Severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms

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Relationship between severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms and schizotypy in obsessive-compulsive disorder

Relationship between severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms and schizotypy in obsessive-compulsive disorder

In the present study, the authors report that the Y-BOCS obsession score, not the Y-BOCS compulsion score, was cor- related with the SPQ total score. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study investigating the relation- ship between schizotypy and OCS severity in OCD patients by separating OCS severity into subcategories of obsession and compulsion. Y-BOCS obsession score was the significant predictor of SPQ total score. Since HAM-D and HAM-A didn’t predict SPQ total score, it was the authors’ belief that this result was not affected by depression and anxiety. As the authors hypothesized, the results of this study show that schizotypy was correlated with the severity of obsession rather than the severity of compulsion. This finding suggests that OCD patients with an elevated SPQ total score experience a reduction of cognitive inhibition, resulting in the frequent entry into obsession. In the correlations between subscales of Y-BOCS and SPQ, the Y-BOCS total score was correlated with the SPQ cognitive-perceptual and disorganized fac- tors. This result is consistent with the findings of Roth and Baribeau, 11 which indicate that the MOCI total score is cor-
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A study of diagnostic accuracy of the Florida Obsessive Compulsive Inventory – Thai Version (FOCI T)

A study of diagnostic accuracy of the Florida Obsessive Compulsive Inventory – Thai Version (FOCI T)

measures for OCD symptoms and severity [6, 7]. Although there are many well-developed self-reported measures of OCD, none of them is able to rapidly assess both symptom enumeration and severity in a simple format just like the FOCI does [6, 7]. The English version of the FOCI [6] was originally developed from the most acceptable measurement tool for symptom severity of OCD—the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS)—and showed excellent psychometric properties in assessing the presence and severity of obsessive- compulsive symptoms. While very good psychometric properties of the FOCI have been shown in earlier studies [6–9], the data on a receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis to determine optimal diagnostic cut-off scores to use it as a screening tool for OCD have never been reported although they are needed [10]. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the Thai version of the FOCI by analyzing the ROC curve and cut-off scores, with the hope that the findings would yield support for subsequent uses of this instru- ment as a measure to identify the OCD patients in the Thai community.
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The role of metacognition and obsessive compulsive symptoms in psychosis: an analogue study

The role of metacognition and obsessive compulsive symptoms in psychosis: an analogue study

The OCI-R is an 18-item self-report questionnaire [38]. OCI-R was developed to examine the presence and se- verity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms on a five point Likert scale that assess distress associated with various OCD- symptoms from 0 (not at all) to 4 (extremely). The total score of the OCI-R provides information about the OCD severity, but there are also subscales which ad- dresses the severity of the different subtypes of OCD. In this study, the sum of the OCI-R was used as a continu- ous variable in the statistical analyses, and we the rec- ommended cut-off point of 21 was used to describe clinical symptoms of OCD in the sample [39]. The OCI- R has earlier been shown to be a valid and reliable screening instrument for OCD [38]. A study with a Nor- wegian sample also found results supporting the validity of OCI-R [40]. In the current study, the OCI-R showed adequate psychometric characteristics with a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.89 for the total score.
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Brief Consultation to Families of Treatment Refusers with Symptoms of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Does It Impact Family Accommodation and Quality of Life?

Brief Consultation to Families of Treatment Refusers with Symptoms of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Does It Impact Family Accommodation and Quality of Life?

