Sexuality and gender roles

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Constructions and Socialization of Gender and Sexuality in Lesbian-/Gay-Headed Families

Constructions and Socialization of Gender and Sexuality in Lesbian-/Gay-Headed Families

Sydney: ...I think, for us, all the more reason to just normalize all aspects of helping...we do everything, you do everything...we don’t get to choose ‘cause we’re two women...we have to figure it out, so...you get to do everything too...I think the important thing is that he sees that it’s all fluid and...that you can have all kinds of different arrangements. Some patterns of chore divisions based on an intersection of age, birth order, and gender constellation of siblings seemed to emerge from the data. These findings are consistent with research that has found factors such as age, gender, and sibling order to interact with parental attitudes and modeling of gender roles in their impact on children’s involvement in gender-typed household chores in heterosexual-parented families (Crouter et al., 1995; Cunningham, 2001; McHale et al., 1999; McHale et al., 2003; White & Brinkerhoff, 1981). In the current study, in homes with only sons or only daughters (one or more), children were reported to perform a combination of masculine-typed and feminine-typed chores. In families with mixed gender children however, masculine-typed chores such as garbage, lawn-mowing, and snow shovelling were reported to be asked of and performed more often by sons than daughters. In families where a daughter was the eldest child, these daughters seemed to perform a greater amount of
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Gender Socialization in Chinese Schools: Teachers, Children and Gender Roles

Gender Socialization in Chinese Schools: Teachers, Children and Gender Roles

This research uses a model of gender influenced by U.S. feminist scholarship and queer theory, viewing gender and sexuality as fluid and nonbinary and viewing cultural gender roles as socially constructed rather than biologically determined. Influenced by the work of prominent gender theorists such as Judith Butler and Michelle Foucault, I follow C.J. Pascoe’s example in considering masculinity and femininity as “a variety of practices and discourses that can be mobilized and applied to both boys and girls.” (Pascoe, 2007, p. 21). Because gender is a social activity, it must be constantly interpreted and performed so that both observers and the performer themselves can make sense of the performer’s gender identity. Additionally, as gender roles are not innate but learned, children must acquire and practice their own understanding of gender roles. This learning and practice is lifelong, but quite a bit of it takes place during early schooling, which is often children’s first major social environment outside the family. As a result,
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The mechanism of defence: identity, structure and perceptions of gender and sexuality in the military

The mechanism of defence: identity, structure and perceptions of gender and sexuality in the military

This rigid structure of the Christian Bible, or the “tightening of the ecclesiastical machinery” as E.A. Judge (1960) phrases it, may be rooted in the time when Christianity was a new and emerging religion. The collection of documents that Christians would eventually call “the Bible” was not yet assembled and its principle authors were affected by the current events and political currents of the period. The torturous public execution of Jesus of Nazareth (among many others) by Roman authorities was a recent event, his followers perceived as outsiders in the eyes of Roman society. From the writings in the first Epistle by the Apostle Peter, E.A. Judge detects an “anxiety about public opinion” as if “concentrated on avoiding any criminal act that would warrant prosecution”. This desire for keeping the Christian community out of sight of authorities seemed to affect the writing of Biblical text from that of a chronicle to one of a structured code which Judge describes as “...designed to largely stop up the loop-holes in the behaviour of Christians. Drunkenness, brawling, and bad domestic relations”, he says “were all likely to attract unwelcome attention” (Judge, 1960, pp. 74, 75). The result is a prescriptive moral code (including commandments) delineating the individual’s relationship to society with an opening focus on gender roles.
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Gender Relations and Female Sexuality in Victorian Fiction

Gender Relations and Female Sexuality in Victorian Fiction

The basic difference in the treatment of gender roles by Charlotte and Emily Bronte is that while Charlotte Bronte sees the two genders as distinct and partially, if not completely, antagonistic, Emily Bronte sees them as two parts of one whole. The underlying force which compels both Cathy’s and Heathcliff’s characters is a desire to be together, to be joined or unified. But both find themselves in situations where joining the other is impractical while alive. Thus, both seek for a union in death. Jane and Rochester on the other hand find their ‘heaven’ on the earth itself.
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Introduction: Christianity, Gender, Sexuality and the Law in Latin America

