Sewage Sludge Compost

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Effect of Heavy Metals on the Growth of  Bacteria Isolated from Sewage Sludge  Compost Tea

Effect of Heavy Metals on the Growth of Bacteria Isolated from Sewage Sludge Compost Tea

The first purpose of this work was to study the interaction between the microbes present in a sewage sludge compost tea with Pb, Zn, Cd and Cu. To reach this goal, the following analyses were carried out: 1) evaluation of the microorganism’s tolerance to Pb, Zn, Cd and Cu; 2) determination of the heavy metal minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for each microorganism and 3) selection of the most resistant strains, which could be used in bioremediation of heavy metals and their identification using molecular methods. In addition, the most resis- tant strain was selected in order to study its behaviour in the presence of these heavy metals by locating metals in the cell using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and determining the percentage sorption of each metal by inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis.
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The Cumulative Effects of Sewage Sludge Compost on Raphanus sativus L: Growth and Soil Properties

The Cumulative Effects of Sewage Sludge Compost on Raphanus sativus L: Growth and Soil Properties

The results showed the number of leaves per plant (NLP), plant height (PH in cm), root diameter (RD in cm), and tubercle production (TP ton/ha) all increased as described in Table 2. Figure 1 shows diagrams of the dis- persion tendency of dependent variables when the treatment values are varied. In the analysis of the characteris- tics of the plant regarding the number of leaves produced (Table 2, Figure 1(a)) note that when a level equiva- lent to 25 ton/ha of sewage sludge was used both “in natura” and vermin composting, the number of leaves in the radish cultivated increased. The statistical response showed no difference until a dose 50 ton/ha of sewage sludge was reached. These numbers are superior to those found, which surpass numerically the corresponding level of 75 ton/ha, although no statistical difference between them was found. The same pattern was observed regarding plant height (Table 2, Figure 1(b)). Initially, the radish grew slowly, though, at the end of the cycle, the estimated production was 18.02 ton/ha when levels of 25 ton/ha of sewage sludge were used (Table 2, Fig- ure 1(c)). A large investment in the aerial part was perceived. This was naturally expected so as to establish the organs that would be the source of photoassimilate. Similar results were observed by Nunes et al. [37] and Haag and Minami [38] in beetroot and by Muller et al. [22] in radish. It was also observed that when levels corres- ponding to 25 and 50 ton/ha of sewage sludge and 25 ton/ha of sewage sludge vermin compost were used, the production of radish continued to be produced in the acceptable interval for this vegetable (15 to 20 ton/ha), ac- cording to Yagioka et al. [35]. Therefore, the potential for using sewage sludge in agriculture becomes evident. The estimated increase in mean family income with radish fertilized with sewage sludge was approximately 17%. The results showed higher values for TP (ton/ha), an increase to 43.47% using 25SS, and the cost of pro- duction according the Table 2 the income per plot was US $6.20 on comparing controlled treatments.
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EFFECT OF THE APPLICATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE COMPOST ON THE CONTENT AND LEACHING OF ZINC AND COPPER FROM SOILS UNDER AGRICULTURAL USE

EFFECT OF THE APPLICATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE COMPOST ON THE CONTENT AND LEACHING OF ZINC AND COPPER FROM SOILS UNDER AGRICULTURAL USE

Trace minerals, if present in sewage sludge in high concentrations, can be a threat to the soil and water environment [Witczak, Adamczyk 1995, Rozporządzenie... 2008]. The volume of microelements lost by leaching is highly varied. The application of fertilizer components in doses highly exceeding the crops’ nutritional demands may lead to changes in the ionic balance of the soil solution and cause the transfer of nutrients to groundwater [Gondek 2009]. A single applica- tion of even a large dose of sewage sludge will not trigger a distinct increase in leaching heavy metals from soil relative to FYM or mineral NPK fertilization. On the other hand, due to the posi- tive balance of these elements in soil, long-term application of sewage sludge could be problem- atic, especially when soil acidity is raised and, consequently, the mobility of elements as well as their leachability are higher [Sevel et al. 2014]. Milinovic et al. [2014] claim that the drying of sewage sludge prior to its application to soil in general reduces the leaching of zinc but increases copper loss by leaching from the sludge. Accord- ing to Page et al. [2014], the soil reaction cannot be treated as an exclusive indicator in the assess- ment of the mobility of heavy metals in soil, their phytoavailability and the risk of their migration
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VARIATION IN TOPSOIL ELECTRCIAL RESISTIVITY WITH CHROMIUM CONCENTRATION

