Identity achievement of adolescents living in ex- localization is similar to that of adolescents in general In this study, the families expressed that the identity achievements of their children in terms of changes were similar to the achievements of adolescents in general. These changes included physical, appearance, and behavioral changes, the ability to build relation- ships with members of the opposite sex, and the abil- ity to choose activities based on their own interests. Brownlee  states that development in early adolescence is characterized by rapid physical changes including height, maturity of reproductive organs, sec- ondary sex characteristics, increased muscle strength, and weight [15, 16]. The biological changes are signs of maturity, such as the functioning of reproductive organs (menstruation in females and nocturnal emis- sions in males), as the adolescents are moving toward adulthood. Interpretations of identity achievement are
Self-confidence is the core point of this research. Self confidence is a feeling that makes people think that they will do better after their efforts, a feeling that they can know more over time, a feeling that they can change themselves to adapt to the environment.There are three points of discussion under the topic. The first is self-confidence in facing family problem. There is no family without a problem and every single problem could be settled by means of self-confidence. This is followed by self-confidence in love as the second point. Love is a universal nuance that comes to everybody’s uplifting or crushing the person concerned and again by self-confidence love becomes a ladder to betterment in life. The third is self confidence in self- identity. A man will never be considered a man unless he has self- identity, which may appear in various forms, one of which is social standing. The main theory of self-confidence in taken from Brown stating that confidence is the belief that one will perform in a correct proper effective way. This research is conducted with descriptive qualitative method proposed by Krathwohl (1998), exploring social issues to be an epitome of guidelines. The results show that the protagonist has a strong self-confidence in facing family problem, love and self-identity. He faces a lot of problems in his family and this happens because he is an adopted child. However, through his strong self-confidence he could settle all the obstacles nicely and finally his self-confidence gives comfort to him.
Transcripts from participants who told their accounts in distinct narrative forms usually contained two (and occasionally three) separate narrative pieces. The first piece concerned the construction of a bisexual identity, which had more or less reached its resolution before the beginning of the second narrative piece. The second narrative piece concerned the development of the participant’s parenting life and identity. For example, Barbara had chosen to keep her romantic and sexual life separate from her parenting and family life in practice. Two distinct narrative forms emerged from the way Barbara told the story of her romantic and sexual relationships and of her family life. Barbara had shared a romantic relationship with her children’s father until recently, thus making him her romantic and co-parenting partner. Nevertheless, the way she structured her story revealed that she generally perceived her parenting and romantic or sexual involvements as separate, although she clearly perceived a need to be honest with her male partner and her children about her involvement in other relationships. Barbara, like other participants in our sample, also effectively put on hold having a sexual relationship with anyone other than the father of her children when her children were young.
In contrast, a macroscopic boundary forms between approaching swarm colonies of different strains (Fig. 1.1A) (2-5). This self-recognition behavior depends on two selfidentity-encoding loci, ids and idr. The ids operon encodes six proteins, IdsA through IdsF. A strain lacking the entire operon, or IdsB, IdsC, IdsD, IdsE or IdsF individually, fails to recognize its parent strain and their swarm colonies form a boundary upon meeting on a surface (Fig. 1.1B) (5). The ids operon is highly conserved across different P. mirabilis strains with the exception of two variable regions (VRs) in idsD and idsE (5). Of the other proteins encoded by the ids operon, IdsA, IdsB and IdsF are homologs of type six secretion system (T6SS) components (5, 60). Most examples of T6SSs identified to date inject lethal effector proteins from the bacterial donor cell directly into a recipient cell, prokaryotic or eukaryotic (61-81). Compatible sibling cells are protected from the action of these effector proteins by the presence of immunity proteins (68, 69, 71, 74, 75, 81-83). While IdsC has not been assigned a function yet, it shows homology to a protein family often encoded immediately upstream of T6SS effectors (84). Based on these protein homologies, it was hypothesized that a T6SS is involved in the communication of selfidentity in P. mirabilis and indeed a functional T6SS is required for boundary formation between different P. mirabilis strains (Fig. 1.1B) (85, 86). What is more, IdsA, IdsB and IdsD have been found to be exported by a functional T6SS (85).
