ABSTRACT : The importance of friction and wear control cannot be over emphasized for economic reasons and long- term reliability. The savings can be substantial, and these savings can be obtained without the deployment of investment. Tribology is crucial to modern machinery which uses sliding and rolling surfaces. This article describes the tribological behavior analysis for the conventional materials i.e. PTFE (Graphite), Nickel, Nickel Chrome, Molybdenum Disulphide and New nonmetallic material Nylon. Friction and Wear are the most important parameters to decide the performance of any bearing. In this paper attempt is made to check major tribological parameters for these five materials and try to suggest better new material compared to conventional existing material. After Test on wear machine we found that MoS 2 is best suitable for bearing applications because of its low wear rate, low frictional force,
Titanium alloys: Titanium alloys and their composites have the potential to reduce weight of the brake rotor disc component which is about 37% less than a conventional cast iron with the same dimensions and offering good high temperature strength and better resistance to corrosion . Aluminium-Metal Matrix Composite (AMC): Aluminium alloy based metal matrix composites (MMCs) with ceramic particulate reinforcement have shown great promise for brake rotor applications. These materials having a lower density and higher thermal conductivity as compared to the conventionally used gray cast irons are expected to result in weight reduction of up to 50-60% in brake systems. The repeated braking of the AMC brake rotor lowered the friction coefficient µ and caused significant wear of the brake pad. The friction properties of the AMC brake disc are thus remarkable poorer than those of conventional brake disc. After increasing hard particles content the result showed that the repeated braking operations did not lower the friction coefficient.
Variable geometry (VG) and wastegate mechanisms are commonplace within modern turbochargers and contain critical components without which the correct and efficient operation of a turbomachine would be affected. Such mechanisms rely upon components repeatedly and accurately moving against one another, even when subjected to extreme conditions such as high temperatures, a range of exhaust gas chemistries and in dry conditions. Therefore, the materials used within typical VG and wastegate mechanisms need to possess corrosion and oxidation resistance as well as the required mechanical properties at high temperatures. Conventional materials with such characteristics, however, do not necessarily possess adequate friction and wear behaviour. Hence, there is a desire to investigate the benefit of using alternative materials, such as nickel and cobalt based superalloys, but their use in these applications is limited by their cost. A coated base alloy provides a wider pool of possible solutions and the ability to achieve a more cost-effective solution. By taking into consideration the environments to which VG and wastegate components are subjected, a time efficient selection process was developed that takes engineering and purchasing requirements into consideration. The material and coating samples were subjected to different conditions which are typically experienced during turbocharger operation in order to understand their corrosion and oxidation behaviour, with the worst performing concepts removed from the testing matrix. Subsequently, tribology testing was conducted using the remaining concepts, at temperatures typical of turbocharger operation, and the friction and wear results were compared. All concepts were characterised by using confocal microscopy, high resolution microscopy, chemical analysis and nanoindentation in order to understand their performance. The results were compiled in a matrix in order to determine, from an engineering and purchasing perspective, which concepts were most suitable for application within high temperature, turbocharger-based, tribological environments.
Studying wear is characterized by many different aspects and it is mostly influenced by the complexity of materials interaction on a functional surface as well as by operation conditions. In machine elements, there is a gradual wear in the result of friction. This is considered to be an undesirable effect in most cases. Therefore, we have to search for the possibilities to prevent it thus extending the technical life of a component. Surfacing presents one of these possibilities. Searching for the possibility of cutting the costs of changing the worn or damaged machine elements has led to the development of a wide range of surfacing technologies. Increasing the safety and extending the technical life of machines and devices are important requirements of modern technology. We can also add the requirement for simple maintenance, as well as simple and less time- consuming repairs in solving the random failures or operation accidents. 