One important aspect of the relationship between family members and OCD sufferers is how family members respond to the symptoms of OCD. Van Noppen and her colleagues (1997a) reported that family members often became involved in their relative’s ritualistic behaviors, either in assisting to satisfy the OCD symptoms or in resisting and refusing to participate in the OCD symptoms. For instance, a family member may use disposable dishes, buy extra soap, or wash items repeatedly for an OCD sufferer with contamination fears. Research indi- cates that family members who modify their behavior to accommodate obsessive-compulsive symptoms expe- rience greater family distress (Calvocoressi et al., 1999). In order to placate their relative’s OCD demands and reduce possible familial conflict, families often modify their routines and provide reassurance to make the OCD sufferer comfortable. Although such accommodations are understandable and common, family accommodations are positively correlated with OCD symptom severity (Gomes et al., 2014) and negatively correlated with global functioning (Calvocoressi et al., 1999). Furthermore, OCD sufferers with accommodating families may expe- rience increased OCD symptoms (Thompson-Hollands, Edson, Tompson, & Comer, 2014) because OCD suffers feel that their beliefs and behaviors are legitimized by their families. Therefore, patients whose families accom- modate their symptoms have lower response rates to behavioral therapy (Amir, Freshman, & Foa, 2000; Thompson-Hollands, Edson, Tompson, & Comer, 2014). Family treatments designed to decrease family ac- commodations have been shown to help patients with severe OCD symptoms (Thompson-Hollands, Abramo- vitch, Tompson, & Barlow, 2015). Finally, greater family accommodation behaviors are related to increased family caregiver stress (Calvocoressi et al., 1999), as well as depression and anxiety in family members (Amir, Freshman, & Foa, 2000).
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Obsessive compulsive and posttraumatic stress symptoms among civilian survivors of war

Obsessive compulsive and posttraumatic stress symptoms among civilian survivors of war

Based on these studies, it could be hypothesized that war-related posttraumatic OCD can lead to high levels of mental health problems among civilian survivors of war. Therefore, there is a need to understand the rela- tionship between both disorders, particularly as targeted therapy could lead to a lessening and eventually a de- crease of the obsessive-compulsive symptoms [40]. A large representative study performed in five Balkan countries five to 15 years after the war in the Balkans es- timated the prevalence of OCD among civilian post war survivors as between 0.2 and 6.1 % [43]. In a study of bereaved and non-bereaved war survivors in Kosovo, Morina et al. [37] identified OCD rates of 3.4 and 0.6 %, respectively. However, to our knowledge, there are no published studies that have specifically assessed obsessive- compulsive symptoms among survivors of war after mi- gration to a new host country. Furthermore, research sug- gests that mental health problems in refugees and migrants persist for many years after their first occurrence [49] and that comorbidity presents a therapeutic chal- lenge. Therefore, the main objectives of this study were to assess the severity and characteristics of obsessive- compulsive symptoms among survivors of the 1998–1999 Kosovo War living in Switzerland and to identify possible associations between obsessive-compulsive and posttrau- matic stress symptoms. Finally, as PTSD has been re- ported to be strongly associated with the severity of depressive symptoms, we will additionally test whether PTSD or depressive symptoms alone or in interaction with each other account for OCD symptoms.
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Developing and Evaluating the Effectiveness of the Behavioral Cognitive Metacognitive Intervention on the Severity of Obsessive  Compulsive Disorder’s Symptoms

Developing and Evaluating the Effectiveness of the Behavioral Cognitive Metacognitive Intervention on the Severity of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder’s Symptoms

1) The revised obsessive-compulsive inventory: Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R) [13]; is an 18-item scale which measures obsessive-compulsive symptoms (e.g. hoarding, washing, ordering, checking out, obsession and mental neutralizing symptoms). In general, the score range of the revised form of the ques- tionnaire is from 0 to 72 in which higher scores indicate the intensity of symptoms. A good internal consistency (α = 0.80 - 0.88) and acceptable test-retest reliability (r = 0.67 - 0.70) in a nonclinical sample for the revised ob- sessive-compulsive inventory have been obtained [14] [15]. Convergent validity supports the OCI-R and represents a high correlation between the questionnaire and other obsessive-compulsive scales [15]. Discrimi- nant validity also supports the OCI-R and indicates that the scale is able to discriminate OCD sufferers from other patients [16] [17]. In Iran, [18] have standardized the Persian version of OCI-R. The results showed that the OCI-R in the Iranian sample has a good validity and reliability.
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Obsessive Compulsive Cognitions, Symptoms and Religiousness in an Iranian Population

Obsessive Compulsive Cognitions, Symptoms and Religiousness in an Iranian Population

