SEX OFFENDERS, SEXUAL ABUSE

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Juvenile Sex Offenders

Juvenile Sex Offenders

Burton, Leibowitz, and Howard (2010) compared pornography exposure between male adolescents who sexually abuse and male nonsexual offending delinquent youth. Although previous literature indicates that pornography use for adult males at risk for aggression may result in sexually aggressive behavior, very little research has been reported on exposure to pornography on the part of juveniles who commit sexual abuse. The juveniles who had engaged in sexually abusive behavior reported more exposure to pornography when they were both younger and older than age 10 than nonsexual abusers. However, their exposure was not correlated to the age at which their sexually abusive behavior started, to the reported number of victims, or to sexual offense severity. The exposure subscale before age 10 was not related to the number of children the group sexually abused, and the forceful exposure subscale was not correlated with either arousal to rape or degree of force used by the youth. Finally, exposure was significantly correlated with all of the nonsexual crime scores in the study. The researchers characterized this study as exploratory in nature and stated that no clear conclusions can be drawn regarding prohibitions or control of pornography for adolescents who sexually abuse and who are in treatment or on parole or probation.
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International approaches to understanding and responding to sexual abuse

International approaches to understanding and responding to sexual abuse

Travel, then, to other continents, and the picture only gets more complex – colleagues in Stop it Now! US are working some in the Caribbean and in West Africa; here in UK we are collaborating with colleagues in Australia (where some conventional US/Canadian/UK solutions have failed when applied to remote indigenous populations; but with the promise of a prevention framework (public health approach, with place-based prevention included) that will hopefully allow local communities to decide how they would do the best by their children. And this same approach, based on local understanding of the problem being respectfully used to draw up a prevention strategy is the basis of an international project in which Lucy Faithfull Foundation is involved. Should any readers wish to take part, I'd be delighted. But there are other for a having related conversations – including ISPCAN (International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect), who are holding a Denver Thinking Space in March to "capture" different tertiary, secondary and primary approaches to sex offenders, at-risk groups and boys. For most of us, I imagine there would be broad agreement that sexual violence is mostly done to women and children by men. I have seen some interesting variations to this in other countries, but such variations tend to be more marginal than central (is my
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Association between recidivism risk and scores on psychological measures and outcome of therapy in sex offenders. Dissimulation, coping and defence styles in sex-offenders, non-sex offenders and non-offenders

Association between recidivism risk and scores on psychological measures and outcome of therapy in sex offenders. Dissimulation, coping and defence styles in sex-offenders, non-sex offenders and non-offenders

Research indicates that the prevalence of sexual assault (SA) is high. For example, nearly thirteen per cent of a community sample of four thousand and eight women in the USA reported being raped at least once in their lifetime (Resnick, Kilpatrick, Dansky, Saunders and Best, 1993). Research on adult male victims of sexual assault is rare, but an epidemiological survey of two thousand four hundred and seventy four men in England found that nearly three per cent had been forced into sexual contact by another person after the age of sixteen (Coxell, King, Mezey and Gordon, 1999). A recent review of the prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA) found rates ranging from seven per cent to thirty six per cent for women and eight per cent to twenty nine per cent for men (Fikelhor, 1994). Victims of SA experience a number of psychological disorders and medical injuries (see Resnick, Aciemo, and Kilpatrick, 1997 for a review). A review of the cost of treatment of victims of crime in the USA in 1991 estimates the cost of such treatment to be nine point seven billion dollars, with over four billion dollars estimated to be spent on victims of child sexual abuse (Cohen and Miller, 1998: Table 1).
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Volunteering with sex offenders: the attitudes of volunteers toward sex offenders, their treatment and rehabilitation

Volunteering with sex offenders: the attitudes of volunteers toward sex offenders, their treatment and rehabilitation

17 more direct experience including knowing (or being) a victim of a sexual offence can predict more pessimistic views with regards to sex offender treatment. Of particular note was our finding that the majority of volunteers stated that they have known a victim of sexual abuse, including themselves. While our data does not allow a breakdown into those who were a victim themselves and those who have known someone else in that situation, this finding raises a number of issues. Firstly, one might speculate that having such experience might be a potential motivator that has not been described in previous published research (see Wilson et al., 2010 for a review). Such potential restorative justice motivation would be in line with Circles principles though it is not possible to conclude from our research that such motivation does indeed exist. Nonetheless, based on a small interview study with CoSA volunteers, Wager & Wilson (in press) further conclude that motivation to volunteer was based on a number of considerations and was not necessarily always related to the status of victim/survivor.
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The Reality of Sexual Offending in Kenya: Are Sex Offenders Finally Cornered?