Tzeng and Chen (2007)  described the application of the fuzzy logic analysis coupled with Taguchi method to optimise the precision and accuracy of the high-speed electrical discharge machining (EDM) process. Rajya- lakshmi et al. (2012)  used fuzzy logic integrated with Taguchi method for optimization of process parame- ters of wire electrical discharging machine. Sarfaraz Khabbaz et al. (2009)  applied a simplified fyzzy logic approach for materialselection in mechanical engineering design. Vimal Sam Singh, et al. (2009)  worked on modelling and analysis of thrust force and torque in drilling GFRP composites by multi-facet drill using fuzzy logic. Zadeh, L. (1965)  explained the fuzzy sets, information and control. Kao C.C. et al., (2008)  in- troduced Fuzzy Logic Control of Micro-hole Electrical Discharge Machining, Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering. Lin J. L. et al., (2005)  used grey-fuzzy logic for the optimization of the manufacturing process.
Thermal energy storage using renewable sources or waste heat will reduce CO2 emission and lower the need for costly peak power and heat production capacity by replacing the use of fossil fuels. In Europe, the replacement of fossil fuel with renewable sources is estimated to save 1.4 million GWh of power for heat production per year while avoiding 400 million tonnes of CO2 emissions in the building and industrial sectors by more exten- sive use of heat and cold storage . A THS system for instance can be designed for seasonal (e.g. 4 months) or short-term (e.g. 3 – 4 days) storage of solar energy. At present, while SHS are com- mercially available, the PCM LHS and THS-based storage systems are mostly under research and development and demonstration. THS systems in particular need improvements in the stability of storage performance, which is associated with the material prop- erties . This paper is aiming to investigate thermochemical materials which are suitable for long-term heat storage for build- ing application driven by solar energy for an open system. The potential systems will be briefly discussed in the next section. Then, this paper will review THS materials, of which the pub- lished literature on thermochemical materials using salts mixture impregnated into host matrices being the main interest of the present research. Aiming to optimize the performance of THS materials, this paper discusses innovative nano-composite materi- als or salts in matrix (SIM) using MgCl 2 -MgSO 4 , CaCl 2 -LiCl and
This study examines the criteria of materialselection in digital museums. The literature review includes summarized general guidelines of decision making for digitization in recent years. However, there is no previous research of this topic found specifically for digital museums. Therefore, the investigator created an evaluation form and selected thirty art museum websites as the research objects for testing the application of these guidelines. The results show that those criteria that were used in digital libraries are not all applied in digital museums. It was also found that the digitization percentages of pictures and sculptures are much higher than the other material categories in art collection of the thirty museums. Another conclusion was drawn that the art pieces with higher popularity tend to be first and most digitized, regardless other factors.
A space frame chassis uses a series of straight small diameter tubes to achieve strength and rigidity with minimal weight. The technique was formalisd during the Second World War, when they were used for the construction of fugalarge frames in combat aircraft. This design was first developed by Barnes Wallis who was an English aviation engineer. The advantages that the spaceframe offered to the the aircraft, was that it allowed the aircraft to obtain large amounts of damage to certian areas while still retaining enough strength to remain airborne. After the war in 1947, Dr Ferdinand Porsche used the concept to build his Cisitalia sports car. Soon after leading vehicle manufacturers such as Lotus and Maserati adopted the idea to produce race cars, these cars were nicknamed birdcage racing cars because of the multitude of tubes. Modern race cars are now constructed out of a single monocoque frame made from expensive fibre composite materials.
9. Electronic selection criteria: Like print materials, digital titles added to the collection need to match the needs of our clientele; be of appropriate scope, content, depth, and quality; be affordable; the content must be timely; be bibliographically accessible; and in the appropriate language, etc. It is also presumed that there are no technical reasons why the Libraries cannot provide access, e.g., doesn’t use a proprietary browser, permits printing, etc., and that their use by library patrons and librarians will not require an inordinate amount of training.
cleaning system for removing tar and dust particles. The tar and dust particles are packed inside the filter material (wood shaves), so the weight of the filter material will be increased. In order to find out the concentration of tar present in the producer gas, initially the mass of the filter material should be noted before filtration. Bypass the producer gas through the filter material and check the weight of filter material after filtration, so that the tar content absorbed in the filter material can be analyzed by differentiating the weight before and after filter.