While a consensus seems to have reached on the uni- versality of the form of OCD symptoms, the content of the obsessions and compulsions appears to differ across cultures. There is a risk that OCD may be missed if it’s manifested in behaviors which are considered appropri- ate within a religions context. On the other hand, reli- gious obsessions are common, more so when the variety of obsessions experienced is greater, but that they are not related to the severity of other OCD symptoms, suggest- ing that religious obsessions are an embellishment of disorder rather than a determinant [21]. Religious aspects of OCD have also been noted by authors who study ob- servant Orthodox Jews [20,22], and some Catholics [23]. The frequency with which different OCD themes played out in life’s secular and religious spheres may vary with the intensity of religious observance within cultural groups. Religious obsessions were found to be quite common in a small sample of ultra-Orthodox Jewish pa- tients [20] and in three samples of Muslim patients, one in Saudi Arabia [24], one in Bahrain [7] and one in Egypt [18], but not in a fourth form Turkey [25]. However, there is no indication that groups with more heavily reli- gious have higher incidence of OCD [26]. Thus, it may be concluded that culture has an effect on the way OCD manifests itself but it does not increase its prevalence in population.
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A cross sectional study of sociodemographic profile, disability and family burden in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder

A cross sectional study of sociodemographic profile, disability and family burden in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder

significantly higher in relatives of patients with poor insight. Patients with poor insight do not consider themselves ill and do not accept the symptoms, which results in less compliance for treatment, leading to increase severity of the disease and hence higher burden. Similar finding is noted in study done by Chakrabarty S et al, and Steketee G, Black D W et al. 15-17

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Transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of obsessive–compulsive disorder: current perspectives

Transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of obsessive–compulsive disorder: current perspectives

In summary, it appears that the majority of studies using the inhibitory 1 Hz rTMS over the bilateral pre-SMA/SMA have shown positive but short-term effects on reducing obsessive and compulsive symptoms. Generalizing study findings are restricted by small samples and a great deal of heterogeneity in severity of OCD symptoms, duration of illness, study designs, and methodology. Most importantly, stimulation protocols differed between studies in the duration of trains and intertrain intervals, the total number of pulses in a session, duration of treatment, and the delivery at different RMT thresholds. All these parameters influence the direction of stimulation and the duration of the effect. Although ideal stimulation parameters are so far unknown, studies using protocols consisting of 20-minute trains with 1,200 pulses/ day and at least 2 weeks’ treatment seem to have resulted in positive outcomes on YBOCS scores.
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OBSESSEIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER (OCD) – AN UNKNOWN PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER

OBSESSEIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER (OCD) – AN UNKNOWN PSYCHIATRIC DISORDER

People with OCD often do not volunteer their symptoms spontaneously and it is likely that there is under- diagnosis of this condition. The Yale-Brown Obsessive- Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) and checklist should be used to record the severity and lifetime presence of specific symptoms. Assessment should include the following elements: [6,7]

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Family accommodation in adult obsessive–compulsive disorder: clinical perspectives

Family accommodation in adult obsessive–compulsive disorder: clinical perspectives

Clinicians should be aware of the higher probability of FA in patients and relatives with specific characteristics such as contamination/washing symptoms for patients, anxiety and/or depressive symptoms or a family history positive for another anxiety disorder for family members. Family-based cognitive–behavioral interventions may be particularly beneficial for these families. The investigation of correlates of FA will provide further clarification on the causal link between specific characteristics (such as the severity of OC symptoms) and the degree of FA; the longitudinal perspective with multiple assessments of the degree of FA will help in elucidating this issue, and researchers are strongly encour- aged to study this phenomenon according to this perspective. In recent years, targeting FA has been suggested as a fundamental component of treatment programs and several interventions have been tested. Clinicians should be aware that family-based CBT incorporating modules to target FA is more effective in reducing OC symptoms, although the evidence to date should be considered preliminary (and limited to the treatment of children/adolescents with OCD). Further studies are needed before evidence-based treatment guidelines can incorporate modules targeting FA. Targeting FA may be as well relevant for patients treated pharmacologi- cally; this area is to date neglected, and we may only infer from studies with CBT that reducing FA may contribute to response to antiobsessional compounds.
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Reliability and validity of the Thai version of the Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale – Second Edition in clinical samples