Introduction: Christianity, Gender, Sexuality and the Law in Latin America

One of these discourses is religion (Figari 2007). Some religious actors have been active protagonists in this regional context of progress and backlashes over sexuality and gender issues, making it crucial to better understand the relationship between gender and sexuality, on the one hand, and religion, on the other. The articles presented here address several dimensions of this rela- tionship. In various forms and to different extents, Latin America is a region characterized by a strong Christian – and especially Catholic – heritage, where religious institutions continue to exercise authority over definitions of what is publically permissible around questions of gender, the body, and sexual con- duct. Thus, gender, sexual and religious politics are intertwined in complex ways, which, in recent years have led to a series of public contests in different countries, in particular, over women’s reproductive rights and LGBTI rights. Up to this point, religious responses to changing gender roles, new (non)repro- ductive practices and technologies, violence against women, and the greater visibility of LGBTI groups have ranged from ambivalent to hostile. And in some countries, these developments have triggered negative responses from religious leaders and groups, leading to religious participation in efforts to limit the legal rights of women and members of the LGBTI community.
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Gender Roles and Stereotypes in Cosmetics Advertising - Is the future gender-neutral?

Gender Roles and Stereotypes in Cosmetics Advertising - Is the future gender-neutral?

14 agentic goals, while women seem to pursue other, more communal concerns. Drawing on this conceptualization of gender, research suggests that men are driven by the achievement of gains due to their agentic nature, whereas women are driven by the prevention of losses (He, Inman & Mittal, 2008 in Feiereisen et al., 2009). These seem to extend to the cosmetics industry, too, as traditional gender roles and stereotypes in cosmetics advertising portray women in decorative roles, sensual, smiling and relaxing. Males, on the other hand are typically represented in powerful positions, serious, busy and professional, even to the excess. I call this excessive emphasis on masculine cues and masculinity in general the hypermasculinity-phenomenon, which will be covered later in this thesis, in chapter 3.3. In addition, cosmetics advertising typically exploits sexuality (Connelly, 2013), which means that it often places more focus on sexuality than the product itself, even when the sexual image has little or no relevance to it (Reichert & Lambiase, 2003 in Dahl & Sengupta, 2009). When studying the sexual exploitation of women in the advertising of health and wellness products, which also include cosmetics, Rudman and Hagiwara (1992) determined that women are often placed in submissive positions to men, in unnatural poses and with a strong emphasis on dismembered body parts. Perhaps due to this, women exhibit a negative reaction to explicit sexual content in advertising when compared to men, whose spontaneous evaluations are mainly positive (Sengupta & Dahl, 2008).
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Bazaar Stories of Gender, Sexuality and Imperial Spaces in Gilgit, Northern Pakistan

Bazaar Stories of Gender, Sexuality and Imperial Spaces in Gilgit, Northern Pakistan

These racial theories - founded largely on European fears of the sexualised Other and the notion that Europeans were morally, culturally, and sexually superior to other ‘races’ - were used as scientific ‘proof’ of a natural racial hierarchy. This hierarchy was established on the basis of degrees of racial civility, primarily an op- position between Europes civilised moral/sexual order and a savage propensity to- ward sexual excess on the part of Others. As Mercer and Julien (1988, 107) argue, “sex is regarded as that thing which par excellence is a threat to the moral order of Western civilisation. Hence, one is civilised at the expense of sexuality, and sexual at the expense of civilisation. If thesavage...is the absolute Other of civility then it must follow that he is endowed with the most monstrous and terrifying sexual pro- clivity.” Colonialism, the civilising mission par excellence, was thus rationalised as the route through which naked, uninhibited, impetuous ‘savages’ could be trans- formed into cultured individuals by Europeans whose sexuality was restrained by the manacle of Western civilisation. The ‘white man’s burden’ of civilising ‘sav- ages’ through the spread of European culture consisted, in part, of taming the terri- fying sexual proclivities of Others so as both to contain any threat to the Western moral order and to counteract cultural and sexual savagery abroad.
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Mythology and masculinity : a study of gender, sexuality and identity in the art of the Italian Renaissance

