In an active networking environment, the above described two ways of interactions between a customer and a provider can be realized in a much more flexible way with respect to service abstractions and control capabilities for the customer in the pro- vider’s domain and vice versa. In the following, we outline our framework for interac- tion in an active networking environment, which we have first proposed in . Figure 3 shows the interaction between a customer domain and a provider domain for service provisioning, service delivery and service management in our framework. When comparing Figure 3 with Figure 2, the key differences between a traditional environment and an active telecom environment that follows our approach become clear. We propose that the provisioning of a specific (active) network service X is split into two different operations--a) the provisioning of a generic service, which we call the VAN service, is performed via the cooperative VAN provisioning interface; and b) the installation of the specificservice X is performed via the generic service interface, without further interaction with the provider. The same interface is used by the cus- tomer for managing service X during its lifetime.
Characterizing cyber operations as a method of warfare makes sense on several grounds. First, they are typically categorized by methodology—hack- ing, phishing, distributed denial of service, honeypot, watering hole, et cetera. Second, the development of a single piece of code to exploit a specific vul- nerability, which then allows an operator to gain access to and manipulate an opponent’s system, resembles a TTP more closely than the creation of a weapon. And like TTP, the code may need to be refined regularly to take account of enemy actions or to be tailored to a particular operation to achieve its desired effects. In fact, the cyber operator sometimes writes the code in real-time as the operation reacts to changing conditions.
With a minimum of fuss, we can tailor stock holdings to suit individual customer operations. We would be pleased to enter into customised supply agreements to meet these specific needs. ITT Blakers believe that there is nothing more important than a customers need and will endeavour to satisfy on all occasions.
Wernerfelt (1984) concentrated on the concept of resource by arguing that firms must focus on strategically deploying their valuable resources and capabilities, rather than concentrate on positioning their products and markets, as initially suggested by Porter (1980). According to this analysis, the resource, defined as ‘tangible and intangible such as brand names, in-house-knowledge of technology, employment of skilled personnel, trade contracts, machinery, efficient producers, capital, etc.’, can be perceived as both a strength and a weakness of the firm, and is the key to achieving competitive advantage. Barney (1991) contributed significantly to the development of the RBV by concentrating on how firms can achieve sustainable competitive advantage by exploiting internal strengths (resources) and avoiding internal weaknesses. Barney developed a model that does not focus on the resources and capabilities themselves, but on their distinctive characteristics, and argued that the main traits of a resource are to be valuable, rare, inimitable and non-substitutable (VRIN). If firms attain such resources, he argued, then they would enjoy competitive positioning and enhanced performance. Moreover, he put forward two fundamental assumptions for the RBV theory: resources and capabilities are heterogeneously distributed among companies, and resources are imperfectly mobile. Put simply, firms have access to limited number of resources, which are unique for every distinct organization, and they are very difficult to transfer to another firm. Therefore, in order to gain access to various resources (capabilities) firms can outsource some of their non-core functions. Hilmer and Quinn (1994) were amongst the first to address the question of which activities can be outsourced based on the RBV. They recommended that organizations outsource activities that do not bring any critical strategic benefit, or specific skill-set to the firm. According to these authors, firms must focus their resources on a set of core competencies and capabilities, which will bring them competitive advantage over their rivals and offer unique value to their customers.
This keynote address will highlight the Dubai Smart Government’s achievements in enabling various government agencies to transform into the smart model, as well as for automating their internal operations to be linked to the central systems that run all the basic operations of the Government of Dubai.
In multinational operations, logistics support is a national responsibility. Allied and coalition na- tions seek logistics systems that promote logistics self-sufficiency within their fiscal capabilities. However, agreements exist that establish the framework for one country to provide support to another country or its forces. The exchange of lo- gistics support between alliance or coalition par- ticipants can create significant economies of effort and cost savings. This type of logistics sup- port or cross-servicing may be in the form of sup- plies and/or services. Host nation support agreements normally establish or specify the type and amount of such support. If no appropriate in- ternational agreements exist, no authority exists whereby geographic combatant commanders can provide for or accept logistics support from allies or coalition forces, and combatant commanders are not authorized to enter into multinational rela- tionships without direction from the National Command Authorities. Under these circumstanc- es, and with National Command Authorities’ ap- proval, multinational commanders should acquire as much logistical support as possible through tact and diplomacy, their knowledge of allied forces’ doctrine, and personal and professional relations with coalition and/or allied commanders and ap- propriate political leaders. In the absence of ap- proved formal support agreements, authorization for Marine Corps forces to receive logistics sup- port from allied or coalition forces or to provide support to allied or coalition forces must come from higher authority in the operational chain of command.