The Reality of Sexual Offending in Kenya: Are Sex Offenders Finally Cornered?

Several theoretical frameworks exist that all attempt to explain aspects of sexual offending. Ward and Beech (2006) summarized these theoretical orientations as: comprehensive explanations of sexual abuse (Ward and Siegert, 2002); empathy problems (Marshall, Champagne, Brown and Miller, 1997); cognitive distortions (Mann and Beech, 2003; Ward and Keenan, 1999); single factors associated with sexual abuse such as intimacy deficits (Marshall, 1999). These diverse writings suggest several but not one cause of sexual offending. For instance Siegert and Ward (2003) centred on genetic predispositions while Beech and Ward (2004) focused on negative developmental experiences including abuse, rejection and attachment deficiencies. Thomas (2002) tends to favour psychological dispositions or traits such as empathy deficits and deviant sexual preferences and interpersonal problems. Cossins (2000) emphasizes social and cultural structures and processes while Hanson and Harris (2001) dwell more on context factors like intoxication and stress.
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Alternative Restrictions of Sex Offenders' Social Media Use & The Freedom of Speech

Alternative Restrictions of Sex Offenders' Social Media Use & The Freedom of Speech

federal courts to find total bans on sex offenders’ social media use unconstitu- tional. This section will discuss the constitutional rights of convicted sex of- fenders and then examine how each case presented free speech issues. The dis- cussion will then shift to how each court balanced free speech interests with the compelling state interest of protecting children from sexual abuse online and ultimately concluded that total bans on sex offenders’ social media use are unconstitutional.

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Stumbling into sexual crime: the passive perpetrator in accounts by male internet sex offenders

Stumbling into sexual crime: the passive perpetrator in accounts by male internet sex offenders

Public reactions to internet child offending remains ambivalent in that, whilst there is vocal condemnation of contact child sex offending, there is less indignation about internet child abuse; this is potentially due to a lack of recognition of this type of offence as sexual offending per se. This ambiguity is reflected by internet sex offenders themselves in their verbalisations of their offending, and this paper presents a qualitative analysis of the accounts offered by individuals convicted of internet-based sexual offences involving the downloading and viewing of images of children (N=7). In particular, this paper presents an analysis of the explanations of offenders for the commencement of internet activity and the progression to more illicit online materials. The data was collected through semi-structured interviews, and analysed using discursive methods, paying close attention to language use and function. The analysis documents the practices that internet child abusers employ in order to manage their identities, distance themselves from the label of sex offender, and/or reduce their personal agency and accountability. Implications of this analysis are discussed with reference to the current minimisation of the downloading of sexually explicit images of children as a sexual crime per se by the public and offenders alike, and the risk assessment and treatment of individuals convicted of these offences.
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Sexual Abuse among Female Undergraduates in Tertiary Institutions in IMO State, Southeast Nigeria: Prevalence, Pattern and Determinants

Sexual Abuse among Female Undergraduates in Tertiary Institutions in IMO State, Southeast Nigeria: Prevalence, Pattern and Determinants

Most of the respondents, (81.8%) have heard about sexual abuse and the com- mon sources of information were from; television, (61.1%), newspaper, (53.8%), friends, (53.0%), and radio (51.9%). The most common definition of sexual abuse known was sexual act without consent (89.2%), and common forms of sexual abuse mentioned were; Fondling/grabbing of private body parts (86.4%), rape (66.8%) and exposure to pornography (46.4%). Common victims of sexual abuse mentioned were; children, (74.1%), females, (69.0%) and singles, (57.2%). Majority of the respondents (96.3%) mentioned females as the genders most af- fected. Teacher/lecturers (72.3%), intimate partners (44.2%) were the common perpetrators of abuse mentioned. Commonest place that abuse takes place was in secretes corners (71.1%), followed closely by school/office (67.4%) and clubs (58.7%). Transmission of STI (77.8%) was the commonest consequence of abuse mentioned. A higher proportion of the students had poor knowledge about sex- ual abuse, (47.0%). The commonest factor leading to sexual abuse suggested by respondents was ignorance, 214 (14.4%) followed by financial problem, 196 (13.2%) and indecent dressing, 158 (10.6%). The commonest preventive meas- ures to stop sexual abuse suggested by respondents were self-control 336 (17.3%) followed by stopping of lonely visits 225 (11.6%), punishment for offenders 215 (11.1%), and avoidance of bad company 185 (9.5%) (Table 3).
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MANAGEMENT OF SEX OFFENDERS

