Because this research focuses on brand management, rather than product cat- egories themselves, brandpersonality or stereotypical product-user image stu- dies are more appropriate and relevant than product image studies. Of these two, more theoretical support has been provided for stereotypical product-user image studies. For example, Aguirre-Rodriguez et al .’s  meta-analysis found that “brand-as-person” evaluations showed a stronger self-congruity effect than ste- reotypical product-user image evaluations; however, Fang, Li, Mizerski and Soh  note that self-congruity patterns found in brand-as-person studies may be exaggerated because in the majority of these studies, brandpersonalitycongruity is the only independent variable and therefore its effect may be partially ac- counted for by other variables not studied. Additionally, Helgeson and Supphel- len  found that self-congruity and brandpersonality are empirically discrimi- nant and affect brand attitudes independently of each other. This suggests that the two concepts are not equivalent and studies which measure self-congruity defined as brandpersonality or brand-as-person may be conflating the two concepts.
Self-congruity’s impact on brand loyalty, customer-brand satisfaction, brand preference and choice: Schiffman & Kanuk (2000) advocate that consumers purchase and consume brands with personality attributes that closely match their own self-images. In addition Aaker (1999) states that consumers express their identity by electing brands with personalities that match their own personalities. Today, brandpersonality is an attractive and appealing concept in the field of marketing, which has warranted such an overwhelming focus over recent years. Brandpersonality symbolically has been considered as an instrument that facilitates consumer self-expression (Aaker, 1997; Escalas & Bettman, 2005; Johar, Sengupta & Aaker, 2005). Jamal & Goode (2001) revealed that self-congruity is a strong predictor of satisfaction and Park & Lee (2005) posit that there exists a positive influence of congruence between the brand’s personality attributes and consumers’ self-concept, pertaining to a consumer’s satisfaction towards the selected brand, their brand preference and brand loyalty. A myriad of research has established the fact that, when congruency is high between brandpersonality and consumers’ self-concept, this tends to have a more favourable effect on brand preferences, brand loyalty, brand attitudes, evaluation of brands, purchase intentions and customer-brand satisfaction. Ergo, the more consumers’ purchase brands with personalities that are congruent with themselves the more satisfied and loyal they will be to that particular brand, since it expresses who they are and how they would like to see themselves in the future. According to Kim, Han & Park (2001), the more consumers can express their self-concepts through identifying with a brand, the more likely they are to consistently use the brand
Results of study 1 revealed that the majority of the interviewees have ever desired, intended or purchased luxury fashion brands before, but most of them claimed that these brands are not affordable on a regular basis. The most important personality factors that play a role when intending to purchase high-class designer brands were found to be self-identity and need for uniqueness. Price, quality and price-quality relationship were found to be the most frequent motivations or barriers when making decisions to purchase or not. The findings of study 2 showed that self-congruity and need for uniqueness are the most central predictors of consumers´ purchase intentions towards luxury fashion brands. Therefore, the objective of marketers is to increase the congruency of the brandpersonality for their brands with the self-image of their target customers. Moreover, marketers should keep in mind that uniqueness is one of the most important personality traits when making purchase decisions of luxury fashion brands, so that advertisements should show the extraordinary and individual personality of brands.
Subsequently, researchers have linked consumer behaviour to the construction of self-identity (Elliott and Wattanasuwan 1998). Although some early researchers attempted to associate personality with self-identity in the hope that they could find a ‘match’ between personality and brand or product image (Evans 1959; Tucker and Painter 1961; Westfall 1962, among others, see the discussion in Chapter 3.2.1), they did not stress the role of self-identity. According to Sirgy (1982), this absence of self- identity in their theorising of consumer personality work may have been the reason that no strong correlations had been found (p.283). To support Sirgy’s argument, Grubb and Hupp (1968) found that, by studying the car product category (i.e. Pontiac series and Volkswagen), car owners perceived a great similarity between their self- image and the image of other car owners of the same brand (p.60). On the other hand, they perceived themselves to be very different from the car owners of the competing brand. The successful matching between self-identity and product or brand image is referred to as self-congruency (or self-congruity) model (Sirgy et al. 1991).