VARIATION IN TOPSOIL ELECTRCIAL RESISTIVITY WITH CHROMIUM CONCENTRATION

Decomposers like bacteria and fungi break down dead organic matter to form humus and soluble inorganic salts. These processes increase the nutrient content of soil, this improving its fertility it include animal manure, sewage sludge, compost, grass turf, straw and other crop residues which are applied to the soil to improve top soil structure and moisture holding capacity and to nourish soil life, which in turn nourishes plants [2].

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Vol 2, No 1 (2013)

Vol 2, No 1 (2013)

The objective of this study was to investigate the inorganic plant nutrient uptake and toxic metal accumulation in basket willow and giant reed aboveground organs. Plants were grown in a brown forest soil treated with ammonium nitrate fertilizer and various amendments (municipal sewage sludge compost, municipal biocompost, and willow bioash).

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Stabilization of Fly Ash Deposits through Selected Cereal Crops

Stabilization of Fly Ash Deposits through Selected Cereal Crops

Fly ash, a waste product from burning coal in power plants, occupies important spaces and is a major harm for environment: water, air, soil and associated ecosystems. New deposits do not have available nutrients for plant growth. The study presents a process of stimulating growth of oats in deposits of fly ash, which eliminates listed. Phytostabilization of new deposit is fast after fertilization with sewage sludge-based compost in the presence/ absence of native or modified volcanic tuff with grain species, Avena sativa L., and variety Lovrin 1. Experimental studies have shown the species adaptability to climatic conditions and a growth rate until the maturity correlated with type of treatment of upper layers of fly ash deposit. Fly ash with sewage sludge compost treatment 50 t/ha determined the growth with 75% of the amount of grains vs. the amount of grains harvested from untreated fly ash. Fly ash with sewage sludge compost mixed with modified indigenous volcanic tuff 2.5 t/ha treatment determined the growth with 80% vs. the amount of grains harvested from untreated fly ash. If oat straw harvested from fertilized variant without modified indigenous volcanic tuff increases in weight are 30% and for fertilized variant in the presence of tuff increases in weight are 39.8% vs. quantities harvested from untreated fly ash.
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A rapid molecular approach to determining the occurrence of
pathogen indicators in compost

A rapid molecular approach to determining the occurrence of pathogen indicators in compost

SUMMARY: An accurate method for enumerating pathogen indicators, such as Escherichia coli (E. coli), and Salmonella spp. is important for assessing the safety of compost samples. This study aimed to determine the occurrence of pathogen indicators in compost samples by using a molecular approach known as Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The DNA sample was extracted from sewage sludge compost. The specificity of the probes and primers at the species level were verified by performing NCBI-BLAST2 (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool). Primers that target the gadAB gene for E.coli and invA gene for Salmonella spp. were selected which produce fragment lengths around 670bp and 285bp respectively. The primers were tested against bacterial cultures of both species and produced a strong signal band of the expected fragment length. It provided results within 6 hours which is relatively rapid compared to conventional culturing techniques. The other advantages of PCR are shown to be its high sensitivity, and high specificity.
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Domestic Sewage Sludge Application to an Acid Tropical Soil: Part III. Fractionation Study of Heavy Metals in Sewage Sludge and Soils Applied with Sewage Sludge

Domestic Sewage Sludge Application to an Acid Tropical Soil: Part III. Fractionation Study of Heavy Metals in Sewage Sludge and Soils Applied with Sewage Sludge

Heavy metals in soils may be present in many forms. The fractionation of heavy metals in sludge-treated soils is important in order to evaluate their behaviour in the environment. Information on the distribution of these different chemical forms of heavy metals in soils can provide insight into their solubility, chemical reactivity, and the fractions that can serve as a pool of available forms for plant uptake (Stumm and Morgan 1981). However, knowledge of the total content of heavy metals present in soil only provides limited information on the mobility and availability. Identifying the chemical forms in which the metals are retained in soil is helpful to predict their potential mobility to water sources, plant availability and the amount of metal cycling through the food chain. Consequently, it is necessary to evaluate the ecotoxicological potential of these elements in a more accurate way. Compared to single extractants, multi-step extraction methods are found to furnish relatively more detailed information about heavy metals specia- tion in soils.
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Geotechnical aspects of sewage sludge monofills

