Serial to PeripheralInterface (SPI) is a hardware/firmware communications protocol developed by Motorola and later adopted by others in the industry. Sometimes SPI is also called a "four wire" serial bus.The SerialPeripheralInterface or SPI-bus is a simple 4-wire serial communications interface used by many microprocessor/microcontroller peripheral chips that enables the controllers and peripheral devices to communicate with each other. Even though it is developed primarily for the communication between host processor and peripherals, a connection of two processors via SPI is just as well possible. The SPI bus, which operates at full, is a synchronous type data link setup with a Master / Slave interface . Both single-master and multi-master protocols are possible in SPI. The SPI Bus is usually used only on the PCB. The SPI Bus was designed to transfer data between various IC chips, at very high speeds
SPI is the serialperipheralinterfaceprotocol. Which establishes communication between the any two devices has the capacity communicate with other devices. The device which initiates communication is called Master and receiving device is called slave over a special network. Slave which acknowledges the response to master over a specified network. This protocol provides communication between the various peripherals such as controller to the memory and vice versa. This yields full duplex communication between the master and slave. This paper provides that design of high speed serialperipheralinterface. The interface facilitated with the input and output data line as well as serial clock lines. This will supports multi slave configuration but at a time it communicate with only one slave. This is designed in Veilog HDL.
When the MSTR bit in the control register of the SPI is set to one the master mode is selected. Master SPI module can only initiate transmissions. The data written on the data transmit register is immediately transferred to the shift register when the shift register is empty for the transmission process. The data written could be 8,16,32 bit wide and the bits begins shifting out on the MOSI (master out- slave in) under the control of the SCK generated. The prescaler register is used to determine the speed of the transmission. The SCK (serial clock) pin is the SPI clock output and through this pin the prescaler of master control the shift registers of the slave peripheral. In master mode MOSI (master out-slave in) pin is used to send the data and MISO (master in –slave out) pin is used to receive the data. The slave-select register is used to select the slave with which the master will communicate. If the SS pin of the master tries to become active low then the mode fault error flag will be high if the transmission is in process. If the transmission was not in process then the MSTR bit will be set to logic zero and the system now will be configured as a slave. The transfer operation will depend on the clock phase and clock polarity defined by the CPHA and CPOL bits in the control register.
ABSTRACT: SerialPeripheralProtocol, it is simple protocol which allows data transfer between IC and peripheral devices at low or medium speed, communication is in full duplex mode. Thou there are many serial interfaces such as RS232, IC etc. as SPI offers more flexibility, low cost and stability it is preferred over other communication protocol. This paper includes great dealing in the study of SerialPeripheralProtocol, its simulation and synthesis using Xilinx ISE 14.1 version. The purpose is to generate the efficient coding for implementation of SPI Master Protocol.
The PQA and any Modbus based devices can communicate with microcontroller ATmega328P through Modbus RTU protocol. The Modbus RTU protocol establishes master/slave communication. The microcontroller which is programmed to act as master will request the necessary data from the slave. The slave will read from the register requested by the master and send the response to the master. The master request consists of different configuration parameters. The configuration parameters instruct the slave device to do appropriate action. The microcontroller ATmega328P and Ethernet shield is connected using serialperipheralinterface. To receive the configuration parameters from the front-end this module has to act as server and personal computer should act as client. The data is stored in the memory of microcontroller
I have used ATmega32A (AVR Family) microcontroller because it have in-built analog to digital converter and it also supports the SPI protocol for communication. In SPI protocol, when the communication will establish between two microcontrollers at that time one will work as master microcontroller and second as slave microcontroller. In the microcontroller we can easily select one microcontroller as master and other as slave microcontroller. SPI (SerialPeripheralInterface) is a synchronous serial data link that operates in full duplex mode. SPI is four pins communication protocol which are MISO (Master In Slave Out), MOSI (Master Out Slave In), SCK (Serial Clock) and SS (Slave Select) pins. 
There are many communication protocols for both short and long distance communication purpose such as ETHERNET, USB,SATA ,PCI-EXPRESS are used for long distance and I2C and SPI are used for short distance communications. SPI is a serialinterfaceprotocol, compared to other protocols, it has high transmission speed, simple to use and little pins advantages . The four interfaces are required by standard SPI protocol at least. Usually, the devices which based on SPI protocol are divided into master device and slave-device for transmitting the data. The chip select signal and clock signal have be generated by the master-device when the data exchange has been processed.SPI is often considered as the “little” communication protocol which is used for ON-Board communication .
