Sexual Behaviour and Attitudes

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A comparison of sexual behaviour and attitudes of healthy adolescents in a Danish high school in 1982, 1996, and 2001

A comparison of sexual behaviour and attitudes of healthy adolescents in a Danish high school in 1982, 1996, and 2001

The rise in Chlamydia incidence does not seem to be due to the introduction of new, more sensitive diagnostic methods [13]. Nor is there any evidence that the infec- tiousness of the Chlamydia organism has changed. Multi- drug resistant Chlamydia organisms have been described [14], and untreated infections may prolong the period of infectiousness. However, up until now, there are no data on the frequency and distribution of resistant strains of Chlamydia in Scandinavia. It has also been hypothesized that the rise in the reported incidence of STIs reflects changes in sexual behaviour and attitudes. Our data sup- port the existence of an ecological association as a minimum, as fewer high school students were using con- doms in 2001 than in 1996. Their choice of contraception was also less influenced by the fear of contracting an STI than by the fear of becoming pregnant. This was further supported by the observed increase in oral contraception use among girls. This has been confirmed by studies of adolescents in Norway and Britain which found that con- doms were seen as contraception and not as a method for preventing STIs, and protection against pregnancy was the overriding concern [15,16].
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Socio demographic study of HIV/AIDS related knowledge, attitudes and sexual behaviour: Patients from South India

Socio demographic study of HIV/AIDS related knowledge, attitudes and sexual behaviour: Patients from South India

In India AIDS is not a notifiable disease, so that medical staff are not legally required to report cases. Further, problems associated with cultural attitudes when studying sensitive topics, such as sexual behaviour, could result in inaccuracies. Stigma associated with the disease increases unwillingness, by patients, their families and medical staff, to report cases (Barnett and Whiteside 2002; Lee 1993). The statistics collected are socially and geographically limited to certain groups and areas. For example, younger women will be over represented at antenatal clinics as they are more sexually active and more likely to become pregnant, and HIV positive women will be underrepresented as HIV infection reduces fertility and could be under­ representative (Barnett and Whiteside 2002; UNAIDS 2000b). On the other hand, a population based study in Andhra Pradesh, suggested that the official sentinel surveillance based methods lead to overestimation of the HIV estimates due to extra HIV estimates from STI clinics, common practise of referral of people in lower socio-economic strata (Dandona, L et a l 2006; Dandona, L. et al 2006). Barnett & Whiteside (2002) suggest that NACO data included people who were tested more than once and/or in different localities and resulted in double counting. This further contributes to the problems of estimating the level of the epidemic, and the lack of knowledge about the real number of HIV positive cases is a deterrent to analysis of the demographic implications of the epidemic (Elliot 1998).
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Relations between sex, guilt, depression and faith

Relations between sex, guilt, depression and faith

representing three different attitudes towards religion will score differently from each other and from a Depressed group on attitudes to sexual behaviour, with Pentecostal scores tendin[r]

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Personality traits, gender roles and sexual behaviours of young adult males

Personality traits, gender roles and sexual behaviours of young adult males

Results: We identified weak to moderate associations with particular sexual behaviours and attitudes. Neuroticism correlated positively with lower sexual satisfaction, self‑acceptance and more negative attitudes towards sexuality; extraversion with higher desire, frequency of sexual intercourses, their diversity, sexual satisfaction, masculinity level and lower report of erectile problems; openness to experience with better quality of partnership, more positive atti‑ tudes towards sexual activity and masculinity level; conscientiousness with later sexual initiation age, more frequent and diverse sexual behaviours (but lower interest in masturbation and coitus interruptus), overall sexual satisfaction, satisfaction with one’s body and femininity level; agreeableness with a better quality of relationship with a partner, satisfaction from body, lower number of previous partners and more frequent sexual encounters (but less masturba‑ tion). Stereotypical masculinity, more so than femininity, was related to a wide range of positive aspects of sexuality. Conclusions: The Big Five personality traits and stereotypical femininity/masculinity dimensions were found to have a noticeable, but weak to moderate influence on sexual behaviour in young adult males.
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Efficacy of Cognitive Behavoural Therapy and Logotherapy in Reducing Risky Sexual Behaviour among in-School Adolescents in Benin Metropolis Edo State, Nigeria

