could not distinguish between molecular and atomic oxy- gen. A refined version with improved selectivity towards O was used in an experiment on the International Space Sta- tion (2008) (Schmiel, 2009). WADIS is the first project to employ this measurement principle for the determination of atomic oxygen densities aboard a sounding rocket. The sen- sors are very small in size, are lightweight, have low power consumption and feature a high temporal and therefore spa- tial resolution. The second sensor system, named PHLUX (Pyrometric Heat Flux Experiment), measures temperature on two surfaces with different catalytic activities towards the recombination of atomic oxygen. The surface that promotes recombination receives a higher amount of chemical heat, leading to a temperature difference between the surfaces pro- portional to the incident atomic oxygen flux. Such catalytic probes have previously been used for atmospheric research on sounding rockets, albeit with a different design (Perov and Rakhmanov, 1977). We adopted a concept originally de- veloped for ESA’s re-entry capsule EXPERT (European eX- PErimental Reentry Testbed) (Herdrich et al., 2005). The basic idea was to simultaneously operate two measurement systems based on different principles and yet very similar in overall size and position on the rocket. The first sound- ing rocket of the WADIS project was launched on 27 June 2013 at the Andøya Space Center in Andenes, Norway, at 23:52 h UTC. The payload had two instrument decks, one fore and one aft. They were symmetrically equipped with FIPEX and PHLUX sensors, together with several other ex- periments: CONE (COmbined measurement of Neutrals and Electrons): neutral and electron density, temperature, IAP (Rapp et al., 2001); particle detector, IAP; positive ion probe (PIP), TU Graz; Faraday antenna: electron density, TU Graz (Friedrich et al., 2013); two photometers, one measuring in the O 2 IR A band at 1270 nm (atomic oxygen, ozone) and
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a commercial thermal conductivity sensor, denoted as TP02, and on the other hand two different versions of custom-made sensors, LNP03 and LNP04, all manufactured by Dutch com- pany Hukseflux, were used. The acronyms have been de- fined by Hukseflux, where TP stands for Thermal Probe and LNP means Lunar Probe. The LNP sensors were designed to investigate their suitability for space application. They are shorter and thicker and therefore more rugged than the com- mercial TP02 sensor, which can be easily deformed by bend- ing when used in granular material with larger grain sizes or in a material with internal cohesion. However, this type of sensor is planned to be used in regolith but not icy regolith, as it can be assumed that for the deployment in icy regolith the sensors have to be much more robust, according to the findings of Spohn et al. (2015). Due to the smaller length-to- diameter ratio of the LNP probes, the evaluation of thermal conductivity is not as straightforward as it is for the “opti- mal” line heat sources described in the previous section. Ad- ditional calibration is necessary. The LNP03 and LNP04 sen- sors are constructed identically, except for their length. The LNP04 sensor is 20 mm shorter and thus a little more robust than the LNP03, but the length-to-diameter ratio is smaller. In the following the individual probes are described in more detail.
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Born from IC (Integrated Circuit) technology, MEMS (Microelectromechanical Systems) is growing as a revolutionary technology that enables fabrication of mechanical elements, electronics, sensors, and actuators on common substrate. The advantages of MEMS technology include: suitability for high-volume and low-cost production; reduced size, mass, and power consumption; high functionality; improved reliability; novel solutions; and new applications. Because of its root in the IC industry, many of MEMS basic processing techniques are borrowed or adapted from IC technology, such as photolithography, oxidation, diffusion, ion implantation, chemical vapor deposition (CVD), evaporation, sputtering, wet chemical etching, and dry plasma etching. There are a number of features common in MEMS fabrication processes that are not as common in IC fabrication; these are: nonplanar substrate (i.e., relatively large 3-D features); the use of thick photoresist layers (for structure purposes or for long etching time); relatively high aspect ratio structures; relatively large feature sizes; unusual processing steps; and unusual materials (particularly important in terms of adhesion).
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This work presents the feasibility study regarding the realization of hail sensing probes for re- mote sensing and study of hail. The probes are designed as artificial hailstones in order to study both the physical properties of the portion of atmosphere where the formation of hail occurs and the modification of atmospheric conditions while the hailstones are falling to the ground. The ba- sic idea is to realize sensors with a similar fluid-dynamic behavior with respect to hailstones; the density, the weight and the size of the probes are determined. Consequently, the specification of the electronic boards, sensors, and material to realize the probes are studied and presented. The hail sensing probes can be dropped by a plane, or potentially a UAV (Unmanned Aircraft Vehicle), which fly above and through the clouds where the hail formation occurs. During their falling to the ground, the sensors installed on the probe measure directly different parameters such as humidi- ty, temperature, pressure, acceleration. All data are sent to a receiver located on the ground. The study of the sampling frequency of each sensor is presented, together with the analysis of the propagation channel, in order to assure a robust communication link between probes and the ground receiver. The energy balance is also computed. The work demonstrates that a set of this kind of disposable sensors can be realized. They can be used for efficient monitoring operations and studies of hail formation dynamics and conditions, thus increasing the set of instruments for the monitoring and remote sensing of hail.