Mythology and masculinity : a study of gender, sexuality and identity in the art of the Italian Renaissance

the broader conceptual and institutional conditions, together with the rigid behavioural expectations, which appear to be encoded within these two remarkable depictions of male erotics. Furthermore, with recourse to Rocke’s aforementioned sociological discourse, I explore the extent to which both Cellini’s sculptural group of Apollo and Hyacinth and Romano’s drawing of Apollo and Cyparissus appear to substantiate surviving judicial records. 39 These images are evaluated in light of Rocke’s proposition that ‘at one time or another and with varying significance and degrees of involvement, pederastic relations formed part of the life experience of many Italian males of the late medieval and early modern period’. 40 Consideration is given to the extent to which these works conform both thematically and compositionally to the behavioural codes of masculinity, sexual and social comportment and the articulation of Renaissance power dynamics, differentials and constructs. Nuanced study and reappraisal of the allegorical and iconographic elements encapsulated in these case studies aims to achieve closer engagement with how the male body could function in Renaissance visual and political culture. Furthermore, I explore the ways in which these works could have provided structured initiatory and pedagogical models connected to rites that mark the passage from youth to adulthood at a time when lived eroticism conformed to rules of social hierarchy with sexual roles tied to age as well as class. Absolutely fundamental to my core arguments is the proposition that in these two representations Apollo’s young lovers, Hyacinth and Cyparissus, do not literally transform into botanical entities as
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The 'f'oreign prostitute' in contemporary Italy: Gender, sexuality and migration in policy and practice

The 'f'oreign prostitute' in contemporary Italy: Gender, sexuality and migration in policy and practice

The support that the President received from his political allies was counterbalanced by the uproar o f disapproval at the prospect of going back to regularizing prostitution with brothels, especially after it had taken long and painful years to get rid of them (see chapter 3). Representatives o f the left and Catholic groups found agreement in opposing this possible solution, and concerns were raised about the negative impact that this approach may have on the fight against sex trafficking. Livia Turco, who had served as Minister of Social Solidarity under one of the previous leftist legislatures, said she was worried about the conflation of trafficking and prostitution that had emerged from the President’s and others’ statements, and warned that a conceptual overlap or misunderstanding between the two might result in inappropriate and harmful forms of intervention (II Corriere della Sera 5th May 2002). The president o f the Catholic Forum delle Associazioni Famigliari (Forum of Family Associations) reportedly labelled the return to a regulamentarist regime a ‘hypocritical initiative’ aimed at hiding, rather than solving the problem. She questioned the fact that clients of prostitutes had been completely ignored, and attributed it to the double standard that tolerates various expressions of men’s sexuality while controlling and limiting that of women (Rai News 5th January 2002). Don Benzi was particularly outspoken in expressing his disapproval of Berlusconi’s proposal. He reportedly defined the possibility of re-opening brothels as “obscene and unjust. In this way the activity o f the criminals who enslave women for the exploitation o f their prostitution will be favoured. The state has to defend this dignity [of women] and cannot favour the criminals” (La
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The Intersections of Class, Gender, Sexuality and ‘Race’: The Political Economy of Gendered Violence

The Intersections of Class, Gender, Sexuality and ‘Race’: The Political Economy of Gendered Violence