A complex of methodics were aimed to: 1) define the peculiarities of the development of the integrated school collective; 2) psycho-diagnostic methodics aimed to reveal the psychological factors that would determine the character of intrapersonal collaboration: «Diagnostics of emotional barriers in the intrapersonal communication» (V.V. Boiko), the questionnaire «Research on the level of the emphatic tendencies», methodology «Evaluation of the capacity of a pedagogue to the empathy», «Kettle’s test» children adapted version, «Methodology for diagnostics of the development of reflexivity» (questionnaire of Karpov A.V.), methodic «Self- evaluation and the level of pretensions» T.V. Dembo – S.Y. Rubinstein in modification by A.M. Prikhozhan; 3) methodologies allowing the study of the peculiarities of relations within the system «teacher – parent»: «Satisfaction with the relationship», «Methodic for definition of the parent’s position in collaboration with the teacher», «Methodic for definition of the teacher’s position in cooperation with the parents of the students» (T.I. Bonkalo); 4) a complex of methodics aimed to define the peculiarities of relationships between children and parents: «The test on parent’s attitude» (ÎÐÎ) A.Y. Varga, V.V. Stolin), methodic «Evaluation of parent’s aims and reactions» (PARI), methodic «Emotional rejection of child in the family» (T.I. Bonkalo).
The social study of Bourdieu  provides theoretical framework within which the interplay of structure and agency through social space positions and internalized value systems of individuals can be conceptualised. We find Bourdieu's interconnected concepts of field and habitus, helpful to understand the construction of local identity of the residents of Arkhangelsk and Severodvinsk, two northern Russian cities. The population of these geographic localities, alongside with the physical spacial settings, comprise a social field with its own sets of rules, resources, and stakes . Habitus describes those internalised structures, dispositions, tendencies, habits, ways of acting that are both individualistic and yet typical of one’s social groups, communities, family, and historical position. Habitus of Arkhangelsk and Severodvinsk citizens' includes their folklore and speech practices, coming as resources to develop new meanings, connections, associations, topologies and other manifestations of their identitites. In this paper, we are aiming at research on consequential features, which are commonly acknowledged by the respondents and bibliographical sources to describe the local identity of Arkhangelsk and Severodvinsk residents. To distinguish the essential characteristics, meaningful in terms of local identity, we are following E.V. Morozova and E.V. Ulko, who point out the following:
The interest in pedagogy and the willingness to educate are the predominant (80.22%) reasons for choosing the discipline reported by the studied subjects. thus, the candidates for the pedagogical profession are intrinsically motivated which means that the inspiration for their actions is the interest in working with other people, the willingness to help and seeking fulfill- ment through action. For one fifth of the respondents (19.78%) the choice of pedagogy as their major did not follow a mature decision on their future career. for them, studying pedagogy is a way to prolong youth, an easy way of getting higher education or an alternative choice of sub- ject of study after the first choice failed. For those subjects, studying postpones the moment of making professional decisions. For a small fraction of the respondents (7.69%) the choice of the subject of study is connected with upholding family traditions. this group, however, stresses the importance of interest in working as an educator, autonomy of their choice and absence of pressure from the family.
Abstract— Language is a means through which ideology and power is passed on from one generation to another in the society. Referencing is a way of life in all communities, things and people are named in a certain manner. People are given references that communicate certain messages to those who hold the reference and the community at l arge. Analysing the Gik uyu female references reveals that the references are discriminative of women and to some extent deny them power by sk illfully communicating an oppressive message to the female person among the Agik uyu. This study aims at identifying and analyzing these references to show how they portray sk ewed power relations. This study is guided by Critical Discourse Analysis theory CDA, specifically Discourse Historical approach (DHA). The data consisted of the Agik uyu female references which were collected purposefully. The results show that many Gik uyu references on women are discriminative, and portray power and dominance over women. The references also reveal the traditional ideologies that stereotype women, reflecting the culture and belief system of the community. It also gives insights in to the fight for gender equity in this community. Those interested in power relations, identity, ideology and culture will find this paper useful.
There is a considerable variation in the methodological assumptions and the strategies that investigators chose when analyzing narratives, which are often tied to the researcher disciplinary background. Halliday distinguishes three macro functions of language to classify different approaches to narrative within interviewing: textual, ideational, and interpersonal (cited in Mishler, 1991). However the field of narrative analysis has grown rapidly in the last few years; I cannot represent all the different models developed on the field of narrative study, but I will apply some strategies that come from different approaches in order to illustrate the possibilities of narrative analysis in the study of self and identity. Therefore, the interpretations proposed here have a tentative character that may become the starting point of my future research.
process-oriented approach to identity is a try that Berzonsky (1990, 1994) has done. Berzonsky (1990) studied the role of personal epistemology in the process of identity formation and concluded that people use the cognitive- social processes to solve personal problems, decision making and processing information related to themselves and finally forming their identity. He believes that people lay their identity based on three different cognitive processing orientation that are called identity processing styles (including informational style, normative style and avoidance/ diffuse style). People who have informational identity style explore information actively and have passed commitment. These people are skeptical about their views and tend to judge on themselves after process and evaluating information. This identity style correlates with thinking on themselves, compromising efforts focused on the problem, high demand to recognition, deliberately decision-making and cognitive complexity. In other words, people having active informational identity style are going to collect, process and evaluate identity, so they accept information from environment and facing inconsistent information with their identity try to reconsider their identity features. Avoidance/ diffuse identity style describes people who usually hesitate to show their decision making and try to delay them as much as possible. They are reluctant to deal with personal problems and issues related to their identity and solving it (Berzonsky, 1994).