Backed by profound study of parylene as a biocompatible MEMS material in our research group, this thesis investigates the possibility of this parylene MEMS technology in development of implantable medical microdevices. As a continuation with the reported applications in cortex neural probes, spinal cord electrode arrays, and retinal prosthesis, two kinds of intraocular MEMS implants involving pressure sensors and valved flow-control devices have been developed in this work for medical application in glaucoma study and management. Clinical findings of the correlation between neuropathy and a physiological parameter (i.e., intraocular pressure (IOP)) in glaucoma provide a basis for the proposed approaches that utilize MEMS implants to physically monitor and regulate the IOP in glaucoma patients. With a great emphasis on pressure sensors, followed by supplemental description of pressure regulation devices, the complete design, fabrication, characterization, and analysis of such microdevices have been presented in this thesis, thus demonstrating their feasibility and potential for meeting the engineering and surgical/biological specifications of the proposed applications. More importantly, studies with the use of these MEMS implants have demonstrated applicable minimally invasive implantation schemes, as well as device chronic biocompatibility in the intraocular environment (given the evidence of no/minimal observed surgical or post-operative complications). These parylene-based MEMS implant paradigms have performed significant and promising results not achieved by previous MEMS or non-MEMS devices/implants due to technology barriers either in manufacturing or material aspect.
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The cancer drug target poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) DNA repair enzyme has five pan-PARP probes that are recommended by The Chemical Probes Portal. Olaparib, veliparib and niraparib are all highly ranked using Probe Miner’s predefined Global Score (Figure 3 and 4). However, key information is missing in public resources regarding the Portal-listed probes AZ0108 and E7449, the latter published in a journal not indexed in public databases (McGonigle et al., 2015). Accordingly, these two probes are not highly ranked in Probe Miner (Figure 4). On the other hand, our objective assessment resource identifies another probe that scores highly but has not yet been curated by The Chemical Probes Portal. This is NMS-P118, a recently published PARP1-selective inhibitor that was comprehensively screened for kinase selectivity (Papeo et al., 2015) – which is very important given reports of off- target activity against kinases among PARP inhibitors (Antolín and Mestres, 2014). Therefore, NMS-P118 emerges as a potential candidate with which to probe specifically for PARP1 (Figure 4). Based on our findings, we proposed NMS-P118 to The Chemical Probes Portal and this chemical probe is now under review for expert curation.
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With the advances of integrated circuit technologies in micro electromechanical systems, the inertial and posture sensors, e.g., the triaxial accelerometer and gyroscope can be made very compact in its dimension and easy to be embedded in portable devices. Based on this reason, many wearable sensor-based fall detection systems have been proposed recently. For wearable sensor-based fall detection systems, some of which employ the use of a single triaxial accelerometer as the system input, while most of them apply the use of multiple sensors. Among the algorithms that use multiple sensors, multiple triaxial accelerometers or a triaxial accelerometer in conjunction with a gyroscope is usually applied. In certain multiple sensor-based systems, even the atmospheric air pressure (or barometric pressure) sensor, or a surface electromyography sensor are used to assist the triaxial accelerometer in discriminating the posture as well as the motion of the elderly.
Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) aims to develop automated systems for the continuous monitoring, inspection, and damage detection of structures with minimum labour involvement. The ﬁrst step to set up a SHM system is to incorporate a level of structuralsensingcapabilitythatisreliableandpossesse slongtermstability.Smartsensingtechnologiesincludin gtheapplications of ﬁbre optic sensors, piezoelectric sensors, magnetostrictive sensors and self- diagnosing ﬁbre reinforced composites, possess very important capabilities of monitoring various physical or chemical parameters related to the health and therefore, durable service life of structures. In particular, piezoelectric sensors and magnetorestrictive sensors can serve as both sensors and actuators, which make SHM to be an active monitoring system. Thus, smart sensing technologies are now currently available, and can be utilized to the SHM of civil engineering structures. In this paper, the application of smart materials/sensors for the SHM of civil engineering structures is critically reviewed. The major focus is on the evaluations of laboratory and ﬁeld studies of smart materials/sensors in civil engineering structures. Keywords
This section deals with the general success of a selection of satellite repetitive probes on phytohaemaglutinin stimulated lymphocyte material. A photograph of each is presented as visualised on lymphocyte metaphases (a), followed by a statistical breakdown of its general success rate on interphase nuclei or, in the case of VNTR probes, an account of efficiency of labelling on metaphase chromosomes (b). Unless otherwise stated, the figures given represent biotin labelled probes (avidin-fluorescein detection system) not amplified via the "Pinkel sandwich approach." In some cases, the applicability of the probe in some form of research application (e.g. prenatal diagnosis) is dwelt upon. In the cases where the chromosomes appear red, they were stained with propidium iodide as well as DAPI. As mentioned in the introduction and methods, FITC and propidium iodide signals can be veiwed simultaneously. In the cases where the chromsomes appear as a faint green background, PI was not used.