Influential authors writing about quality management and process improvement (Deming, Juran, Senge, Womack and Jones) emphasize the importance of organizational knowledge for achieving continuous process improvement (Linderman, Schroeder, Zaheer, Liedtke, & Choo, 2004). One scenario is that firms will implement occasional process improvements that achieve only temporary and marginal enhancements to specific operational measures. Such process improvements do not happen frequently enough to affect operational capabilities. To achieve continuous process improvement over the long term (like Toyota) requires the mobilization and application of organizational knowledge for the purpose of developing key organizational capabilities that can lead to firm performance. That is, the creation and use of organizational knowledge is a key factor if process improvements are to be conducted pervasively, continuously, effectively, and sustainably (Anand, Ward, Tatikonda, & Schilling, 2009; A. S. Choo, et al., 2007; Linderman, et al., 2010; Ikujiro Nonaka, von Krogh, & Voelpel, 2006). Indeed, it is generally accepted that “ad hoc” process improvements driven primarily by structured method “tools” without concern for the role of organizational knowledge deliver limited operational performance results (Anand, Ward, & Tatikonda, 2010; Mukherjee & Lapre, 1998; Tsai & Li, 2007). As years of evidence indicate, such limited operational efficiencies are not sufficient to achieve sustained firm performance (Li, Huang, & Tsai, 2009; Ikujiro Nonaka, et al., 2006).
Cisco Unified Service Statistics Manager (USSM) helps fine-tune and optimize the Unified Communications network deployment. It offers three key benefits to customers. First, it helps IT administrator to ensure end-user satisfaction by offering service quality trend reports to identify patterns of emerging call quality issues, thereby offering an opportunity to fine-tune network parameters to smooth the experience. Second, it arms IT
The information contained in CIAP comes from a variety of sources, including the following: analysis by US-CERT; data submitted to US-CERT from government D/As, military branches, and possibly commercial companies; and reports received from vendors and industry partners that are deemed useful to US-CERT research. Both systems contain cyber indicators - human-readable cyber data used to identify some form of known or suspected cyber threats - and data related to: IP addresses and domains (associated information, such as the associated port, publicly available WHOIS 21 information, and Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI)); email headers (message attributes such as the sent date, subject, links, attachments, sender’s name and sender’s e-mail address); and files (malware and associated information including the file’s size, hash values, and behavior). In addition, CIAP contains strings (persistent and unique identifiers specific to malicious activity). Each of these categories has multiple, specific features or characteristics, which may be captured from, and assigned to an indicator, depending on the circumstances for which the indicator is being captured. The user information includes the user’s first name, last name, user ID, agency, phone number, and email address. The user information is collected in order to associate inputted entries
In the realm of network security, firewalls, proxies, and DMZs  are commonly used security measures in enterprise networks. Firewalls provide the means with which organizations protect their computer resources from outside networks. They block packets that are received either from untrusted networks, or from an inside source that is trying to request information from disallowed domains. A DMZ (Demilitarized Zone) is a pair of firewalls working together to form an area, which is separated from internal and external networks, but is logically a part of each. The publicly accessible servers such as Web servers, servlet engines and proxy servers are placed here. Proxy servers provide the means for enterprise networks to prevent outsiders from accessing inside computers by making internal applications (Web service clients) anonymous. If a proxy is in use, all calls for specific protocols will be routed through it, and when the outside service receives the call, the sender's address is that of the proxy and not the client.
Analytics capabilities, a characteristic pointed out by Davenport et al. (2005) as one of those which form the BA construct, and the focus of this sec- tion, are described as “(…) a portfolio of analytics methods and tools. They include tools that support traditional ad hoc queries, inferential statistics, predictive analytics, simulation, and optimization, thus supporting descriptive, diagnostic, predictive and prescriptive analytics” (Acito & Khatri, 2014, p. 567). Sincorá (2016; 2015) when performing a mapping of the scientific productions in BA of the last 11 years (2004 to 2015), aiming to define the variables that compose the organizational analyt- ics capabilities, concluded that organizational ana- lytics capabilities refer to a second order construct formed by three first order constructs, which are: statistical capabilities, business capabilities, and in- formation technology capabilities. In this study it will be adopted the organizational analytics capa- bilities concept presented by Sincorá et al. (2018). To Sincorá et al. (2018), statistical capabilities are the “ability to develop logical, critical and analytical reasoning about the organizational reality based on quantitative data” (p. 38), and their indicators are the elaboration of inquisitive, descriptive, predic- tive and prescriptive analyses. Business capabilities are the ability of making decisions based on data and facts, that is, extracting information from the available data, so that it helps identifying problems, developing and implementing solutions. Their indi- cators are: “clear communication of business prob- lems; data translation into business perceptions; interpretation of analyses from statistical models; and decision-making based on facts and data” (Sin- corá et al., 2018, p. 38-39).
• for example, if I put Device (X) into a Service Model and set that model to Low Granularity, alerts affecting the Port (Y) will automatically be aggregated to the device without requiring the Port CI to be modelled, and will therefore show as impacting the Device and Service
Web services are described at interface-level using WSDL and SOAP; or observe proprietary REST conventions; or use non- standard AJAX streaming to rich client applications. There are various competing standardization efforts for the syntactic and semantic description and dynamic configuration of web services (e.g. OASIS TOSCA ). Different fragmentary approaches to describing services as pure interfaces, or with functional semantics, or with more comprehensive non-functional business considerations, culminated in the development of the Unified Service Description Language (USDL) . This was intended as a unifying framework, but was later considered too monolithic. Its lightweight successor, Linked USDL  follows a linked data philosophy, adding service descriptions, SLAs and other business- related aspects to a framework that capitalizes on existing semantic ontologies (MSM; FOAF; GR; SKOS). Our work builds on this open approach; and to the best of our knowledge, there has been no other proposal for interface specifications supporting cloud service quality assurance and optimization.