MANAGEMENT OF SEX OFFENDERS

Ward & Hudson (1998), gave overview of sex offenders’ criminogenic needs, meaning, factors that if present and untreated are likely to contribute to reoffending. Such factors are as follows: deviant sexual arousal/sexual pre-occupation, weak commitment to avoiding re-offending, cognitive distortions which support offending , limited/inappropriate reactions to victim distress, impulsive, antisocial lifestyle, difficulty recognizing personal risk factors, difficulty generating/enacting coping strategies for personal risk factors, deficits in (personal/interpersonal) problem solving skills for risk factors, social support for sex offending, poor emotional control, emotional loneliness, limited/inappropriate intimacy skills (e.g. dealing with disclosure, jealousy etc), dysfunctional schemas, linked to early attachment experiences (e.g. suspiciousness), history of drug and/or alcohol abuse.
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An examination of the relationship between childhood abuse, anger and violent behavior among a sample of sex offenders

An examination of the relationship between childhood abuse, anger and violent behavior among a sample of sex offenders

The relationship between anger and violent behavior among offenders convicted of sex crimes has been contro- versial. While some researchers reported the existence of a link between the two (Andrews, 1996; Howells, 1989; Howells, 2004; Kroner et al. 1992; Novaco, 1994; Walters, 1990; Welsh and Gordon, 1991; Zamble and Quinsey, 1997), others have disputed it (Loza and Loza-Fanous, 1999; Tice and Baumeister, 1993;). There are indications that the emotion of anger is an important influence on offending for some MSO, but the mechanisms that fuel this relationship remain unclear. Increasing attention has been paid to the emotional dysregulation that can result from ex- periencing childhood abuse (Eckhardt et al. 2008; Gratz et al. 2009) since anger is a common reaction to traumatic exposure, (Andrews et al. 2000; Brewin et al. 2000; Connor et al. 2003) and high levels of anger have been reported in adulthood among individuals who were physically and/or sexually abused as children (Feeny et al. 2000; Ruch et al. 1991). Further, high levels of anger reported among of- fenders who were physically and/or sexually abused as chil- dren suggest that anger may act as a contributing factor in the commission of violent sex crimes. Further there appear to be differences between the experience and expression of anger between rapists and child molesters. Thus the goal of the current study was first to examine the role of anger among MSO. Specifically we sought to examine whether anger was related to verbal aggression, physical aggression and weapon use during the commission of the crime. Next we examined the relationship between childhood abuse and anger. Then in an effort to better understand the develop- mental mechanisms behind violent sexual behavior we ex- plored whether anger was a possible mediator or moderator in the relationship between childhood abuse and the commission of a violent sex crime. In addition, given the differences between MSO-R and MSO-CM we examined whether the aforementioned relationships differed by offender type. Based upon the previous lit- erature it was hypothesized that 1) those MSO whose crimes involved verbal and physical aggression as well as weapon use would be rated higher on measures of anger; 2) those who report a history of childhood abuse would receive higher anger scores; and 3) anger would mediate or moderate the relationship between an of- fender’s history of childhood abuse and the commission of a violent sex crime. Finally we hypothesized the MSO-R and MSO-CM would express anger and aggres- sion differently such that anger would be more related to the crimes of MSO-R than those of MSO-CM.
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Factors which influence the decision of sexual offenders against children to attend a sex offender treatment programme at Te Piriti or Kia Marama : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology

Factors which influence the decision of sexual offenders against children to attend a sex offender treatment programme at Te Piriti or Kia Marama : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts in Psychology at Massey University