The brand-consumer relationship might take a number of forms, depending on the personality of consumers and the manner in which the individuals develop relationships (Fournier, 1998). Fajer and Schouten (1995) for example describe five stages in friendship, from potential friends (brand trying), casual friends (brand liking), close friends (multi-brand resurgent loyalty), best friends (brand loyalty) and crucial friends (brand addiction). Ji (2002) studied the type of relation that children establish with brands. Ten types of relations between children and brands were identified: ‘first love’, ‘true love’, ‘fixed marriage’, ‘secret admirer’, ‘good friends’, ‘best buddies’, ‘old acquaintances’, ‘acquaintances’, ‘one night stand’ and ‘enemies’. Fournier (1998) described the association with brands in voluntary versus imposed, long term versus short term, public versus private, formal versus informal and symmetric versus asymmetric types of relationships. The relationship with a brand can grow to a level where consumers may form a passionate emotional attachment to brands that is characterized by brand love (Carrol & Ahuvia, 2006). In this stage, brands are love marks consumers are committed to, and feel empathy and passion towards them, as they love and respect them (Pawle & Cooper, 2006).
Self-congruity is made up of four dimensions, namely actual self, ideal self, social self and ideal social self (Sirgy & Su, 2000). An actual self-congruent brand is perceived as one that matches who the customer really is while an ideal self-congruent brand would be one that matches who the customer wished to be (Aaker, 1999; Rauschnabel & Ahuvia, 2014). A social self-congruent brand is perceived to match who the consumer is perceived to be in social terms or by other people while an ideal social self-congruent would be one that matches who the consumer wishes to be perceived by other people (Sirgy, 1985). Past literature (Sirgy, 1982; Roy & Rabbanee, 2015; Rauschnabel & Ahuvia, 2014; Saenger, Thomas, & Johnson, 2013) shows that a positive relationship exists between the brandself-congruence and the brand outcome. An individual would feel more self-congruent when his/her self-concept is the same as the brand’s personality. Consumers tend to love a brand more when the brand enhances their social self, or when the brand reflects their inner self (Carroll & Ahuvia, 2006). Brand love shows how much the passionate emotional attachment a satisfied consumer has for a particular trade name. It is enhanced when self-congruity with a brand is higher (Wallace et al., 2017). It has also been theorised that consumers become more attracted to brands which are more congruent with who they are (Rahschnabel & Ahuvia, 2014). Based on this, the following hypothesis is formulated:
Building on the seven core dimensions of brand love developed by Batra et al. (2012) and the Big Five personality dimensions (Costa & McCrae, 1992) Rauschnabel, Ahuvia, Ivens & Leisching (2015) aimed at empirically revealing the personality of brand lovers. As Batra et al. (2012) showed, brand love is no stable, univariate state of mind but is rather variable with regard to its level of intensity. Consequently, Rauschnabel et al. (2015) decided to search the key to a better understanding of brand love’s variability in the likewise diverse concept of human personality. Results showed that extraversion, a personality trait entailing a high need to form interpersonal relationships, was significantly related to brand love (complementary effect). Moreover, neurotic respondents with a tendency to be less socially successful showed an increased level of brand love (compensatory effect). Although only partial, results indicate that consumers form love relationships with brands for a certain purpose, no matter if compensatory or complementary in nature. This insight should motivate consumer research to further explore the antecedents of brand love as a better understanding of the variability of brand love can lead to more valuable managerial outcomes (Batra et al., 2012). Puzakova et al. (2009) suggest, that connecting the concept of anthropomorphism and its antecedents to a consumer context might contribute to a deeper comprehension of consumer-brand relationships.