briefly note some of the ways in which it has been conceived here. The idea that gender, race and class are distinctive systems of subordination with their own range of specific social relations (Williams 1989; Weber 2001) is found in a range of work (see also Walby 2007 for the application of complexity theory). On the other hand gender, race and class may be treated as different ideological (e.g. Collins 1990) or discursive practices that emerge in the process of power production and enablement (as would be suggested in the work of Foucault 1972). This is a particularly important approach which treats social divisions as historically contingent, as Foucault’s work suggests. A particularly influential account of intersectionality in the United States (for example around human rights) is that categories of discrimination overlap and individuals suffer exclusions on the basis of race and gender, or any other combination (Crenshaw 1994). Clearly important is that this approach leads to an interest in the production of data or policy research and practice that recognizes the specificity of the problems of such intersectional identities (e.g. racialised women). A position that I have developed with Nira Yuval Davis (Anthias and Yuval Davis 1992) is that social divisions refer to social ontologies around different material processes in social life, all linked to sociality and to the social organisation of sexuality, production and collective bonds (for further developments see Anthias 1998; 2001a; 2001b; 2008; 2009; 2012; 2013 a and b; Yuval Davis 2006).
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The Roles of Race and Gender in Contagious Yawning

The Roles of Race and Gender in Contagious Yawning

Unintentionally paying more attention to and taking cues from racial in-group members has subtle but powerful implications when applied to institutions in the U.S. According to the Washington Post, the 114th Congress of the United States is composed of 79.8% white representatives, while the Senate is composed of 94% white senators (Bump, 2015). From a policymaking perspective, lawmakers may be more inclined to listen to in-group member constituents. This becomes an issue when the vast majority of lawmakers are members of a fairly homogenous population, white, but the constituents that they are supposed to represent are far more diverse. A possible mitigation of this issue is to increase the representation of minorities in Congress. Whitby and Krause (2001) found that black members of congress are more supportive of black policies than their white counterparts. Furthermore, after controlling for social characteristics like age, gender, education, and years the representative spent in their community, Tate (2001) found that black constituents reported being significantly more satisfied with their representative when the representative was black .
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Gender Stereotypes and Gender Roles Revealed in the Students Written Work

Gender Stereotypes and Gender Roles Revealed in the Students Written Work

In the first year academic writing course taken at the first term, the students are expected to start process writing with the paragraph level. After studying the features of a good paragraph, the students are required to write different types of paragraphs, such as cause-effect paragraphs, compare and contrast paragraphs, opinion paragraphs and so on. In this experiment, the subjects are given different topics to write about on repeated occasions throughout the term. Depending on the type of the paragraph, they are given topics on which they are likely to express their gender stereotypic views. The topics are as follows: compare and contrast paragraphs about women’s and men’s outlook on and attitude towards money, life, sports, marriage and career, a cause and effect paragraph about divorce and an opinion paragraph about “A best friend can only be the same sex as you”. The process writing samples of students are collected to be examined. All expressions involving gender stereotypes or roles are collected and counted. Below are the tables showing gender stereotypical statements of male and female students. The statements might not be expressed with the exact words by each student, however, they represent any statement that can be paraphrased in the same way.
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Immigrants and gender roles: assimilation vs. culture

Immigrants and gender roles: assimilation vs. culture

In this section, I draw on Blau, Kahn, Liu, and Papps (2013) to examine the impact of immigrant parental behavior on the second generation (native born individuals with at least one immigrant parent). As I noted above, some interesting previous work has ex- amined the second (or higher) generation with respect to the cultural transmission of gender roles (e.g., Antecol 2000; Fernández and Fogli 2006; and Fernández and Fogli 2009) 9 — in particular, looking for associations between the behavior of second gener- ation women and source country characteristics in an analogous fashion to the research on immigrants discussed above. As I noted previously, one of our contributions is to examine the process by which source country culture gets transmitted to future genera- tions in the host country by looking explicitly at intergenerational transmission from immigrants to their children born in the United States, although we also examine the impact of source country characteristics. 10 One of the purposes of our research is to shed light on the rate of assimilation across generations, and we provide estimates of intergenerational transmission rates. In the introduction, I have noted a number of other contributions of our work. One I have not yet mentioned is that the CPS infor- mation on the actual birthplaces of the respondent ’ s parents is also an improvement on the data on self-reported ancestry of US-born respondents used by Antecol (2000) and Fernández and Fogli (2006). Data on self-reported ancestry are less precise in that they include information on second and higher order generations. Further, Duncan and Tre- jo ’ s (2007) study of Mexican-Americans suggests that the more successfully-assimilated native born may be less likely to report a foreign ancestry.
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Students’ narratives on gender and sexuality in the project of social justice and belonging in higher education