Geotechnical aspects of sewage sludge monofills

Compaction and swell tests were also conducted on thermally dried pellets of sewage sludge which are sometimes disposed to landfill. The dry material compacts poorly since the pellets remain as separate particles. The unconfined swelling capacity was assessed by measuring the increase in volume of a dry sludge powder when deposited in water. 7 The tests indicated that rehydration of the dry pellets to the equilibrium field WC can cause the soil body to approximately double in volume. This swelling causes softening of the sludge material which can lead to instability of the landfill. Hence, it is recommended that the sludge material should not be dried significantly below the optimum water content for compaction prior to landfill disposal.
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Sewage sludge as a biomass energy source

Sewage sludge as a biomass energy source

Based on the combusted coal and the sewage sludge of given ratio the ca. 0.3% drop in the boiler effi ciency was monitored. For mixture I. – coal and coal shed was 89–90.5% and for mixture II. – coal, coal shed and sewage sludge 88.8–90.2%. The content of the combustible carbon in the products of the combustion corresponds with the fi ne hard coal combustion. The combustible matter content in the bed ash was 0.25–0.3 % and in the fl y ash 5.8–6.5 %. If we focus on the operational effi ciency of the boiler under the condition of the additional combustion of the sludge it means monitoring possible unwanted states given by the high and low-temperature rust, silting the heat transfer surfaces and abrasion. Concerning the boilers with the fl uid furnace and the additive desulphurisation the marks of the chlorine rust pop up even if the chlorine content in the fuel is low. The ratio Cl/SO 2 has an impact on the high
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Vermicomposting of vegetable waste amended with different sources of agro industrial by product using Lumbricus rubellus

Vermicomposting of vegetable waste amended with different sources of agro industrial by product using Lumbricus rubellus

Approximately 47 kg of vegetable waste (VW), mainly leafy vegetables such as cabbage, lettuce, and cauliflower, were collected in gunny sacks from a daily-fresh market in Putrajaya. Other types of VW, i.e. onion, garlic, peppers, tomato, potato, peas, chilies, and citrus, were not collected since they would have hindered the earthworms’ palatabili- ty. The collected VW were dried for one day under direct sunlight on newspapers. Foreign residues such as rubber bands, plastic, and wrapping paper were discarded prior to sun bathing. Cow dung (CD) was collected from a country cow farm in Serdang, Selangor, and was dried for 11 days before stabilization in the pre-composting period. Meanwhile, paddy straw (PS) and sawdust-based spent mushroom compost (SMC) were obtained from an agricul- tural farm in Jenderam Hulu, Selangor, and the Mushroom House in the Institute of Biological Science, University of Malaya, respectively. Earthworms utilized in this study were L. rubellus, which was cultured in a mixture of a vari- ety of organic waste sources. Experiments were conducted in microcosm (360 mm×280 mm×200 mm) artificially designed with a net (250 mm×100 mm) covering the center of the lid to allow aeration, to prevent any interruption by pests, and to provide microclimatic conditions [7-9]. All of Table 1. Substrates mixture in ratio for each vermibed.
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On the rheological characteristics of sewage sludge

On the rheological characteristics of sewage sludge

sludge samples were determined by use of electric muffl e furnace LMH 07/12 and ranged from 0.43 % to 21.45 % in case of solid content (A and C samples, respectively) and from 56.21 % to 67.80 % in case of ash free dry mass (A and B samples, respectively). All sludge samples exhibited non–Newtoninan character and temperature dependence. Several mathematical models (Arrhenius, Bingham Plastic, Casson Law, Exponential, Gaussian, and IPC Paste) were successfully used for characterization of ex- perimental data. So ware MATLAB® was used and satisfying correlations between experimental and computed results were obtained. The best match (R 2 = 0.999) was received with use of Gaussian model,
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Thermophilic Co-Digestion of Sewage Sludge and Brewery Spent Grain