The literature review begins with an overview of the effects of sexual abuse on children, prevalence of sexual offending against children, particularly among incarcerated offenders, chil[r]

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Commercialised Sexual Exploitation of Children, Adolescents and Women: Health and Social Structure in Bangladesh

Commercialised Sexual Exploitation of Children, Adolescents and Women: Health and Social Structure in Bangladesh

“Prostitution” (legally defined as penetrative sexual relations between a man and a woman aged 18 or over, in which money has been paid for this sexual ac- cess) is generally legal in Bangladesh, but statutes specify fines, and periods of imprisonment for sexually using, or trafficking for sexual purposes, those aged less than 18, and for being an intermediate person in sexual transactions involv- ing persons of any age. We have been unable to locate any reports or informa- tion concerning prosecutions in this regard, however. “Operating or working in a brothel” apparently has an ambiguous legal status, which police and local offi- cials exploit, allowing women to continue in sex work only if they pay “fines” (i.e. bribes, to corrupt police and officials) (SWN & SWASA, 2016).
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Sexual abuse and the grooming process in sport: Learning from Bella's story

Sexual abuse and the grooming process in sport: Learning from Bella's story

Sexual Abuse and the Grooming Process in Sport: Learning from Bella’s Story According to Brackenridge et al. (2008), although the exact prevalence of sexual abuse in society is difficult to determine, ‘it is clear that it occurs across all classes of society and in any context where there is the opportunity for exploitation and an individual with the will to exploit’ (p. 387). They note that sexual abuse has been reported in a number of institutional settings including that of sport. On this issue, Leahy (2008) states that during the last few years, ‘the occurrence of sexual harassment and abuse in sport has been systematically documented in a number of countries in Europe, Australia, Canada, and the United States’ (p. 351)
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Is some sexual offending underpinned by obsessionality?

Is some sexual offending underpinned by obsessionality?

Interventions with sexual offenders involve the client becoming aware of their own risk, potential triggers to their reoffending, and the pathways that may lead to such reoffending (“offence chains”). Ideally, an offender will “intervene at the antecedent” and avoid a future offence in the first place. This means they need to monitor their own thoughts and behaviour, and the sexualised content this will sometimes involve involve. This may lead to panicked self-monitoring classically known as the ‘White Bears’ problem; the more one tries to not think of a white bear, the more one can think of little else (Wegner, 1989). A sexual offender may think that their spontaneous sexual thought is an immediate risk, as the taboo stimulus leads to spontaneous recovery of sexual thoughts, so their efforts to suppress the thought have failed, and they will therefore slip back into full offending. An offender may experience shame, guilt, and form an excessive preoccupation with trying to not recall that which they do not wish to think about - but because of the “white bears problem”, becomes unable to switch off from such thoughts. Shingler (2009) observes that active thought suppression (trying to force oneself to not think about something) is an unhelpful strategy, and it is better to see a thought as transient, and unless acted on, quickly replaced by another; formal associational techniques may assist a client in moving away from a troubling thought to a thought with more anodyne content, enabling them to become more in control of themselves.
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Adult Sex Offenders

Adult Sex Offenders

In discussing their findings, the researchers explored possible explanations for the study’s overall results. Marques and her colleagues (2005) suggested that, despite the use of random assignment, the treatment and control groups likely differed in some important ways. For example, the treated subjects tended to be higher risk, and may have been less motivated or more sexually deviant than control group subjects. In addition, the screening procedures used in the research likely eliminated some of the highest risk offenders from the study. As a result, the intervention may have been too intensive for the offenders in the treatment group. Finally, the treatment program itself did not reflect “state-of the-art” treatment in several ways (Marques et al., p. 100). For example, the program did not fully adhere to the risk-need-responsivity (RNR) principles of effective intervention because it did not focus on high-risk offenders and treatment targets included only some dynamic risk factors. (See the discussion of RNR in the section “Findings From Synthesis Research.”) Given the limitations of the study, Marques and colleagues (2005) called for “additional controlled investigations to address the many questions that remain about when and how treatment works for sexual offenders” (pp. 99–100). The researchers emphasized the importance of including appropriate comparison groups in future treatment outcome studies, and they urged researchers who assess the effects of treatment “to control for prior risk by using an appropriate actuarial measure for both treatment and comparison groups” (p. 103).
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Differential Sentencing Patterns among Felony Sex Offenders and Non Sex Offenders