Materials are the stuff of design. From the very beginning of human history, materials have been taken from the natural world and shaped, modified, and adapted for everything from primitive tools to modern electronics. This renowned book by noted materials engineering author Mike Ashby and industrial designer Kara Johnson explores the role of materials and materials processing in product design, with a particular emphasis on creating both desired aesthetics and functionality. The new edition features even more of the highly useful "materials profiles" that give critical design, processing, performance and applications criteria for each material in question. The reader will find information ranging from the generic and commercial names of each material, its physical and mechanical properties, its chemical properties, its common uses, how it is typically made and processed, and even its average price. And with improved photographs and drawings, the reader is taken even more closely to the way real design is done by real designers, selecting the optimum materials for a successful product.
Considering the requirement of the company a hydraulic punching machine of 2.5 tones capacity is designed in this work. The C frame type of the press is selected as is mostly used by all manufacturers. The die mounting plate & hydraulic cylinder mounting plates are also designed in this work. Selection of hydraulic cylinder, pump & electric motor is done. The piston rod of the hydraulic cylinder is checked for any bending failure as per the references given by manufacturer. Analysis of the machine frame will be done in the further work.
Abstract: The primordial method to prevent, avoid and/or mitigate the deterioration of desalination plants (DP) materials is the selection of chemical and mechanical resistant materials to the DP operation conditions. Three different types of saline waters (SW) are treated in DPs: sea water, brackish water (BW) and brines, a byproduct that showed be disposed to avoid ecological problems. A DP is a complex, organized structure managing physicochemical processes: compression, filtration, evaporation, condensation, and circulation, involve diverse equipment, e.g. pumps, pipelines, turbines, heat exchangers, deaerators, storage tanks, valves, control and flow instruments. Metallic, plastic and composite materials are applied for the manufacture of these equipments. The surface of DP equipment should be kept clean and smooth applying sanitation regulation to prevent sealing and fouling difficulties. It is convenient to attach a corrosion technician at a DP to manage a corrosion laboratory, to expose corrosion test specimens of new materials and to control the corrosive factors of the DP fluids, to avoid expensive damaging corrosion occurrences. Modern DPs are built from correctly selected CRA and CRM. Application of recognized and approved technology of corrosion protection and control should provide prolonged equipment service life and freedom form corrosion. Correct operation and maintenance of a DP will assure the efficiency and economic profitability of the desalination industry (DI) rand provide prolonged equipment service life and freedom from corrosion.
Many companies have developed guidelines to ensure that environmental considerations are integrated into the packaging design process. Their goal has been to minimize potential environmental impacts associated with the disposal of the packaging at the end of the life cycle and with the conservation of natural resources. These principles led to the creation of the "packaging design checklist", one of the best tools currently available to designers. The checklist is a guideline that inquires about how the package was conceived in order to determine whether all the considerations from the environmental point of view were taken. Unfortunately, this has not yet been established as a standard document and in many cases, relevant information is excluded from the list. Therefore, it is important to consider whether these checklists are really effective. For instance, it is unclear whether it would be possible to measure the full environmental impact solely through the use of such checklists. Most likely, the checklist is to be considered a good initial tool but materialselection for sustainable packaging requires a more comprehensive evaluation, carefully weighing measures such as waste management and disposal at the end of life. Furthermore, even though the tool might exist, many times the information required to answer the checklist is not available to the person filling it. Lack of data is one of the major obstacles when including environmental considerations in the development of a packaging solution.
