The present series provides important insights into this phenom- enon. The phenomenon is relatively frequent (31.6%) and, at least in this series, is not related to WEB sizing. The phenomenon is observed in similar percentages in patients treated with under- sized and appropriately sized WEBs (30.0% and 32.1%, respec- tively). On the other hand, adequate occlusion is more frequent but not significant when there is no WEB shapemodification (92.3% compared with 83.3% in case of WEB shape modifica- tion). Moreover, the rate of complete aneurysm occlusion is sig- nificantly lower in case of WEB shapemodification (25.0%) com- pared with cases with no modification (76.9%) due to a higher rate of neck remnants (58.3% and 11.5%, respectively). Adequate occlusion is also more often obtained when the device is appro- priately sized (92.9%) than when an undersized device is used (70.0%), but this result is not statistically significant due to the small number of patients in the groups.
On the basis of the 3D evolution models developed by Snyder et al., 22 numerous di ﬀ erent shapes can appear for a faceted crystal after multiple cycles of growth and dissolution (assuming regrowth to the original crystal volume after each cycle). Clearly, the central requirement for a shape change to happen is that the rates of growth and dissolution for at least one crystal face are not equal. This can be realized via one of the following ways: (I) As discussed above, additives and speci ﬁ c solvents have face-speci ﬁ c interactions with the crystal surface. This interaction will generally be less important for dissolution, resulting in unequal rates. (II) Di ﬀ erent mecha- nisms for growth and dissolution may occur due to super/ undersaturation eﬀects. (III) During dissolution, faces which are present at the steady-state growth shape might disappear, therefore becoming “ virtual ” faces. During regrowth, these faces show di ﬀ erent perpendicular growth rates until they reappear on the surface. Simultaneously, new faces might appear during dissolution due to bifurcating edges and vortices. In the present work, cycles of growth and dissolution for a starting population of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) crystals suspended in their saturated solution resulted in a change of shape via usage of solvents of di ﬀ erent polarities. The known crystal morphologies of ASA grown in di ﬀ erent solvents can be found in the literature. Following the indexing by Aubrey- Medendorp et al., 23 throughout this work, the major face appearing during ASA crystal growth is referred to as the (100) and the (001) face, besides three minor faces, referred to as the (001) face, the (011) face, and the (110) face; 24 see Figure 1. The relative exposure of these faces, though, is strongly in ﬂ uenced by the solvent in which crystals grow. Polar solvents, such as ethanol, methanol, and acetone, were shown to result in platelike crystals of ASA with the (100) face having the largest surface area. Nonpolar solvents like hexane and n- heptane are reported to yield needle- or rodlike shapes, with fast molecule addition remaining on the (011) face, therefore becoming a small face relative to the major face. 24 − 27
the framework in the same way as shorter unbranched hydro- carbons, inclusion results in a structural phase transition which alters the shape and size of the individual pores with relatively little change to the overall porosity. As a result of the ring rota- tion, guest molecules of an awkward shape are able to be admit- ted. Since this transition is fully reversible (no damage, frac- tures or polycrystallinity is imparted on the crystal), this result is akin to ‘breathing’ mechanisms in frameworks, exemplifying how high pressure X-ray diffraction can be used to probe the
lar columns. The lack of connement in these columns aected the softening behavior and caused premature rupture in CFRP; therefore, the potential capacity of CFRP was not used . One possible method for improving the eect of CFPR jackets on square and rectangular columns is to modify the shape of the cross-section into an elliptical, oval, or circular section [39,40]; in this respect, experiments indicate that the elliptical sections provide supreme performance, compared to conned rectangular columns. It should be mentioned that one way to do this improvement is the use of non-shrinkable cement concrete in the annular gap space. Then, the formworks of non- shrinkable concrete are removed, and the section is wrapped with CFRP jackets. There are few studies in the literature on the use of an expansive factor in the gap between column and CFRP jacket to reach active connement [40-42].
The next step of adjoint solver optimization approach (Figure 7.) involves shapemodification – mesh morphing. Morphing takes place, when sensitivity field is computed (through adjoint equations). This morphing procedure has a double role. Firstly, it smooths the surface sensitivity field and secondly provides smooth distortion in boundary and interior mesh . In adjoint solver rectangular volume encloses boundaries which will be morphed. An array of control points is then distributed in this volume. These points in combination with the local mesh coordinates will define the proper movement both on the boundary and in the interior mesh. The local coordinate system relies on the properties of Bernstein polynomials . Bernstein polynomials are the basis of Bezier curves.