The communication module: Every node of the system has to be able to transmit the acquired health indicating signals back to a main server for processing. As a result, every wireless node is equipped with a radio module which implements the wireless communication with the server. The module we are using is the Xbee PRO S2B . This module implements the ZigBee protocol which is a communication protocol known for its high performance on multi-node sensor networks; it has low power consumption, high range (about 90 meters in indoor or urban areas) and high data throughput (up to 35kbps). The employed Xbee PRO S2B module has a serial communication interface which is supported by the USART peripheral on our MCU.The block diagram of a single sensors’ node is shown in Figure 2, while Figure 3 presents a photograph of a fully wired functional sensors’ node.
Hyper terminal is an application in PC, which isUsed to display data read from EEPROM using RS-232 serial The baud rate is set to 9600. When the interrupt switch is pressed, the data stored in the EEPROM is uploaded on to the hyper terminal. The displayed
The LM79 has an on-chip temperature sensor, 5 positive analog inputs, two inverting inputs (for monitoring negative voltages), and an 8-bit ADC. An input is provided for the overtemperature outputs of additional temperature sensors and this is linked to the interrupt system. The LM79 provides inputs for three fan tachometer outputs. Additional inputs are provided for Chassis Intrusion detection circuits, 5 VID moni- tor inputs, and chainable interrupt. The LM79 provides both ISA and Serial Bus interfaces. A 32-byte auto-increment RAM is provided for POST (Power On Self Test) code stor- age.
Handset customers are demanding increased download speeds and enhanced audio quality, in form factors that fit comfortably in a pocket or purse. They desire one device which has applications and interfaces capable of supporting increasingly bandwidth-intensive functionality, with high resolution cameras (typically with 8 Megapixels or more), higher quality displays (including 3D capabilities), ports to connect the handset to larger format displays, and the means to drive high definition video, through MHL (Mobile High-Definition Link) or HDMI ® (High Definition Multimedia Interface) all being incorporated.
The SCADA architecture is generally broken down into a master station or MTU used by human operators to monitor and control remote terminal units, or RTUs. A communications network provides communication channels between MTUs and RTUs. Security hardening techniques are needed for the various components as well as for the SCADA system as a whole. RTUs interact with physical devices like valves and switches. A primary SCADA security objective is to prevent unauthorized or improper operation of valves, switches, or other physical devices, since these devices could have economic consequences for a SCADA operator as well as potentially disrupting normal operation of U.S. critical infrastructures . The fact that RTUs can, and often are, physically remote makes securing them that much more important. This dissertation describes research and development of a security hardened RTU. While protecting and securing existing systems is important, the aim of this dissertation is to explore the development of next generation RTUs. As existing RTUs are replaced in existing SCADA deployments and as new SCADA systems are deployed, it is important that these RTUs be security hardened against Ethernet serialprotocol based conversions. This dissertation presents an RTU role based access control model for hardening RTUs. The model is developed to prevent unauthorized alteration of analog and digital 10 points. In addition, a middleware layer deployment architecture is advocated to allow fine grained and homogenous application of an RTU access control policy. Operating system support for a middleware layer deployment is a critical factor in the assurance of the security hardened RTU. Two approaches for reduced kernel RTUs are presented. A reduced commercial-off-the-shelf kernel is one approach, and is used in the development of a prototype for testing using raspberry pi.
To be fully compliant with all applicable DDR SDRAM memory specifications, the board should be populated with DIMMs that support the Serial Presence Detect (SPD) data structure. This allows the BIOS to read the SPD data and program the chipset to accurately configure memory settings for optimum performance. If non-SPD memory is installed, the BIOS will attempt to correctly configure the memory settings, but performance and reliability may be impacted or the DIMMs may not function under the determined frequency.
PIC (PeripheralInterface Controller) is a family of Harvard architecture microcontrollers. It is an IC developed to control peripheral devices, to ease the load from the main CPU. The PIC, akin to the CPU, has calculation functions and memory, and is controlled by the software. It has separate code and data spaces in accordance to Harvard architecture .
The Intel Compute Stick uses an Intel BIOS that is stored in the SerialPeripheralInterface Flash Memory (SPI Flash) and can be updated using a disk-based program. The SPI Flash contains the BIOS Setup program, POST, the PCI auto-configuration utility, and Plug and Play support. The initial production BIOSs are identified as SCCHTAX5.86A.
Testing becomes easy, accurate and practical with the same sample impossible because of the idea shared above can be implemented in difficulties of accurately measuring the health parameters of the satellite subsystems in future to promote safe construction of the components that go into the making of a satellite. The remote data acquisition, tc processor and command interface stages have been successfully implemented.