Thermophilic Co-Digestion of Sewage Sludge and Brewery Spent Grain

Mixtures of sewage sludge and dried brew- ery spent grain (both non-milled and milled) were used for the co-digestion study. The sew- age sludge was used for the anaerobic digestion as a control. The sewage sludge was obtained from the Lublin municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), Poland. This included two-source residues from primary and secondary clarifiers, both of them thickened. Under laboratory condi- tions, the sludge was mixed at the recommended volume ratio of 60:40 (primary : waste sludge), then homogenized, manually screened through a 3-mm screen and partitioned. The sludge prepared in this manner was fed to the reactor as mixed sewage sludge (SS), with main characteristics presented in Table 1. Brewery spent grain (BSG) was sourced from a small brewery in Lublin that uses barley as a raw material for beer production. The BSG sample of 2 kg weight was transported to the laboratory, then dried using an oven at a temperature of 50°C to omit its rapid degrada- tion and sub-divided. One of the sub-samples was milled using a stainless steel blender to reduce the BSG particle size to 1 mm (MBSG), the other was retained without milling. The BSG composition is given in Table 1. An inoculum for the laboratory reactors was sampled from Lublin WWTP as a digest collected from a mesophilic anaerobic di- gester operating at a hydraulic retention time of about 30 days.
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Assessment of Nutrients and Heavy Metals (HM) Uptake in Golden Rod Treated with Sewage Slud

Assessment of Nutrients and Heavy Metals (HM) Uptake in Golden Rod Treated with Sewage Slud

2.1 Study site- A pot culture experiment was conducted on alfisols (red soil) at green house farm of the Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar, Hydeabad during kharif 2013 to study the innovative approache of effect of sewage sludge application on nutrients and HM uptake in Golden Rod. 2.2 Treatments- The experiment was laid out in Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications and necessary data was collected whenever required. There were seven treatments consisting of T 1 (20% sewage

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Simultaneous Organic Solids Disintegration and Fermentative Hydrogen Production by Pretreated Sludge Generated from Wastewater Treatment Plant

Simultaneous Organic Solids Disintegration and Fermentative Hydrogen Production by Pretreated Sludge Generated from Wastewater Treatment Plant

Results indicate that VFAs accumulate during the fermentation process, and are not converted into methane in all the pretreated sludge’s cases (Fig. 2c). This might be a reason for the observed decline in the overall pH of the sterilized sludge (Fig. 2d). In the case of pretreated sludge (30 min), the B/A ratio was approximately 1.4. This correlates to a higher yield for hydrogen production with higher butyrate content [39]. This result suggests that the pretreated sludge by sterilization treatment using mixed culture might increase hydrogen production via the butyrate and acetate fermentation pathway [38]. Zhu and Béland [40] also reported that butyrate concentration was much higher than acetate concentration from sucrose medium using pretreated digested wastewater sludge by heat-shock, acid, base, and aeration for producing hydrogen. On the other hand, a higher concentration of propionate (86.1%) along with relatively lower concentration of acetate (13.9%) and lack of butyrate were observed in pH range of 7.0-7.2 in the untreated sludge throughout the experiment (Table III). This could be due to the utilization of VFAs for biogas production (mostly carbon dioxide and methane) resulting in the lower VFAs value along with higher NH 4 + -N concentration and a simultaneous
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Geotechnical properties of municipal sewage sludge

Geotechnical properties of municipal sewage sludge

Figure 11 shows the compression-time data recorded for specimens (250 mm diameter by 45 mm high) of moderately and strongly degraded sludge material that were consolidated from the slurry state (w 720 %) using the hydraulic consolidation cell. The top surfaces of the specimens were allowed to drain freely to atmosphere while the pore water pressure response was measured at the base of the specimens. The degree of consolidation is also shown in Fig. 11 for the strongly degraded specimen. Although the cell confining pressure of 300 kPa applied to the strongly degraded specimen was three times greater than that applied to the moderately degraded specimen, it is still evident from Fig. 11 that consolidation occurred more readily for the more strongly degraded material. An average degree of consolidation of about 50 % was achieved within 20 min for the strongly degraded specimen and the shape of the compression-time curve was more characteristic of the consolidation behaviour associated with mineral soils. Primary consolidation also accounted for a larger proportion of the overall specimen strain and the coefficient of secondary compression value of 0.08 was also significantly lower than the value of 0.41 measured for the moderately degraded specimen. Hence, more thorough biodegradation of the sludge at the wastewater plant would facilitate more efficient mechanical consolidation and lead to higher rates of consolidation occurring in the field.
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Mechanical properties of dewatered sewage sludge