Resume of the study & Background: Radial forearm free flap with all its present day modifications is the workhorse of soft tissue reconstruction. Al- though there are several advantages, it requires sacrifice of a major artery of forearm. Several modifications are described in harvesting a forearm flap. In order to achieve a reliable, safe flap harvest & design one must have a very clear understanding of radial artery perforators, relative to its distribution, territory & flow. The purpose of this study is to determine the location, size & vascular territory of the radial artery cutaneous perforators & to demonstrate application of shapemodification of radial forearm free flap based on its dis- tal & proximal perforators in various head & neck defects. Materials & Me- thods: Anatomical Study: 12 fresh human cadavers & 24 cadaveric forearms were dissected to determine the number, location, size & vascular territory of radial artery perforator. The cutaneous territory of distally dominant perfo- rators was analyzed using methylene blue injections & three-dimensional computed tomographic angiogram to determine the vascular network. Clini- cal Study: 15 patients with various head neck defects following oncological resections were reconstructed with shape modified adipo-fascio cutaneous free forearm flap. All these patients were prospectively followed for donor site healing, motor & sensory nerve deficit, function & quality of life questioner for donor site assessment. Results: 12 fresh human cadavers & 24 cadaveric forearms were dissected, and a total of 222 perforators were dissected for an average of 18.5 perforators per forearm. 118 were smaller than 0.5 mm in diameter (53.15%) & were not clinically significant. 104 perforators were How to cite this paper: Sham, E., Masia,
The paper presents a complex method of forming the surface-modified layers of materials with shape memory effect, including high-speed flame spraying of powders based on TiNiCo; subse- quent thermal and thermomechanical treatment allows the formation of surface layers of nano- sized state that have a high level of functional, mechanical and performance properties; it is shown that the complex processing with a layer of TiNiCo allows a reduction of the porosity of the coat- ings and increases the strength of the coating’s adhesion to the substrate. It is found that, after treatment with high-speed flame spraying powder shape memory TiNiCo, steel has an increase in cycle life by 30% - 40% in a cycle fatigue and 3 - 3.5 times durability. Based on comprehensive re- search into the metallophysical surface-modified layer, new information is obtained about the nanoscale composition.
Jing et al. (2010) studied the fabrics woven with core-spun shape memory yarns. The shape memory yarns whose core was formed with shape memory fiber were produced in two ways: One of them was ring technology while the other was friction technology. Two different fabrics were woven with these yarns. While the core-spun yarn in one of them was added to the fabric, shape memory fibers were incorporated into the yarns through ring or friction spinning method and these yarns are produced as knitted or woven fabric. They concluded that shape memory core-spun yarns have as much good shape effect as the shape memory fibres. The shape memory effect was observed more on weft side. It was also found out that the yarn produced with a ring machine and having shape memory core had better shape memory effect when compared to that produced with friction. Liu et al. (2007) tested three types of fabric prepared with different contents. The contents of these fabrics are as follows: 1. 100%SMPU, 2. 50/50% SMPU/Cotton and 3. 16/84% SMPU/Cotton. In the study, shape memory behaviours were examined by comparing shape memory behaviors and contents of fabrics in different temperatures. In addition, shape memory of shape memory fibres were verified by comparing them with Lycra knitted fabrics. At the end of the study, when the fabric shape memory polymer was heated above transition temperature, the shape memory effect increased in an obvious way. In fabrics with higher amount of shape memory fiber, more shape memory effect was observed. When compared to the fibres, the fabrics produced with shape memory fibers displayed shape difference in an obvious way.
 P. K. Jain, K. S. Lee, I. H. El-Sayed, and M. A. El- Sayed, “Calculated absorption and scattering properties of gold nanoparticles of diﬀerent size, shape, and composition: applications in biological imaging and biomedicine,” Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 110, no. 14, pp. 7238–7248, 2006.  H. Wang, T. B. Huﬀ, D. A. Zweifel et al., “In vitro and in vivo two-photon luminescence imaging of single gold nanorods,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 102, no. 44, pp. 15752–15756, 2005.  N. Lewinski, V. Colvin, and R. Drezek, “Cytotoxicity of
In  a rotor’s structure with a slotted pole or pointed spindle pole in the direction of motor rotation has been proposed that decreases the torque ripple of the machine by about 4.4% by reducing the dispersion flux. Also in , the same method is presented on a mutually copulated motor. In , with the change in the shape of the stator and rotor teeth, the single-phase torque waveform of the machine is modified and eventually, the ripple torque is reduced. In addition to these references, in  a form of stator’ poles with non- uniform air gap with a pole shoe attached to the rotor’s pole is presented to reduce the torque ripple, the torque has been reduced by 23% compared to the conventional design. In References [7, 8] by modifying the rotor pole step and stepping on the rotor pole forehead, which are both used for low-pole motors and high-speed motors, have reduced the torque ripple, respectively. In , in order to decrease the torque ripple, a multilayer motor structure is proposed. Some other studies, such as , have used a rotor with more poles than stator to reduce the torque ripple. In , the effect of changing in the displacement of the bonding hole for core laminations
Aspect-oriented programming solves one of the problems in object oriented program- ming by providing a better separation of concerns. The composition filter model is an implementation of AOP, which uses filtering of messages that are sent between objects. One of the techiques enabled by composition filters is signature modification. Signature modification allows composition filters to add methods to or remove methods from types. This thesis consists of two parts. First, it presents a new solution to add support for signature modification to the compilation process of Compose ? /.NET. Second, it presents an evaluation of extending the filter analysis part of Compose ? to include full behavioral analysis of the program.