Individual will experience higher congruity as a result of higher satisfaction where product image and personality perfectly suit their self-image or self-concept (Cowart et al., 2008). However, this study is on innovativeness in the new product purchase that is suitable for fashion, innovative technology and lifestyle products that meet sophisticated consumer. Thus, purchase new smart phone with extra functions or newly-launched branded apparel link to a symbolic consumption. Every pieces of item has a symbolic implication that will suit individual self-images (Govers and Schoormans, 2005). Self-image congruence is a statement of consumers' self- concept (actual self and ideal self). Therefore self-congruity is commonly used to display self-image congruence (Sirgy et al., 2008) this sight has been test in some studies. Self-congruity provide valid evident with consumers’ brand association and perceived quality for sportswear products among teenagers (Lu and Yingjiao, 2015). Self- congruity influences perceived quality for generation Y consumers on ready-to-wear products that form stylistic identity (Erdogmus and Isil, 2012).
Being the second largest sportswear market in the world, the Chinese market plays a very important role in the sportswear industry. The major global sportswear brands all have presence in the Chinese market and actually are dominating the market there. However, contradictory, while the global brands are enjoying the market, Chinese domestic sportswear brands have been experiencing a collective slow-down in their sales and market share. And competitions among the major global brands have been very intense. The underperformance of the Chinese domestic brands is believed to be due to several reasons. This study was designed to examine Chinese young consumer’s behavior for sportswear products from the self-congruity perspective. It was proposed that a high degree of self-congruity would lead to more positive brand evaluation, which, in turn, would enhance consumers’ brand loyalty. Specifically, this study was designed with the following purposes: 1) to test the influence of self-congruity on Chinese young consumers’ brand evaluation and brand loyalty; 2) to compare the difference between global brands and Chinese domestic brands in terms of consumers’ self-congruity assessment, brand evaluation and brand loyalty; and 3) to test the influence of personality traits, particularly, public self-consciousness, on Chinese young consumers behavior toward sportswear in terms of self-congruity assessment, brand evaluation, and brand loyalty.
CUSTOMER SATISFACTION AND LOYALTY: Newman and Werbel (23) and by Kasper (24) hypothesized in their papers that customer satisfaction is often used as a predictive measurement of future consumer purchases. Satisfied customers are more likely to resort to repeating purchases in the time of actual instance, as reported by Zeithaml et al., in their studies (25). Moreover, highly satisfied customers will convey their success stories of satisfaction and directly recommend that others try the source of satisfaction, as stated in the studies conducted by Reynolds & Arnold (26) and Reynolds and Beatty (27). Fitzell suggested that such satisfied customers shall become less receptive to the competitor’s offerings (28). Whereas, Ball et al, (29), Copeland (30) observed in their study that the customer loyalty is demonstrated by repeated purchase. In practical terms, firms want repeated purchases mainly because such behaviour in consumers can apparently show the customer preference for a brand or product, as stated by Bowen and Shoemaker (31).
It is found from the above conceptual analysis that brand identity may positively influence the store image in multi brand store. Similarly, all the important variables of brand identity i.e. reputation, relevance, personality, performance, and relationship may also be positively related to band identity. So, it means if retailers want a clear brand identity in consumer’s mind they have to work on all important variables of brand identity so that consumers must get the best performance and match with their personality with the chosen brand. Gone are the when command was with the marketers. With the open up economy in India the customer has become the king. Tough competition with fast changing marketing scenario along with brand switching has really made it difficult on the part of the marketer to really find brand loyal customer. Thus, higher the strength of the relationship between brand identity and store image it will definitely lead to higher store loyalty. An organisation having all the good network, superior products etc also sometimes fails to convey the core benefits of its product. Value of any firm or its customer can only be created there is a proper understanding between the message originating from the firm is properly understood by its customer.Thus, brand identity is a company specific variable which send an encode message which is decoded by customer in the form of its store image and finally end in store loyalty.
measurement techniques are likert rating technique, ranking techniques and pick-any techniques. The likert rating techniques are applied for rating of brands in 5- or 7- likert scale. The ranking technique is applied when brands ranked relative to competitors associations to a particular attribute. Pick-any technique indicates the association with the brand rather than the degree of associations. The technique can be used to associate multiple brands with same attributes. Brandpersonality is also a construct of barnd equity and set of human charecteristics associated with a brand (Aaker, 1997). Aaker (1997) developed five subdimensions of brandpersonality namely sincereity, excitement, competency, sophistication and rugedness. But a free choice method is applied in case of brandpersonality (Romaniuk, 2008), which is more appropriate for a greater variety of trait association. Brand trust scale developed by Ballester D.E. (2003) defined brand trust as a feeling of security by the consumer in his/her interaction with a brand. Brand love scale developed by Albert et.al. (2009) is also considered as a construct for measuring brand equity. There are various dimensions like uniqueness, pleasure, intimacy, idealization, duration, memories etc. are considered for measuring brand love.