Each school shall maintain a library-media program that includes books and other print materials, multimedia materials, online Internet resources and information technology that support the curriculum. A certified library-media specialist will be responsible for overseeing the library-media program, under the supervision of the Superintendent. As with instructional materials, the Board delegates responsibility for selection of library-media materials and technology and Internet resources to the school system’s professionally trained staff, subject to the criteria and
In the preliminary design phase, the candidate materials are selected based on the primary performance requirements as de- scribed by the performance metrics defined herein. These can- didate materials need to be further filtered based on other con- siderations such as maximum actuation temperature which is also limited by the yield/fracture strength of the materials at the microscale, power requirements which are determined by the electrical property (i.e., resistivity) of the materials, heat dissi- pation which is dictated by the thermal properties (thermal con- ductivity and emissivity) and flow physics (convective effects) and the residual stresses developed during micromachining pro- cesses. Besides these design constraints, application specific re- quirements such as response time, sensitivity and linearity will also have a bearing on the selection of the materials. However, for many applications, there is likely to be a finite, small tem- perature limit, , which is well within the capabilities of almost all the materials explored. For such applications the process described herein is directly applicable.
Abstract: Polymers reinforced with synthetic fibers such as glass, polyester, acrylic, nylon, rayon, acetate, orlon, Kevlar bear high mechanical properties compared to natural fibres, but their adverse effects, such as peak initial costs, chemical reactivity with other materials and not suitable for some (non-efficient) structural forms, reduce demand. We are now switching gears from synthetic to natural fibers as the natural fibers are being overplayed over synthetic fibres. Here we focus primarily on testing mechanical properties such as tensile and bending. The specimens must be cut in accordance with the dimensions specified by the ASTM machine standards. The material properties and variation of the materials can be studied by changing the percentage volume composition of the fiber to the resin. The weighted ratios are taken as 40:60, 30:70, 20:80, 10:90 as the basis for making a composite. In the present work, we use the 235 * 165 * 5 dimensional mold in mm with natural fiber for reinforcement as a Palmyra fiber. To make the composite, the other materials such as Epoxy Resin(LY556) and hardener(HY951) must be added. Resin may also be called PMC(Polymer Matrix Composite). It is possible to resolve the tensile and bending properties of various composites and to draw a comparison of properties between the composites.
The focus of this research is in the area of Selection of Material Handling Equipment in Pump industry to reduce manufacturing cycle time, and cost of manufacturing. Various Material Handling Equipments are used in different shops of Pump industry. For selecting appropriate Material Handling Equipment, it is felt that some Multi Criteria Decision Making Methods must be used due to their ability of converting a complex problem to a paired comparison. These methods are based on some relative Criteria and Sub-criteria. Certain methods such as; Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP) and Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) have studied for solving the problem of Material Handling Equipment selection in different Pump industry. For solving these problems, some criteria (Material, Move, and Method) are selected. The main conclusions drawn from this study are that, Method criteria is more important for selecting Material Handling Equipment, and Conveyor System is more efficient and accurate Equipment for Handling the Material in shop floor of any Pump industry. Today various Pump industries are present in India for manufacturing variety of Pump. In Pump Industry proper and accurate handling of material is very necessary for reducing cost of manufacturing, and manufacturing cycle time. It is also important for increasing the capacity of production, and for improving the working conditions. From the study of this paper author has concludes that, Various Material Handling Equipments such as: Conveyors, Industrial Trucks, Cranes and Hoists are used in Pump Industries. For selecting the best equipment, certain Multi Criteria Decision Making Methods (based on different criteria and sub-criteria) are employed. These methods based on pair wise comparison matrices and after calculating the weights of all selected alternatives, it can be concluded that, the Method criteria is more important for selecting Material Handling Equipment, and Conveyor System is more efficient and accurate Material Handling Equipment for any Pump Industry.
Supplier selection is a kind of Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) problem, which has been a growing research area since past few decades. Researchers and practitioners to evaluate the suppliers/vendors have already proposed several effective techniques. The background of this study is based on the previous literature, questionnaire and interview with the experts in the construction industry.