Efficacy of Cognitive Behavoural Therapy and Logotherapy in Reducing Risky Sexual Behaviour among in-School Adolescents in Benin Metropolis Edo State, Nigeria

The participating adolescents could have been able to imbibe an attitude of self-detachment from taking risky sexual behaviour; likely directing their awareness towards positive aspects of life by attending to a life full of potential meaning and value during treatments. The in-school adolescents could have substituted the right attitude of actualizing personal potentials for wrong activity and change their unrealistic beliefs towards sexual practices that could help them to achieve the meaning and purpose of their life. This outcome contradicts the findings of Schnell and Becker [16] in respect to alleviation of symptoms of negative behaviour; Wijayanti [27] who found that LT reduces anxiety; and Koohi [17] also established the effectiveness of logotherapy in reduction of aggression. Hofmann and Smiths [8] in their study affirmed the use of CBT in the reduction of behaviour disorders. The finding of this study contradicts the finding of Oshamehin [28], that logotherapy and cognitive restructuring training were effective behaviour modification such as assisting students to develop unfavourable attitudes towards examination malpractice.
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Association Between Sources of Knowledge on Human Sexual Behaviour and Marital Satisfaction among Married People in Meru County

Association Between Sources of Knowledge on Human Sexual Behaviour and Marital Satisfaction among Married People in Meru County

Knowledge on human sexual behaviour is integral part of sexuality education which is important in addressing risky sexual behaviour (Khan, Townsend & D'Costa, 2002). Most conflicts, sexually infections and unplanned pregnancies in marriages are as a result of risky sexual behaviour (Kelly, 2005). Inadequate programmes, lack of appropriated knowledge on sexual behaviour leave the youth at the mercy of the media and misinformation from peers. Parents, teachers and health professionals are often unable to communicate effectively with young people about their sexuality and sexual behaviour. Tanton et al reports that many young women have lower level of power or control in their sexual relationships. On the other hand young men may feel the pressure from their peers to act according to male sexual stereotypes and engage in controlling harmful behaviours. Good quality sexuality education has an impact on positive attitudes and values and can even out the power dynamics in intimate relationships contributing to prevention of abuse and fostering mutually respectful consensual partnerships (European Expert Group on Sexuality Education, 2016).
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Sexual experience and HIV related knowledge among Belgian university students: a questionnaire study

Sexual experience and HIV related knowledge among Belgian university students: a questionnaire study

Background: Adolescents are a risk group for acquiring sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV. Correct knowledge about transmission mechanisms is a prerequisite to taking appropriate precautions to avoid infection. This study aimed at assessing the level of HIV-related knowledge among university students as a first step in developing targeted interventions. We used a self-developed HIV knowledge questionnaire, supplemented with socio-demographic and sexual behaviour questions. The questionnaire was composed of 59 items from different existing questionnaires. It included general statements and statements about prevention, transmission and treatment of HIV.
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Crossing sexual barriers: The influence of background factors and personal attitudes on sexual guilt and sexual anxiety among Canadian and American Muslim women and men

Crossing sexual barriers: The influence of background factors and personal attitudes on sexual guilt and sexual anxiety among Canadian and American Muslim women and men

likely to engage in premarital sexual activity than daughters of parents with permissive or liberal sexual attitudes (Fisher, 1989; Moore et al., 1986) whereas for sons this may not be the case as congruency between parents’ attitudes and sons’ sexual behaviours has not been established (Moore et al., 1986). Participants in the present study had been asked to identify which parent they felt was more influential on matters of sex and sexuality and then to report their perceptions of that parent’s sexual attitudes. The vast majority of Muslim women identified their mothers while only half the men did the same. Research examining parental communication regarding sex and sexuality has found the gender of both the parent and the child to be an important factor. Mothers are more likely to discuss matters of sexuality with their children than are fathers (Nolin & Petersen, 1992) and they tend to do so more with their daughters than with their sons (Leland & Barth, 1993; Nolin & Petersen, 1992). Fathers, on the other hand, tend to communicate infrequently with both sons and daughters (Feldman & Rosenthal, 2000). Indeed, adolescents will often view their mothers’ communications about sex more positively than they will view their fathers’ communications (Feldman & Rosenthal, 2000). It is, therefore, not surprising that that young Muslim women overwhelmingly identified with their mothers while only half of the young men did the same. However, as both men and women reported receiving similar amounts of sexual education from their parent, and there were no differences in how the sexual attitudes of mothers and fathers were perceived, it is unclear if these mothers were indeed discussing issues of sexuality more with their daughters than their sons.
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The relationships between rugby players’ tackle training attitudes and behaviour and their match tackle attitudes and behaviour