A BSTRACT : Nowadays, brandpersonality is one of the most studied concepts regarding the brand-consumer relationship. However, the antecedents of this concept have received little interest from researchers. Our empirical investigation, applied to a sample of 309 Tunisian customers of three mobile telephony operators, shows that the perception of a brandpersonality depends on the level of self-congruence with some components of brand image. Functional congruence that assesses the matching between utilitarian performances of products and customers’ needs is also shown to influence brandpersonality. The results of our research also confirm that self-image congruence has a significant effect on functional congruence. In theoretical terms, this work contributes in a better understanding of the way brandpersonality (and so brand image) is formed in the spirit of a customer. It also confirms that brandpersonality, self-image congruence and functional congruence play a significant role in enhancing brand loyalty. The extracted results also present to marketing managers in the mobile telephony sector and in other sectors, precise recommendations for the implementation of sound and successful brand, differentiation and communication strategies.
partner” enables the application of interpersonal theories to the consumer-brand context. For example, based on Sternberg’s (1986) triangular love theory, Shimp and Madden (1988) make a case for how it can be adapted to characterize consumer-object relations (CORs). CORs refer to the relationship between consumers and consumption objects (product, brands, stores, etc.), which can range from antipathy, to slight fondness, leading up to love (analogous to person-person relations). They further propose a liking-yearning-commitment framework to describe the nature of interactions between consumers and objects. Specifically, “liking” refers to feelings such as closeness, connectedness, and bondedness. At the positive extreme of the liking continuum, the consumer treats the object as an old friend in his/her life, or a part of his/her personal identity, self image, and self esteem; while at the negative extreme, the consumer may explicitly dislike or even hate the object. “Yearning” means to have an earnest or strong desire for an object. Like liking, both positive and negative yearning may occur in various consumption contexts. For example, a Nike fan may be constantly longing for the latest model of its running shoes. In contrast, a consumer may tremble at the thought of going to a restaurant where she had previously encountered a terrible experience. Finally, “commitment” characterizes the cognitive dimension of consumer-object relations. It has two aspects: in the short term, commitment indicates the consumer’s decision to love the object, and in the long term, it implies the dedication to maintain that relationship.
The findings of this research have several practical implications. The apparel brands like other business having main purpose to make profit improve performance and remain successful, which is not possible without the trust attachment of customers with a particular brand. The brandpersonality positively and significantly impact on customer trust and customer’s attachment with brand. The findings of this research study will be helpful for apparel sector in order to improve and develop their brand’s personality with aim to develop customer’s trust on brand which ultimately leads to brand attachment. Furthermore, consumer’s self-congruence plays a moderating role and impacts the relationship of brandpersonality and brand trust. The important and theoretical implication of this study is the mediating effect of brand trust that increases the customer’s attachment with the brand and also contributed in literature. There is not any study previously (according to researcher knowledge) about the moderating effect of consumer’s self- congruence on the relation of brandpersonality and brans trust. The research findings will significantly contribute in both practical and theories in future.