Lee  illustrated the case of a finance company to justify the applications of JIT in service industries. West Coast Finance Company (WCFC) located in the mid-wilshire area of Los Angeles, had been in the business of extending loans to small businesses in the area since it was established in 1969. The business had been very successful, showing healthy earnings every year. In the 1990, because of stiff competition in the market, the president of the company analyzed that WCFC must continue to provide good quality services, which included at the highest priority, reducing the lead-time for loan processing. Currently, it took an average 12 business days to get a loan approved. The existing loan process was studied in detail and it was found that some of the activities were not adding any value and in JIT system, it is termed as waste. So a process improvement effort started in line with JIT so that there are only value added operations. In the new process, there was no waiting time between processes and operations, and some operations were performed simultaneously in order to reduce the processing time. The new process took four to five days.
Abstract. The notion of capability has been gaining a growing attention in the business and information system (IS) engineering community due to a number of reasons: it facilitates focus on business investments, it can be used as a baseline for business planning, and it directly leads to service specification and design. It is not however widely known to what extent capability is considered in different modeling approaches, how it is defined, and what purpose it fulfills. This article analyzes how the notion of capability is included in the frameworks spanning from business-oriented such as Business Architecture and Business Value Modeling, to the alignment-oriented represented by Enterprise Architecture (EA), and Enterprise Modeling (EM). The results of the analysis have shown that capability has widespread presence in the frameworks and that its conceptual meaning is largely similar, while the intentions and the mechanisms of its use differ, which raises stimulating opportunities for new contributions and improvements in the field.
The trust and reputation system consists of two distinct parts. The first part is a trust com- ponent, which is internal to all agents that re- quire a trust metric in their decision-making pro- cess. Its function is to provide its owner agent with a level of trust (T ∈ [0, 1]) for a given ser- vice and service provider. The component is in- sulated from the external environment by the agent that embodies it. As the agent interacts with others in the community the outcomes of these interactions are stored in this component, and are used to determine a trust value when required. Outcomes can either be successful or unsuccessful, where a successful interaction is defined as one for which the service provider has delivered the service specified by the con- tract. In addition to calculating T , the trust component calculates a level of confidence C to be placed in the value of T . Confidence repre- sents the accuracy of T and is obtained by exam- ining how much evidence was used to calculate T . It is used by the trust component to reason about whether an agent has adequate evidence or whether it needs to obtain further (reputa- tion) information from other agents. When the confidence in its own calculation does not ex- ceed a particular threshold, the trust component requests such reputation information from oth- ers. In our model, we do not assume that rep-
IBM defined the Cloud Computing Reference Architecture (CCRA) based on years of experience of working with customers who have implemented cloud-computing solutions. The IBM CCRA is a blueprint or guide for architecting cloud-computing implementations. It is driven by functional and nonfunctional requirements that are collected from many cloud-computing implementations. IBM CCRA provides guidelines and technical work products, such as service and deployment models, and has defined the overarching implementations as adoption patterns . An adoption pattern embodies the architecture patterns that represent the ways that organizations are implementing cloud-computing solutions. An adoption pattern can help guide the definition of your cloud-computing solution. The adoption pattern for IaaS, as defined by the CCRA, is called the Cloud Enabled Data Center adoption pattern . The Cloud Enabled Data Center adoption pattern contains prescriptive guidance for how to architect, design, and implement an IaaS solution. It also defines the core requirements and provides guidance on adding new capabilities as they are needed.
Page two of the survey was an Interviewee Profile Sheet to capture network information, background, and Engineering / Installation indicators. Years in the telecommunications business ranged from 13 to 39 years. Surveyed Operations Managers were relatively inexperienced in managing the Engineering function but had extensive experience in managing the Installation function. Education level was approximately the same for those surveyed. Backgrounds were similar and are not considered a differentiating factor for the evaluation. An indicator variable associated with OM is identified to represent this information.
The NSW public sector capability framework describes the capabilities (knowledge, skills and abilities) needed to perform a role. There are four main groups of capabilities: personal attributes, relationships, results and business enablers, with a fifth people management group of capabilities for roles with managerial responsibilities. These groups, combined with capabilities drawn from occupation-specific capability sets where relevant, work together to provide an understanding of the capabilities needed for the role.
The role of heavy equipment in emergency special operations as well as utilization of personnel with specialized knowledge of structures and materials is well-documented. Retired Assistant Chief Paramedic Clark Staten of the Chicago Fire Department, writing in regard to victim removal from collapsed structures, indicates most experts recommend a process of vertical debris removal rather than horizontal. This process involves lifting the debris off of the victim and then shoring the area to prevent further collapse. To accomplish this process, Chief Staten states that rapid response of equipment capable of overhead lifting is essential. He recommends creating prearranged contracts with construction/demolition companies as well as training with these agencies on a periodic basis (Clark Staten, 1992).