth of cover by puzzling out headlines, noting the length and content of articles and the volume of listings and tables. Respondents were able to give a view about the strength of recent public information developments and the standing of various titles among professionals. Their responses were analysed to test the hypotheses (a) that information generated by financial markets can act as surrogate for otherwise nonexistent or inaccessible economic and business information and (b) that data and analysis generated by journalistic, academic and other enterprise for consumption by private and institutional investors, creates positive spillovers in the form of information that improves general economic efficiency. 1.4.5. Market structure models
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