Differential Sentencing Patterns among Felony Sex Offenders and Non Sex Offenders

In rating the offense, the FSW uses such factors as the statutory gravity of the offense, the amount of financial loss and/or physical harm suffered by the victim, and whether a weapon w[r]

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Psychological evaluation contributions to sexual abuse situations

Psychological evaluation contributions to sexual abuse situations

essential for the organization of services in order to guarantee access to measures to preven t aggravations resulting from sexual violence in a timely manner (BRAZIL, 2018c). In cases of sexual violence, immediate notification aims to expedite the care of the victim and their access to emergency contraception and prophylactic measures of sexually transmitted infectioins and viral hepatitis within 72 hours of the aggression, as early as possible (BRAZIL , 2012a) SA is one of the most cruel and persistent manifestations of gender violence because it goes through the victim's story (BRAZIL, 2012b). Exposure to SA in childhood is associated with long-term impairment, representing a risk factor for triggering various changes of a psychological, behavioral and social order. They are changes that vary in time and intensity, affect the lives referent of the victims and result in great emotional sufferings (LIRA et al., 2017). It is not possible to generalize SA effects, since the severity and extent of the consequences depend on the particularities of the experience of each victim. Several areas of knowledge attempt to delineate the consequences of a situation of child sexual abuse, so that proposals for more specific interventions can be built to minimize the damage of this violence. Given the brutality in which abuse occurs, often associated with other types of violence, addedto the fact that the child is not emotionally and physically prepared for the sexual act, because it constitutes a subject in a peculiar condition of development , it is almost certain that it develops several consequences (FLORENTINO, 2015). Considering SA as a social problem that can bring countless consequences to the victims, the objective of this study was to discuss the contributions of the area of Psychological Evaluations for situations of Sexual Abuse. For this, the literature review was chosen in qualitative approach as type of research. We analyzed articles and Portuguese language published between 2010-2018, collected in the CAPES database and VHL with the descriptors: "Psychological Evaluation AND Sexual Abuse" that were previously validated in the Decs of the Virtual Health Library (VHL) and data were analyzed in a descriptive way based on the elaboration of a literature review protocol formulated by the authors. From the context presented, the question that guides this study is: What contributions of the Psychological Evaluation the situations of Sexual Abuse are discussed in the literature published in the format of scientific articles between 2010-2018?
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Sexualisation of young people review

Sexualisation of young people review

I believe that parents should be given information and support to educate their children about the issues raised in this review. The Teenage Relationship Abuse campaign could provide a useful starting point. Directgov (the official UK government website for citizens) will carry information for parents, and this should be developed, maintained and signposted within government communications beyond the lifespan of the initial campaign. During the course of this review, many parents have told me that when they see sexualised merchandise aimed at children, or inappropriate imagery being used in advertising, they are not sure who they should complain to. Is it retailers, manufacturers, Local Authorities, the Press Complaints Commission, Ofcom, the ASA, or their local MP? It can be difficult to know who to turn to. I therefore recommend that:
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Determinants of Adherence Levels to Oral Pre-exposure Prophylaxis among Seronegative Partners in HIV Discordant Heterosexual Relationships

Determinants of Adherence Levels to Oral Pre-exposure Prophylaxis among Seronegative Partners in HIV Discordant Heterosexual Relationships

The overall adherence for the different levels (intake, timing, and appointments) was over 70% minimum requirement WHO categorization of having good adherence to oral PrEP. The key determinants of the adherence observed were being a male, being older in age, having higher education, longer period of being in discordant status, receiving partners support, use of condom after PrEP break, use of reminders (alarm) and higher frequency of HIV testing. However side effects, alcohol use and extra marital sex were associated with low adherence across all levels. The results obtained from use of PrEP in the clinic demonstrated that PrEP was very effective since there were no respondents sampled seroconverted to being HIV positive.
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The Implications of Sexual Abuse for the Health of Women in Kisumu District, Kenya

The Implications of Sexual Abuse for the Health of Women in Kisumu District, Kenya

The focus is on identifying the causes and nature of sexual abuse; the consequences of sexual abuse on the health of the survivors; investigating the existence, if any, of existing post-[r]

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