Nowadays, in an increasingly competitive market with more and more brand logos, it is more important than ever that companies differentiate themselves from competitors. Recent changes in the field of marketing, such as digitalization and globalization make it harder for companies to gain competitive advantage. As a result, marketing strategies made a huge shift from product centred strategies to more value centred strategies that focus on the brands’ symbolic meaning (Herbst & Merz, 2011; Keller, Apéria & Georgson, 2008; McCracken, 1986; Scott, 1994). To satisfy the consumers’ needs and wants effectively, companies distinguish their brands by creating a unique brandpersonality. Brandpersonality - which refers to the set of human characteristics associated with a brand - is represented by the following five core dimensions: sincerity, excitement, competence, sophistication and ruggedness (Aaker, 1997). Personifying a brand by giving it human personality traits plays a crucial role in building a strong brand and to strengthen customer loyalty (Allen, Boerum, Olsen & Dean, 1995). Many companies use brandpersonality as a core of their marketing strategy to reach a specific target audience and to gain more competitive advantage. For example, Dove is a well-known brand that positioned themselves as sophisticated brand because their campaigns focus on ethics, authenticity, simplicity and purity. Whereas, high-end luxury brands as Gucci and Louis Vuitton are great examples of sophisticated brands. These brands distinguish themselves as elegant and upper class (Rintamäki, Kanto, Kuusela & Spence, 2006). Studies in the field of brandpersonality show that consumers associate brands with a wide variety of human brandpersonality traits, including those associated with basic demographics as gender. Following up on Aaker’s brandpersonality dimensions, Grohmann (2009) added two distinct brandpersonality dimensions consisting of brand masculinity and femininity, to the existing brandpersonality dimensions of Aaker (1997).
Batu Caves have become famous when the limestone hills were recorded by colonial authorities in 1878. It was promoted as a place of worship and religious attraction. This study aims to find out the visitor satisfaction towards marketing mix (4P’s) and the destination image of Batu Caves. The data were derived from self–administered questionnaire consisted of structured questions related to the listed attributes. The survey was distributed during November 2016. The statistical package for social science (SPSS20) was used to analyze the data. Results showed that most of the respondents were satisfied with the Batu Caves marketing 4Ps, and had a favorable overall destination image and their visit was valuable. However, some of the tourists mentioned their negative feeling about the destination due to the maintenance activities and covering the lord Murugan Statue. Recommendations were made to increase the awareness and marketing campaign to attract more tourists, especially during the holy Thaipusam celebration.
analysis of data from 179,395 consumers across 35 countries. Essay 2 continues in a similar trajectory with an expanded data set that incorporates cultural and institutional dimensions. As a whole, this dissertation stands to make three main contributions. First, this work quantifies the average link between consumer-brand relationships and customer brand loyalty, and identifies which of three types of consumer-brand relationships (i.e., primarily affect-based vs. identity- based vs. trust-based) are relatively better at boosting loyalty. This also allows me to shed light on convergence and divergence among various brand relationship strength metrics and their downstream consequences. Thus, I also contribute to the branding domain by systematically evaluating consumer-brand relationship metrics in the context of customer brand loyalty. Second, I identify a series of variables (i.e., consumer, brand, relationship, and methodological characteristics) that moderate these effects, providing theoretically important information about when and where each brand relationship type appears to be relatively more effective, which also implies a series of actionable recommendations for marketing managers. Finally, this dissertation documents a series of country-level cultural and institutional variables (e.g., indulgence vs. restraint, voice and accountability) that exert a moderating influence on the CBR-loyalty link, providing an explanatory perspective on how and why particular consumer-brand relationships promote loyalty better in some cultural and institutional contexts than others.
The most critical point in each industry was concentrating on increasing consumer purchase intentions. In fact, purchase intentions reflects a passion to continuing to using a specific brand (Tariq et al., 2013). In assessing the purchase intentions of Halal brand with an assist to understanding the consumer need and their expectation (Shaari and Arifin, 2010). Intention to purchase is a process to determine and view consumer behavior (Lin and Lin, 2007), and it is related to the willingness to purchase, consume, and high consideration in particular brand (Shah et al., 2012). A previous study indicated that there is a strong relationship between brandpersonality and purchase intentions (O’Cass and Lim, 2001). Therefore, identifying the Halal brandpersonality in business is able to increase consumer’ purchase intention, and it can change consumer attitude for those who see Halal as a merely spiritual issue (Borzooei, M., and Asgari, M. 2013).