Students’ narratives on gender and sexuality in the project of social justice and belonging in higher education

enhancing belonging or facilitating exclusion through the articulation of othering and antagonism towards certain groups and categorizations on campus. In their narratives students repeatedly drew attention to ways in which gender intersected with sexuality to marginalise and exclude in ways that made them feel they did not belong in particular spaces. This article thus focused on narratives illustrating some of the complex intersections between gender and sexuality in three locations – the campus bar, the sports field and commuter taxis – and how in operating in ways that validate heterosexual masculinities, femininities and non conforming masculinities are simultaneously marginalised. Taking these narratives seriously means acknowledging ways in which gender, sexual and intersectional injustices limit students’ ability to participate as equal citizens on this campus ‒ as well as in society more generally. Students anxieties about the possibility of physical, emotional or psychic violence are, as substantial research has shown, rooted in social contexts in which such violence is widespread and common place. The heterosexism and homophobia that underpins the widespread gender based violence and sexual harassment of female and non conforming male students is a serious concern across all South African universities, (see for example, Bennet 2005; Bennett et al. 2007; Hames 2007; Jagessar and Msibi 2015). Heteronormative practices that are “discomforting, alienating and disempowering” (Badat 2016, 10) continue to undermine campus citizenship as a liberating project, despite national legislative instruments such as the Gender Equality Bill. Although legislation provides potential for transformation for women and other previously marginalised categories, our research suggests that strategies for transformation need to do more than simply provide legislative frameworks. As Badat (2016) suggests, marginalised groups have largely been expected to assimilate into unwelcoming institutional cultures, to accept and tolerate stigma and continued forms of marginalisation as the price of entry (Badat 2016). A campus in which students are able to feel they belong requires us to find ways to challenge and stigmatise hetero patriarchal modes of thinking and cultures in institutions of higher learning (Loots and Walker 2015; Tabensky and Matthews 2015).
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Gender Roles and Inequalities in the Nigerian Labour Market

Gender Roles and Inequalities in the Nigerian Labour Market

Although Nigerian women have undergone some transformation towards empowerment how far such transformation has occurred is limited by all these constraints and restricted opportunities. This applies to where and how women can participate in the formal and informal labour markets. In 2017, Nigeria had a working-age population of 110 million with 85 million active in the labour force - of which 45% were women (World Bank SCD,2018: ix). Although its citizens are an important productive asset, the quality of this labour force depends upon their health, education and skills. Low levels of investment in health, sanitation, clean water and education undermine human capital and the current and future value of this labour force. Gender inequity is high, especially in education with net primary enrolment rates of 70% and 58% respectively for boys and girls (World Bank SCD,2018: ix). Under investment in women restricts their entry level in the labour market, their ability to perform well, and to rise to more secure, well-paid occupations.
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The roles of gender and profession on gender role expectations of pain in health care professionals

The roles of gender and profession on gender role expectations of pain in health care professionals

The GREP consists of twelve 10 cm visual analog scales (VAS) that assess the participant’s views of gender differ- ences in pain sensitivity, pain endurance, and willingness to report pain. Each item asks participants to place a mark on the VAS to estimate how the typical woman is compared with the typical man (eg, “compared to the typical woman, the typical man’s sensitivity is”) and how the typical man is compared with the typical woman, anchored from “far less” to “far greater”. Each item contains the anchors far less on the left side and far greater on the right, with a score of 50, sug- gesting no difference between men and women; for example, a rating of 65 on the item compared to the typical woman, the typical man’s sensitivity is would indicate that the participant believes that the typical man is more sensitive to pain than the typical woman. The GREP also assesses participants’ views of their own pain sensitivity, pain endurance, and willingness to report pain compared to the typical man and woman; for this study, the “self ” items were omitted from analysis and the remaining six items were used. Table 1 shows the descriptive statistics for each question on the GREP questionnaire used in this analysis. The GREP demonstrates good internal consis- tency and fair-to-good test–retest reliability. 11 As expected, 11,19
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A time to look within curricula—Nursing students’ perception on sexuality and gender issues