The performance point in different shape of building such as square shape, rectangular shape, L shape, T shape, H shape, plus shape and C shape has been found from sap2000 software of spectral displacement and bargraph is plotted spectral displacement vs. shape of building for push x and push y as shown as bellow. While comparing the spectral displacement in square shape of building is less compared to another shape building and is more in plus shape.
Advances in sequencing technology have made abundant RNA sequence information available, but the challenge of how to interpret these data remains. The RNA sequence contains many layers of information. RNA sequences code for proteins and small RNAs, such as microRNAs or transacting small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). RNA encodes information about both structure and function. Viral RNA structures, such as riboswitches, internal ribosome entry sites (75), and panhan- dles (71), regulate the stages of the viral life cycle, including replication (100), transcription (99), splicing (40, 48), amino- acylation (31, 55), translation (12, 75, 98), and encapsidation (27, 60, 71, 84). Because viral RNAs are structurally dynamic, current prediction methods focusing on a single minimum free- energy structure may not always identify functionally relevant structures without additional experimental restraints. Because RNA structure determination is often experimentally difficult despite tremendous advances in RNA crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and chemical modification, RNA structure prediction is an important tool for generating hypotheses about structure-function relationships in RNA. RNA structure prediction can be useful for interpreting or designing mutagenesis experiments, identifying conserved structural features, and designing siRNA strategies. This review will briefly outline the basic ideas and assumptions underlying RNA structure prediction, compare different approaches to RNA structure prediction from a user’s perspective, and discuss some applications of RNA structure prediction to viral RNA interfer- ence (RNAi) research.
mitigating foreclosure. This initially prevents the high costs associated with foreclosure from effecting both the borrower and lender. First, for homeowners with short-term income loss, it is in the best interest of the mortgage company and the homeowner to work out an agreement for the purchaser to continue making regular monthly payments with a small, added amount for the missed payments. For homeowners with a slightly larger and longer income loss, many mortgage providers will provide forbearance, an agreement to not foreclosure for a certain period of time providing that the borrower becomes current on his payments in that time frame (Gerardi & Li, 2010). For people with permanent money shortages, loan modification is the best option. Loan modification has been the primary action suggested by the economic plans proposed to mitigate
vertical expansion of cities. For high rise structure, need of strength in terms of compression, flexural, tensile are increased. Use of steel fibers increased strength of concrete marginally. In this research we will try to modify shape of steel fibers to increase compression, flexural and tensile strength of concrete.
The switching temperature for the shape-memory effect can vary between 44 and 55 8 C depending on the weight fraction of the switching segments (variation between 50 and 90 wt %) and the molecular weight of the used poly(e-caprolactone)- diols. The crystallinity of the switching segment blocks determined by comparision of the partial melt enthalpies with the melt enthalpy of 100 % crystalline poly( e -caprolac- tone) (20) becomes higher as the weight fraction and the molecular weight of the poly( e -caprolactone)diols used in- creases. Hence, the crystallization of the poly( e -caprolactone) segments is hindered by incorporating them into the multi- block copolymers. The crystallinity observed is between 10 and 40 %. No crystallization can be observed when the poly( e - caprolactone)diol has a number-average molecular weight below 2000, presumably, because of the low degree of phase separation. In cyclic thermomechanical measurements, an increase of the initial slope with the number of cycles is found. A behavior which is named ™cyclic hardening∫ can be observed during the initial four to five cycles. This effect is caused by a relaxation of the material in the stretched state which results in an increasing orientation and crystallization of the chains. As a consequence, the resistance of the material against the strain grows with the number of cycles. The materials reach constant strain recovery rates after the third cycle. Polyurethanes formed from a high molecular weight poly(e-caprolactone) and a high weight fraction of hard- segment-determining blocks show the best shape-memory properties: the strain recovery rate increases up to 98 % with strains e m of 80 %. Moreover, the shape-memory properties
surface area of the activated carbon. This could arise from pore blockage by adsorbed nitric acid molecules. Because of its small molecular size, nitric acid can easily access the pore structure of the activated carbon. The CEC value of NA-NRS (1.42 meq/g) was 2 times higher than that of NRS. The difference indicates that the nitric acid might introduce acidic surface oxides on the carbon surface which caused formation of a large number of oxygen-containing functional groups. It was also reported that modification of activated carbon with HNO 3 increased the quantity of