Reliability and validity of the Thai version of the Yale–Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale – Second Edition in clinical samples

The CGI-S is commonly used to measure the symptom sever- ity of patients with mental disorders. It is a seven-point scale on which 1 = normal, not at all ill; 2 = borderline mentally ill; 3 = mildly ill; 4 = moderately ill; 5 = markedly ill; 6 = severely ill; and 7 = extremely ill. This rating is based on observed and reported symptoms, behavior, and function in the past 7 days. Clearly, symptoms and behavior can fluctuate over a week; the score should reflect the average severity level across the 7 days. 10

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Obsessive compulsive disorder is a heterogeneous disorder: evidence from diffusion tensor imaging and magnetization transfer imaging

Obsessive compulsive disorder is a heterogeneous disorder: evidence from diffusion tensor imaging and magnetization transfer imaging

It can be assumed that these inconsistencies of GM and WM abnormalities in previous studies can mainly be attributed either to substantial methodological differ- ences or to the inclusion of only small and heterogeneous samples. Since fully automated whole-brain voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and DTI are used to assess structural changes in OCD patients, it has been consistently reported that brain abnormalities are not limited to the “affective” orbitofronto-striatal circuit but also extend to the dorsolat- eral prefronto-striatal “executive” circuit and additional re- gions including the parietal and occipital lobes as well as the cerebellum [2, 6, 7, 23–25]. Another important source of variability is the clinical heterogeneity of OCD. It is becoming increasingly clear that OCD is not a unique disorder, but consists of multiple potentially overlapping symptom dimensions [26]. Despite increasing recognition of this phenotypic heterogeneity, according to standard nomenclatures (such as DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10) OCD is still considered a unitary nosological entity [7]. However, patients diagnosed with OCD widely vary according to symptom type (compulsions vs. obsessions), different kinds of obsessions and compulsions (e.g., hoarding vs. cleaning), severity, age of onset, comorbidities (e.g. tics, depression) and medication as an influencing factor [7]. Therefore, recent studies used a symptom dimensional approach [27] and were able to demonstrate that differ- ent symptoms are indeed mediated by distinct neural systems [6, 28, 29].
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The Relationship between Self-ambivalence and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Symptoms: The Mediating Role of Relevant Beliefs in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

The Relationship between Self-ambivalence and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Symptoms: The Mediating Role of Relevant Beliefs in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

Overestimation of threat refers to beliefs that increase the probability and severity of harm. Intolerance for uncertainty has been defined as “a dispositional characteristic that results from a set of negative beliefs about uncertainty and its implications and involves the tendency to react negatively on an emotional, cognitive, and behavioural level to uncertain situations and events". These individuals believe that it is necessary to be certain, in order to avoid unpredictable events. Inflated sense of personal responsibility is the belief that one is pivotal in causing or preventing negative outcomes. These people perceive themselves as agents of harm, regardless of whether they are actively or passively involved in negative outcomes. Perfectionism, is a belief that perfection should be strived for. In its pathological form, it is an unhealthy belief that anything less than perfect is unacceptable. Beliefs about the over-importance of thoughts play an important role in the cognitive formulation of OCD. Individuals vulnerable to OCD, interpret their intrusive experiences as personally significant, and they have beliefs about the importance of having control over intrusive thoughts, images or impulses [9, 10].
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Cognitive-behavioral therapy for body dysmorphic disorder: a review of its efficacy

Cognitive-behavioral therapy for body dysmorphic disorder: a review of its efficacy