Many consumers can look at their kitchen shelves and see it groaning under the weight of an array of different cookbooks, some remain unopened and unused while others become well worn and well loved. What distinguishes these books how do we arrive at favourites when so many others languish untouched? This article argues that the influences which guide choices of favourite cookbook and cookery writer stem from the individual’s narrative of self and by extension their narrative as cook. In the sociology of consumption the role of self and identity is a recurring one, particularly among those who view consumption as an act of integration between external objects and self, often through a process of personalisation (Belk, 1988). Whether food consumption can take on such significance is well debated: Warde (1997), for example, argues that because we can travel the world nightly in our food choices: Chinese takeout one night, Pizza the next and a home cooked meal the third, individual meals are not significant enough consumption experiences to tell us much about the self-identity of the consumer; Somers (1994) argues contrary, that every consumption decision no matter how low cost or habitual forms part of an individual’s identity work, Belk et al (2003) discuss how food, among many other subjects of consumption, can be important enough for consumers to become passionate about it and Mennell (1985) discusses how food can illuminate, not just individual identity, but can provide broad cultural information. That debate will continue beyond this article so for this purpose it considers that, whatever the view on individual foodstuffs or meals, cook books in common with other forms of literature can become well used and take on increased symbolism for their owners (Brownlee & Hewer, 2007).
Riley (2006: 295) observes that much has been written about teachers’ aims, beliefs, skills, concepts, and practices but ‘surprisingly little attention has been paid to the person who is the locus of such notions’. A focus on teacher identity and teacher self addresses this omission, with the potential to extend our understanding of both ‘who language teachers are’ and ‘what language teaching is’ (Cross, 2006). Teacher identity has a far greater reach that the notion of teacher role, which is an assigned term concerned primarily with function (White, 2007), whereas identity ‘voices investments and commitments’ (Britzman, 1992: 29). Identity is multiple, dynamic and conflictual, closely related to sociocultural contexts, and is constructed, enacted and negotiated largely through discourse and interaction.
negotiations of work-related roles, their perceptions of the school’s rules and rituals, and of the expectations others have of them. Underpinning this approach is the notion of power being negotiated rather than simply imposed or applied. One strategy for focusing such an investigation would be to focus on new teachers’ reflections on ‘critical incidents’ as they negotiate the liminal spaces encountered on entering an unfamiliar ‘community of practice’, the site-specific values, expectations and practices of the school in which they work. Critical incident analysis, an analytical approach focusing on key episodes and/or experiences in professional contexts (Butterfield et al. 2005), has been most widely used in supporting the professional learning of clinical healthcare professionals. More recently the approach has been used to the same purpose in the work of teachers and student-teachers, but has also increasingly been deployed as a useful tool for researching the work of teachers (Lasky 2005) and teacher educators (Harrison et al. 2005). Given the complexity outlined in this discussion of the dynamics of student–teacher interactions and professional identity in performative school systems, critical incident analysis might be an effective means of exploring the liminal space of co-construction.
for performing its main functions well requires that security and tranquility to penetrate in it (Enayat and Aghapour, 2010). Olson (1999) with a systematic look to family introduces cohesion. Cohesion as one of the most penetrant structures of family is an important dimension for attempting for reciprocal understanding among family members (Hosseinkhanzadeh& et al, 2013), alliance feeling, emotional link and commitment that the members of a family have to each other (Olson, 1999). Two qualities related to the cohesion in family include commitment (tendency to spend time and energy in family activities and prevent from negative effect) and spending time with each other (Lingren, 2003). Emotional link and commitment, warmth of relations and emotions governed on cohesive families create this feeling in their children that are accepted by parents and the parents are sensitive and responsible to their demands (Victor & et al, 2007). Naturally an adolescent whom is grown in a cohesive family feels the warmth of relations, existing love and interest and responsibility feeling and members commitment to each other and consequently he also feels commitment for the demands of other members (Zare & Samani, 2008). Also supporter family can be the feedback source of cognitive, emotional and behavioral treasuries so that adolescents in different conditions can behave with an effective method (Sharma & Joshi, 2015).