The relationships between rugby players’ tackle training attitudes and behaviour and their match tackle attitudes and behaviour

It was decided that closed-ended questions would be more appropriate for purposes of this study as these provide the respondents with a prespeci fi ed set of answers (items) and response categories. 33 This suited the aim of the study as it made answering the question- naire less demanding for the players, and standardised the data for statistical analysis, making it more reliable and consistent over time. 33 Accordingly, each question consisted of (1) the question (2) the items — list of pos- sible answers relating to the speci fi c question being posed (3) response categories — a fi ve-point ordinal Likert scale represented by a numerical value, where players had to rate the importance, frequency and quan- tity of each item in the question. Where necessary, ques- tions were provided with a ‘ Not Familiar ’ option to prevent players from giving arbitrary answers if they were unsure. 33 For assessing players ’ attitude, players had to rate the importance of an item on the following scale: (1) not at all important, (2) not too important, (3) undecided, (4) somewhat important, (5) very important. 33 To measure frequency of training and match behaviour, the following descriptors were used: (1) never, (2) rarely, (3) sometimes, (4) frequently, (5) always. 28 Quantity of training or match behaviour was determined on the scale: (1) not at all, (2) a little, (3) a fair amount, (4) much, (5) very much. 33 Although all questions were closed questions, a ‘ further comment ’ space was provided to cater for players who felt the need to add more information.
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The relationships between rugby players’ tackle training attitudes and behaviour and their match tackle attitudes and behaviour

The relationships between rugby players’ tackle training attitudes and behaviour and their match tackle attitudes and behaviour

It was decided that closed-ended questions would be more appropriate for purposes of this study as these provide the respondents with a prespeci fi ed set of answers (items) and response categories. 33 This suited the aim of the study as it made answering the question- naire less demanding for the players, and standardised the data for statistical analysis, making it more reliable and consistent over time. 33 Accordingly, each question consisted of (1) the question (2) the items — list of pos- sible answers relating to the speci fi c question being posed (3) response categories — a fi ve-point ordinal Likert scale represented by a numerical value, where players had to rate the importance, frequency and quan- tity of each item in the question. Where necessary, ques- tions were provided with a ‘ Not Familiar ’ option to prevent players from giving arbitrary answers if they were unsure. 33 For assessing players ’ attitude, players had to rate the importance of an item on the following scale: (1) not at all important, (2) not too important, (3) undecided, (4) somewhat important, (5) very important. 33 To measure frequency of training and match behaviour, the following descriptors were used: (1) never, (2) rarely, (3) sometimes, (4) frequently, (5) always. 28 Quantity of training or match behaviour was determined on the scale: (1) not at all, (2) a little, (3) a fair amount, (4) much, (5) very much. 33 Although all questions were closed questions, a ‘ further comment ’ space was provided to cater for players who felt the need to add more information.
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Differences in sexual behaviour and sexual practices of adolescents in Nigeria based on sex and self-reported HIV status

Differences in sexual behaviour and sexual practices of adolescents in Nigeria based on sex and self-reported HIV status

Bivariate analysis was conducted to determine associ- ation of HIV status and risky behaviours (having multiple sexual partners, unprotected sex, transactional sex and sex with persons who were 10 years older). Dependent vari- ables were sexual practices (anal, vagina and oral sex), sex- ual behaviour (age of sexual debut, history of condom use, having multiple sex partnership, age of sex partner), and history of forced sexual initiation. Independent variables were sex and HIV status. All associations that were signifi- cant were fitted into a binomial logistic regression model to determine predictors of condom use during anal, oral and vagina sex. Pearson or Fischer’s Exact Chi-Square was used to test significance of associations between variables. Comparison of continuous variables (age) was done using t-test. Statistical significance was defined at P < 0.05 with a 95% confidence interval. Analysis was conducted using STATA version 12.0.
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Incremental role of male circumcision on a generalised HIV epidemic through its protective effect against other sexually transmitted infections: from efficacy to effectiveness to population-level impact.