Two open studies and at least one controlled study (using a waiting list) have suggested that individual CBT is an effective treatment for BDD. The combination of ERP and cognitive therapy (ie, CBT) has been shown to be potentially effective in BDD in different forms, ie, weekly or intensive CBT, CBT associated with role playing, “modular” CBT, and CBT associated with medication or psychosocial rehabili- tation, even among patients who present comorbidity with various personality disorders. Nevertheless, one controlled study suggests that cognitive therapy added to ERP does not result in significant gains as compared with pure ERP. Patients treated with individual CBT showed decreased concern with their imagined physical defects, their overval- ued and delusional ideas, their obsessive and compulsive symptoms, anxiety, and depression, and their performance in professional and social activities.
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Long Term Effects of Psychotherapy (Cognitive Behavioral
Therapy Models) on Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD)

Long Term Effects of Psychotherapy (Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Models) on Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD)

Generating alternative thoughts and most behavioral practices had to meet the compassion test ‘where the intervention (e.g., alternative thoughts) are experienced as helpful, kind, supportive and validating.’So CFT makes a big distinction between blaming and shaming and the processes by which we develop the courage to take responsibility for change and then engage the change processes all the time keeping an eye on the affinitive experience during the process of change. So a key message to someone with BDD is that the way their brain has been shaped is an evolutionary problem of being human and internal threats, and that BDD symptoms are designed to keep them safe from perceived social exclusion or rejection. This offers a different rationale for therapy. One may help the person realize how old and new brain create loops and how becoming more mindful of those loops and taking the compassionate but also rational evidence-based stance can help one breakout of those loops.
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Psychology Case Record

Psychology Case Record

knowledge. There is history of self-injurious behavior such as injuring her fingertips with stapler, when irritable. There is also history of a deliberate self- harm attempt as reported to the family by the hostel warden. No further details could be obtained from her parents regarding the attempt. In spite of her odd experiences, her academic performance was good through her school and college. Her self-care was also adequate. There was no history of organicity or substance use. There was no history suggestive of head injury, loss of consciousness, automatisms, pervasive mood syndrome or obsessive compulsive symptoms or generalized anxiety disorder.
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Treatment of an Obsessive Compulsive Disorder by Desensitisation

Treatment of an Obsessive Compulsive Disorder by Desensitisation

Treatment of an Obsessive Compulsive Disorder by Desensitisation Med J Malaysia vei 38 No 2 June 1983 TREATMENT OF AN OBSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER BY DESENSITISATION A F ETHERIDGE frequency of the ge[.]

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Altered intrinsic insular activity predicts symptom severity in unmedicated obsessive compulsive disorder patients: a resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging study

Altered intrinsic insular activity predicts symptom severity in unmedicated obsessive compulsive disorder patients: a resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging study

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic neuro- psychiatric disorder characterized by intrusive thoughts and repetitive behaviors engaged to reduce the associated anxiety [1, 2]. Despite its high prevalence, the pathogenesis of OCD remains not fully understood. A variety of neuro- imaging studies reveal that the cortico-striato-thalamo-cor- tical (CSTC) pathway dysfunction plays an important role in the pathophysiology of OCD [3, 4]. A meta-analysis of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data reported the structural alterations in OCD patients, including reduced volume in both anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and orbital frontal cortex (OFC) areas, and enhanced volume in thalamus [5]. From a battery of functional MRI (fMRI) studies, hyperactivities were observed in the CSTC circuit, especially within prefrontal regions including ACC, OFC, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and subcortical areas including caudate and thalamus [6, 7].
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Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

From this brief description, it could be argued that OCD is a multifaceted illness that may indeed be influenced by cultural factors. The question then becomes; does culture have a direct impact on the cognitive processes responsible for OCD, or are the effects of culture limited to the diverse expressions of symptoms? In their cross-cultural comparisons between Turkish and Canadian samples of OCD, Yorulmaz, Gencoz, and Woody (2009) provide a possible answer to this question by stating "Cultural features may be operative in cognitive processes relevant to OC symptoms" (p. 110). This means that culture may directly impact the processes within the brain responsible for the expression of OCD. However, future research is needed to provide a more in-depth understanding of the interactions between the cultural and the biological processes involved. Perhaps a good place to start would be in researching the manifestations of OCD patients within diverse geographical and cultural locations.
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