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Global loess normalization was used to adjust the expression differences for intensity dependencies (Smyth and Speed 2003). The assumption of the loess normalization is that the majority of the probes are not differentially expressed, which was true in this study. We did not perform additional background correction on the extracted expression values. To do so, we suppressed the default of the function normal- izeWithinArrays using the bc.method option (File S2). A mixed model was used to correct the data for dye (ﬁxed effect) and array (random effect) using SAS mixed model process (SAS 1999). The raw and normalized microarray data were submitted to the GEO database (accession no. GSE47800). The normalized data were used to assess the signiﬁcance of the two genotype groups (with no additional explanatory effect).
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In this paper we consider the Robber Locating game, introduced in a slightly different form by Seager  and further studied by Carragher, Choi, Delcourt, Erickson and West , as well as by the current authors [12, 13]. This combines features of the other games mentioned above. Like the Sequential Locating game, the aim is to deduce the target’s location from distance probes, but, like Cops and Robbers or Cat and Mouse, the target moves around the graph in discrete steps. A single cop and robber take turns to act. For ease of reading we shall refer to the cop as female and the robber as male. The cop, who is not on the graph, can probe a vertex at her turn and is told the distance to the robber’s current location. If at this point she can identify the robber’s precise location, she wins. At the robber’s turn he may move to an adjacent vertex. (The original version of the game also had the restriction that the robber may not move to the vertex most recently probed, but subsequent work has generally permitted such moves.)
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Measurements of the anisotropies in the cosmic mi- crowave background (CMB) radiation placed very tight constraints on the parameters of the ΛCDM model , and provided evidence that cosmic inflation [2–7] de- scribes well the dynamics of the early Universe (see e.g. Refs. [8–11] and references therein). We will be focusing on possible small-scale departures in a generic profile of the primordial curvature power spectrum from the nearly scale-invariant spectrum that is very well-constrained on the large-scales. Such a deviation could be simply ad- dressed by including higher-order parameters of the pri- mordial curvature power spectrum which are often ne- glected, since, as we will show, the large-scale probes of the Universe are not very sensitive to these param- eters. We will demonstrate that by jointly considering large-scale and small-scale data sets, we can place robust constraints on the physics of the early Universe not ac- cessible by any other means.
The first step was choosing the enzymatic target. The criteria for the enzyme are straightforward, (1) the enzyme must be capable of hydrolyzing a bond and (2) it should specific to apoptosis. Caspases were immediately identified as the preferred enzymatic target because their activation is the defining biochemical event associated with apoptosis. Furthermore, caspases have many aspects that make them an ideal enzyme to target. They are activated fairly early in the apoptotic cell , allowing a longer period for the enzymatic processing to occur which can be quite prolonged in relaxometric probes. Caspases also have a relatively short 4 amino-acid consensus sequence and are exo-peptidases rather than endo- peptidases  facilitating the design of the linker between the CA and effector moiety. Finally, caspases are rather promiscuous enzymes, they can efficiently process a diversity of single amino-acid substrates including L-Asp, L-Arg, L-Glu and even D-Asp . This also served as a preliminary indication the enzyme would recognize and process the relaxometric probe being designed.
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The top three leading causes of death in many countries, especially in developing or developed countries,are heart disease, cancer, and stroke. Among those, stroke is one of the most typical reasons to cause permanent disability among adults. In this paper, we propose a cyberphysical system (CPS) with intelligent sensor data mining and motion analysis. It can be potentially used for next-generation rehabilitation due to its cyber controlled, automatic motion analysis. Such a CPS allows a patient to interact with a VR game. The motion sensors worn by the patient can automatically tell which gesture the patient is performing, and the worn medical sensors can tell the patient’s health status.
information of the scene into the image space. The camera mounted on the hand of the robotic manipulator reduces the possibility of occlusion and also gives the opportunity to use a fastened-on end- effector. In this paper the method of the force and vision sensors data acquisition and data analysis is described. The extracted data are integrated into a proposed task frame. The proposed method was validated by different tests that were carried out on a testbed described in the section called Experimental system. In the Conclusion the findings and some challenging future improvements of our system are discussed.