Incremental role of male circumcision on a generalised HIV epidemic through its protective effect against other sexually transmitted infections: from efficacy to effectiveness to population-level impact.

heterosexual population in which the intervention is introduced (1-3). Individuals in the population are heterogeneous with respect to sexual activity and are stratified into classes with different rates of sexual partner acquisition. The STI was modelled with two compartments representing infected or not infected. HIV infection has been modelled with 5 states representing susceptible, early and acute infection,

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Residential self-selection in quasi-experimental and natural experimental studies: an extended conceptualisation of the relationship between the built environment and travel behaviour

Residential self-selection in quasi-experimental and natural experimental studies: an extended conceptualisation of the relationship between the built environment and travel behaviour

behavior as well as the built environment. This implies that any measured association between the built environment and travel behavior is at least partly a result of sharing “a parent” (i.e., both are caused by a shared predictor (attitudes) and they are correlated as a consequence). The second conceptualization (1.B) shows that travel behavior influences attitudes, which, in turn, determine the residential location (i.e., built environment). The third conceptualization (1.C) illustrates the reverse scenario in which the built environment influences attitudes that in turn affect travel behavior. Only the fourth conceptualiza- tion (1.D) shows the built environment influencing travel behavior directly without attitudes affecting this relationship. We added three conceptualizations to the four presented by Cao et al. (2009a). In the fifth conceptualization, attitudes influence travel behavior, but all other relationships are not causal (1.E). In 1.F, attitudes are an antecedent of both the built environment and travel behavior. In addition, there is a causal relationship between the built environment and travel behavior. In the seventh and final conceptualization, attitudes influence the built environment, which consequently influences travel behavior (1.G). In theory, every line can be drawn four ways (correlation, causation in one direction, causation in the other direction, and bidirectional causations) resulting in a total of 81 (34) possible conceptualizations for cross-sectional studies. Any conceptualization in which attitudes have a casual influence (either one way or bidirectional) on the built environment represents an instance of residential self-selection (in Figure 1 these are conceptualizations 1.A, 1.B, 1.F and 1.G). Any conceptualization in which attitudes are an antecedent (parent) of both the built environment as well as travel behavior is vulnerable to residential self-selection bias in ascertaining the relationship between the latter two vari- ables. In Figure 1, this is visualized in conceptualizations 1.A and 1.F, the latter representing the “classical example of residential self-selection”.
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Psychiatric Morbidity and Explanatory Models in patients attending the Andrology Clinic in a Tertiary Care Hospital

Psychiatric Morbidity and Explanatory Models in patients attending the Andrology Clinic in a Tertiary Care Hospital

[49] symptoms, meaning of sickness, roles and expectations. Eliciting explanatory models are crucial as they influence diverse aspects of the illness like help seeking behaviour, compliance with treatment and patient satisfaction. Differences between physician and patient models tend to generate difficulties in the treatment [97]. Kleinman [97] proposed a few questions which enquire about the nature of the problem, its cause, its consequences and the expectation of the individual. Elicitation of explanatory models becomes more important when the patient and physician come from different cultural backgrounds. This is particularly true in relation to psychiatric disorders where many of the concepts and categories have a western basis. Not eliciting explanatory models may lead the clinicians to make decisions without understanding and involving patients and their families in the decision making process. This may lead to poor cooperation from the patients and their families which usually have consequences like non-compliance with therapy and relapse or worsening of illness episode [98]. Assessing explanatory models of the patients and their caregivers will definitely help clinicians in taking balanced decisions related to patient care. Knowing explanatory models also helps us to propose alternate models of disease, which helps in psycho-education of the patients and families.
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Psychosocial outcome in women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia

Psychosocial outcome in women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia

century, the housewife had become a symbol of femininity and social success. The husband was designated as the breadwinner, and it was the accepted view, particularly by the growing middle-class, that a married woman having to work outside the home was a misfortune and a disgrace (Oakley, 1974). However, the last decades of the century have seen attitudes changing and by 1992, The National Council of Women of Great Britain reported that 79 per cent of women between the ages of sixteen and thirty five saw ’getting on at work', or finding employment as a major goal. Only 50 per cent of women in the sample were concerned with having any, or more, children; diversity of roles had become important for the contemporary woman. Mansfield and Collard (1988) reported that even women who anticipated career breaks to accommodate pregnancy could not imagine permanently leaving the work force. However while 'the career woman' is a currently acceptable social role for many women who have higher levels of education and training, for those who are in low paid mundane work, staying at home after marriage, particularly if there are children, may be a culturally acceptable decision. In the present study, the salaries of those with CAH were lower than the salaries for women with diabetes. The modal salaries for the two groups were between £10,000-£14,999 and £15,000- £19,999 respectively.
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Counselors' Comfort Levels and Willingness to Discuss Sexual Issues with Couples They Counsel

Counselors' Comfort Levels and Willingness to Discuss Sexual Issues with Couples They Counsel

Anderson had students evaluate which teaching methods they found to be most effective. They reported that live demonstrations that portray a counselor counseling a client with sexual concerns are the most helpful, followed by practicing taking a sexual history of a client. Lectures and guest speakers were rated as the next most effective, respectively, followed by practice sexual counseling sessions, journals, reading assignments, and class presentations. Based on his teaching experience and student evaluations, Anderson believes there are four stages of therapist comfort. Stage one requires students to explore their own sexuality and sexual issues. Stage two occurs when students become more aware of the potential various sexual issues of others. In the third stage, students begin to become more comfortable with sexuality in all areas of life. They are able to discuss sexuality more openly with others. The fourth stage involves students feeling more comfortable with clients sharing their sexual concerns (Anderson, 1986). Over the years, a variety of courses, workshops, and seminars have been created to help counselors develop in their sexuality education (Fyfe, 1980; Humphrey, 2000; Weerakoon & Stiernborg, 1996).
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Binge drinking, reflection impulsivity, and unplanned sexual behavior: impaired decision-making in young social drinkers

Binge drinking, reflection impulsivity, and unplanned sexual behavior: impaired decision-making in young social drinkers

reflection impulsivity, binge drinking, expectancies, and unplanned sexual behaviour. 171[r]

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Environmental attitudes and actual behavior of bulgarian citizens

Environmental attitudes and actual behavior of bulgarian citizens

Abstract: In recent years, environmental issues are becoming a serious concern for citizens. Data from Eurobarometer surveys show that the vast majority of Europeans are aware of the environmental issues and realize their importance for the quality of life and socio-economic system as a whole. At the same time individual environmentally friendly behaviour is not widespread. This study investigates Bulgarian citizens' opinions on whether environmental protection is a personal responsibility of each individual or a political task, thus highlighting discrepancies between what individuals say and what they really do. The survey was conducted during the months of April-May 2013 and it involved 1011 adults, citizens of the Republic of Bulgaria. The study shows a high level of support from respondents for measures and actions aimed at environmental protection in Bulgaria. Despite a high degree of environmental consciousness, behaviour seems to follow the traditional line of action, and everyday experience points to obvious inconsistencies between verbal claim and actual behaviour. It was established that highly approved environmental models of individual behaviour rarely motivate and direct the daily activities of Bulgarian consumers.
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The Effects of Sexual Arousal on Risk-Taking and Decision-Making

The Effects of Sexual Arousal on Risk-Taking and Decision-Making

During the recruitment process, potential participants were invited to participate in a research project about sex differences in preferences regarding video clips; although this was a deception, potential participants were informed that they may be exposed to sexual material (see Appendix 7). Participants in Experiment 2 were told that the presented questions were a distracter task, meant to fill time in between the video clips as well as to collect demographic information. A same-sex experimenter greeted participants to explain the consent form and experimental procedures. After agreeing to take part in the experiment, participants were randomly assigned to either the control group (where they would view the control video clips) or the experimental group (where they would view the sexually explicit video clips). This random assignment occurred in advance: each session was designated as either an experimental session or a control session. The time slot a participant signed up for determined whether they would experience the control or the experimental condition. During the consent process, it was stressed that participants were free to leave the experiment at any time without penalty if they became
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From a lack of engagement and mistrust to partnership? Public attitudes to the disclosure of sex offender information

From a lack of engagement and mistrust to partnership? Public attitudes to the disclosure of sex offender information

– attitudes to child sexual abuse and abusers; – the best response to child sexual abusers; – disclosure of sex offender information; and – the current limited disclosure scheme. • bu[r]

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