Mechanical properties of dewatered sewage sludge

Air-dried, compacted sludge material was tested in quick-undrained, triaxial compression and vane shear. The undrained shear strength values measured in triaxial compression and vane shear were consistent. Hence, the vane shear apparatus can be used to quickly assess whether the sludge material has been dewatered sufficiently for landfilling. Undrained shear strength-moisture content plots are presented from which the level of dewatering necessary to facilitate efficient handling of the sludge material, trafficibility at the landfill site and an adequate factor of safety against slope instability for the short-term condition can be determined. The effective stress strength parameters were determined from consolidated-undrained, triaxial compression tests conducted on pasteurized, normally consolidated samples of the sludge material. The mechanical properties of the sludge material changed with the level of sludge digestion. The value of the effective angle of shearing resistance (’) increased from 32 o
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Study on modular design and key technology of screw pressing for sludge treatment system

Study on modular design and key technology of screw pressing for sludge treatment system

The classification of these new types of solid/liquid separating sets is made, according to the different functions of the single unit of the equipment. While the practical application of the equipments used in different industrial fields is also illustrated (Zhang and Sun, 2004). Based on the quadratic orthogonal rotating combinatorial method with three factors and five levels employed to design the experimental procedure, the effects of independent variables of screw extruded process on solid-liquid separation were analyzed. An optimum independent parameters combination for highest solid TS value of 40% was obtained with water-food ratio of 0.65, article squeeze gap of 1.5 mm and screw speed of 68 r/min. The research results can provide a reference for solid-liquid separation process of dairy manure (Guan et al., 2010). The design helical line which was applied in sludge dewatering screw press device based on theprinciple of solid material balance in the entrance and exit of the drive, the mathematical model of screw axis with equal diameter and variable pitch was derived based on dewatering parameters, and FLUENT was used to simulate the fluid model established by this mathematical model, the pressure and velocity distribution cloud of the flow field were obtained, then the results of post processing to verify the reliability and practicability of the screw press, and provide a kind of new theoretical method to design and analyze the sludge dewatering screw press device (Zhang and Qu, 2015). Application of ultrasonic waves in sludge treatment caused to reduce sludge volume and accelerate sludge digestion (Ghafarzadeh et al., 2017).
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THE TOXICITY OF TWO TYPES OF SEWAGE SLUDGE FROM WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT FOR PLANTS IN CZECH REPUBLIC

THE TOXICITY OF TWO TYPES OF SEWAGE SLUDGE FROM WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT FOR PLANTS IN CZECH REPUBLIC

alba L. were positioned at equal distances near the middle ridge of the test plate on a filter pa- per placed on the top of the hydrated soil/sew- age sludge mixture. After closing, the test plates were placed vertically in a holder and incubated at 25°C for 3 days. At the end of the incubation period a digital picture was taken of the test plates with the germinated plants. The analyses and the length measurements were performed using the Image Too l3.0 for Windows (UTHSCSA, San Antonio, USA). The bioassays were performed in three replicates. The percent inhibition of seed germination (SG) and root growth inhibition (RI) were calculated with the formula:
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The Kinetics of Biodeconcentration for Nitrate: Case Study on Microbial Denitrification and Plant Absorption

The Kinetics of Biodeconcentration for Nitrate: Case Study on Microbial Denitrification and Plant Absorption

The germination index was used to determine the inhibitory potential of the com- post water extract. Seed germination test was carried out with Chinese cabbage using compost substrate extract. Two g of oven-dried compost was placed in a test tube with screw cap and 20 mL of distilled water was added; the tube was then placed on an electric rotator at 125 rpm for 1 hour. The supernatant was decanted and centrifuged at 10000 rpm for 10 minutes and filtered through Whatman paper. Two mL of filtrate was diluted with one mL of distilled water and sprayed over a sheet of filter paper kept inside the petri dish. Ten seeds of Chinese cabbage were then placed on the filter paper; another filter paper was moistened with 3 mL distilled water and 10 seeds and was used as a control The percentage of germination was measured after incubating the covered petri dishes in the dark at 28 o C for 4 days (Matheur et al. 1993).
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