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DGGE results in our study indicated possible growth of Thiothrix with glucose and acetate, though Thiothrix was not detected with FISH when probes targeting T. nivea and the genus Thiothrix were used. When sucrose was supplied as carbon source, T. fructosivorans strains I and Q (Williams and Unz, 1989), T. flexilis, and T. disciformis (Aruga et al., 2002) grew, whereas strain CT3, T. nivea (Rosetti et al., 2003), and strains T1 and T2 of T. ramose (Odintsova et al., 1993) did not grow. The results of our study also did not indicate any growth of Thiothrix on sucrose. Propionate was reported to favor the growth of T. fructosivorans strains Q, and I strains A1 and A3, (Williams and Unz, 1989), T. flexilis, and T. eikelboomi (Aruga et al., 2002) but not T. nivea (Rosetti et al., 2003). In our study, however, FISH indicated the growth of T. nivea when propionate was supplied in the reactor inoculated with the SC WWTP sludge. For pyruvate, it was reported that strains A1 and A3, T. nivea (Williams and Unz, 1989), T. flexilis, and T. disciformis (Aruga et al., 2002) could grow. In the current study we observed growth of T. nivea when pyruvate was supplied to the reactor inoculated with the SC WWTP sludge. Aruga et al (2002) reported that they did not observe growth of T. flexilis and T. disciformis when ethanol and formate were supplied. This was consistent with the results in this study, since Thiothrix growth was not observed.
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While further research directions remain open to discussion, this paper has made it clear that the breadth of sensors and types of gloves used in gesture recognition system. Sign languages across the world have certain rule and certain grammar for their sentence formation. It would be handy to develop a translation system which is capable of interpreting different sign language.
Different processes and molecules can be easily visualized by using fluorescent probes, but in the future the need will arise to detect newly discovered cellular targets. An example of this process has been described in a very recent article of Salanti A. et al . In this work, the authors have explored the anchor protein VAR2CSA, involved in the binding of Malaria-infected erythrocytes to placental syncytioblasts, in order to avoid the splenic clearance of infected cells. VAR2CSA binds a specific type of glycosaminoglycan (GAG), the chondroitin sulfate GAG, called CSA, that was found to be expressed in 95% of tumors generated by hematopoietic, epithelial and mesenchymal cells. The authors labeled the recombinant VAR2CSA protein with two different fluorophores, the Alexa488 and Alexa750 to perform in vitro and in vivo imaging, respectively. Data showed rapid in vitro internalization within 30 minutes in a colon cancer cell line (Colo205), and specific in vivo uptake, after intravenous administration, in xenograft mice bearing prostate (PC3 cell line) or melanoma (B16 cell line) cancer lesions. These data supported the possibility to use new targets in addition to the already used ones to visualize tumors. Moreover, since VAR2CSA is rapidly internalized after binding with CSA, this mechanism could be explored as a targeted strategy for the specific drug delivery to tumor.
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A key point to make here is that Probes have been operating across different “communities of practice”  with different vocabularies, practices and notions of rigour. These communities often have different ideas of what ‘design’ actually is and who does it. Vetting Wolf and her colleagues , as well as Jonas Löwgren  (who they quote), support this assertion, distinguishing between “engineering design” and “creative design”. Engineering design is formalised, ‘objective’ and often defined in lexical terms whereas creative design explores a ‘design space’ through subjective involvement by the designer and “a tight interplay between problem setting and problem solving”  often through the use of real artefacts such as sketches and models. Vetting Wolf and her colleagues  also describe how both schools of design involve rigour and that rigour in creative design is “a repeatable process, of a consensual standard of quality, in use by a professional community of practice.” Accordingly, engineering designers may well tend to favour formal use of Probes within a defined, often heavily documented, process with definite outcomes or deliverables and creative designers may tend to favour less measured (but equally delivery oriented) uses of Probes to help develop solutions (as well as set problems) that can be worked through using well established design techniques in their community (e.g. sketching, modelling etc.).
In this proceedings, an overview of recent results on measurements of beam energy dependence of jet quenching and measurements of jets and heavy flavour, the so called hard probes, at RHIC is given. Hard probes play an essential role in understanding properties of hot and dense nuclear matter created in high energy heavy ion collisions because they are created early in the collision. Production of hard probes can be influenced by two types of nuclear e ﬀ ects: cold nuclear matter e ﬀ ects and / or final state eﬀects due to parton interactions with the produced nuclear matter. For complete understanding of existing data measurements in various collision systems are necessary, where RHIC and its flexibility of a large variety of collision species from deuteron up to uranium including asymmetric collisions plays essential role.
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