The current study found that the presence of depression increased the odds for attempted suicide and suicidal ideation by more than twofold and threefold, respectively, and that alcohol/substance use disorders, on the other hand, were associated with NSSI. Postabuse suicidality appeared to be associated with the perpetrator identity and revictimization as well as the resulting psychiatric disorder. Dating violence victimization was the strongest predictor for both attempted suicide and suicidal ideation, even after controlling for psychiatric disorders. On the other hand, there was no sig- nificant relationship between incest and suicidality. The lack of significant results in the current study could be due to the limited sample size in the incest group. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that negative effects of abuse are associated not only with the objective characteristics of the abusive act but also with the subjective perception. 28
these media channels, 60.9 percent indicated using these media several times a day and an additional 23.2 percent indicated daily use of these social media. Respondents often indicated their organization was active on social media (76.3%). While 39.9 percent of respondents indicated their organization did not have guidelines for social media use another 39.1 percent was unaware of such guidelines in their organization. The majority of respondents held a Master’ s or Bachelor’ s degree (61%) and the mean age was 25.17 years old (S.D = 7.33). Respondents were mostly engaged in part-time employment, 44.6 percent indicated they worked between 15 and 24 hours per week another 27.6 percent worked 33 hours or more per week. Other respondents worked 8 to 14 hours a week. They did so in many different branches such as services (15.2%), retail (10.1%), information and communication (6.2%), tourism and hospitality (10.3%), and semi-governmental institutions (22%). In 27 percent of the cases respondents were engaged in work relationships in addition to their educational obligations. In sum, a total of 514 employees from a variety of sectors participated in this study. Through the completion of an online questionnaire, we assessed their motivations for work-related social media use and tapped in to actual behaviors through self- report measures.
NEL. Nel is the granddaughter of a whore, and the daughter of a strictly religiously reared respectable woman. Her lighter skin is likened to wet sandpaper, dark enough to escape the blows of pitch-black true bloods and the contempts of black women. Nel´s characterization is marked by constant incidents of self-fragmentation, self-repression and ultimately self- defragmentation. Nel clearly states her sense of enforced alienation when she whispers: "I’m me. I’m not their daughter. I’m not Nel. I’m me. Me."(Morrison, Sula: 28)Her sense of "me- ness", the qualities she vowed to hold onto forever, begin to erode when she marries Jude. This personality erosion degrades into an utter dissolution of the self. For Nel her repressed self develops like the oldest cry she is not able to exhale and it becomes "just a flake of something dry and nasty in her throat" (Morrison, Sula:108).As the novel progresses the pattern of shifting mud, stirring leaves signify Nel’s turning outside of her inside, her utter fragmentation:
Once Mohan’s disappearance from the house, Jaya gets the news that her son Rahul disappeared while holidaying. Jaya is in totally dejected state and there is no one to help at this stage. Jaya is reminded of Lord Krishna’s sermon in Bhagwad Gita, “I have given you knowledge. Now you make the choice. The choice is yours. Do as you desire” (192). These lines remain in her thought and give her some courage. The self-confidence in Jaya has gone far from her, when her husband leaves the home without informing her and Rahul is also disappeared. She receives a telegram from Mohan and Rahul will come back to the house. She felt happy and she recalls her experience and undergoes some suggestion and decided not to be passive and silence. Towards the end of the novel, Jaya emerges as a determined strong-willed modern woman, who is prepared to face life, accept her responsibilities squarely and tries not to escape from or avoid them. Jaya observes that meaningful co- existence of man and woman can come only through understanding, respect and compassion not through domination or subjugation. Choice is the right of both man and woman. The only thing to remember is that choice is relevant only when there is responsibility to one self. Freedom is to survive ‘as a whole’ within the system, and Jaya ultimately feels that it is possible. Usha Thambe remarks that, “The confused and clumsy Jaya appears a contrast to the smiling, efficient housewife Suhasini… (127)”.
In addition to the cognitive shift, recent work from within the social identity tradition has focussed upon relational and emotional transformations within crowds. Firstly, there is evidence for a relational transformation (what we term ‘relatedness’) such that the quality of intragroup social relations improve as co-present others become part of the collective self, rather than ‘other’ at an individual level (Turner et al., 1987; Tyler & Blader, 2000; Reicher, in press). A number of experimental and interview studies have shown how shared ingroup membership can facilitate intragroup trust, cooperation, a decrease in stress, comfort in close physical proximity, and helping behaviours (Reicher & Haslam, 2006; Haslam & Reicher, 2006; Novelli, Drury, & Reicher, 2010; Levine, Cassidy, Brazier, & Reicher, 2002; The Prayag Magh Mela Research Group [PMMRG], 2007; Drury, Cocking, & Reicher, 2009).