A time to look within curricula—Nursing students’ perception on sexuality and gender issues

Typically nursing students are exposed to the real world of the hospital or community, right in the begin- ning of their training program. Nurses would thus need to be equipped with appropriate attitudes and skills to tackle such issues both in their professional and personal lives. There are several reasons why one would need to reconsider the approach to teaching such sensitive issues that seem to be a prevailing norm in the country. Firstly, the need for nurses to actually address these issues amongst the multitude of patients they might be provid- ing care. Secondly the fact that they will need to face the growing complex challenges HIV infection brings with it. Thirdly the chances of occupational hazards they might face early in their training, typically the unacknowledged sexual harassment within the health care setting [14,15]. And lastly, their presumed incapacity to deal with these complex issues brought to the forefront by their clientele in the first year of their professional program. Ap- proaches that are reported to improve the comfort levels of nurses include using educational films and written materials, conducting role plays to explore typical patient questions, and initiating conversation about sexuality with patients [5].
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Environmentalism in Popular Culture: Gender, Race, Sexuality and the Politics of the Natural

Environmentalism in Popular Culture: Gender, Race, Sexuality and the Politics of the Natural

As in any war, truth is the first casualty, and Sturgeon’s work offers a methodology and theoretical tools to forensically examine assumptions regarding environmentalism and nature which[r]

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Sociocultural Aspects of Leadership: A Look at Gender Roles

Sociocultural Aspects of Leadership: A Look at Gender Roles

What is more saddening is that gendered inequality in leadership is linked to the presence of gender and cultural stereotypes, and therefore higher competency is demanded of a female leader compared to a male leader. In spheres dominated by women, preference is given to men, at times on the grounds of gender only. In a “masculine society”, a woman with masculine characteristics may become doomed to internal conflict making her performance less effective. The woman might strive to lead in an attempt to overcome inferiority. Because society generally accords higher status to men, male leaders are more appreciated (Lam, 2002). Thus, issues needing disclosure are the formation of a female leader’s personality, settings in which leadership potential is to be achieved, woman’s influence on an organisation’s performance, motives and attitudes of a female leader, struggles associated with a leadership position. Further studies of gender in leadership should be directed to the existing and best models of female leadership behaviour.
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Gender Roles in Pakistani-Urdu Wedding Songs

Gender Roles in Pakistani-Urdu Wedding Songs

This study considers gender as a social concept that influences and orders life in the Pakistani-Urdu speaking community. It argues that wedding songs form an essential discursive element that is sanctioned by patriarchal authority to reinforce societal values and principles. Wedding songs have been chosen because since weddings are one of the most significant rituals in the weddings of the Pakistani-Urdu speaking community, the analyses of the songs, which are treated as discourse, sung at these weddings also unravel the cultural and social ideologies of the Pakistani-Urdu speaking community. The treatment of wedding songs as texts that represent discourse is derived from Scott (1988, p.35), who clarifies that „a text is not limited to written material, but rather refers to “utterances” of any kind and in any medium, including cultural practices.‟ Wedding songs with reference to this study are taken as utterances that provide an insight into Pakistani beliefs, customs, traditions and deep-seated social values. Thus, these songs not only highlight the gendered discourse, but through highlighting it, it also provides an insight into the Pakistani culture. Miller (2008) also assents to this when he states that „musical performance offers an ethnographically distinct site of cultural production, constitutive and revelatory of multiple points of suture that informs an individual‟s sense of self in society‟. Therefore, wedding songs have been analysed in this research paper to understand the gender situation of the Pakistani-Urdu community and also to identify gendered notions and stereotypes (if any) that may occur in these songs. Furthermore, songs portraying gender subversions are also analysed to reflect on how the potential for non- conformity to social norms exists within this genre.
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