This study has some limitations that should be mentioned to limit the reader from generalising the results to the whole population or to different contexts. Since faculty development includes training, motivation and continuous support (Fang, 2007), the scope of this study will be only at faculty training. In other words, the researcher is going to design, develop and evaluate a SBOT for TPACK development. Also, as the proposed onlinetraining model is a blend of presentation, demonstration, structured practice and feedback, the result of this study is limited to this model of the training. The purposive sampling technique that used in this study limits the generalisation of the result to the whole population. Therefore, results of this study are limited to the faculties who participate in this study or to those who have similar characteristics. Understanding the participants’ evaluation of SBOT would help in understanding the potential of accepting SBOT by the whole population.
Not all English material used for resident teaching is suitable for the online learning, but many English resident lessons can be quickly transformed to blended learning by varying the delivery but not the content (DEEP Report, 2020). For instance, online openly available short presentations and video didactic exercises have proved their efficiency in improving learner’s proficiency in English.
Based on its established culture of learning and available technology, an organization selects an appropriate mix, if rarely all, of these learning modalities. For example, an effective, relatively low- tech blended solution might include only a face-to-face kick-off event followed by a series of live online events and related paper-based assignments. But to realize a chief benefit – short learning events, each followed by immediate skill use – all blended workflow solutions exhibit key struc- tural features.
All BL Experts have experience with e-learning, varying from little to expert experience. The UT and TTA mention that e-learning should be interactive, in that learners are able to collaborate with each other. TA, ROC Rivor (ROC), and GGZ use external e-learning platforms to teach their employees in soft skills. Soft skills train personal attributes that improves ones’ functioning. GGZ says they have good results with e-learning, only due to work-pressure (being a given in the healthcare industry) employees indicate they cannot really find the time to do it. Additionally, GGZ make use of thirty to forty healthcare specific trainings through e-learning through GGZ Ecedemy, a country wide initiative of GGZ. ROC mentions their LMS is used to put in all the educational materials by five dedicated employees, the LMS is effectively used as a container of information. TA mentions it is paramount that modules in e-learning should be short. Urenco comments they have both good and bad experiences with e-learning. They acknowledge Virtual Reality (VR) has great potentials, in the future a part of the practise, which is at the moment performed in class, could shift to an online VR environment. There were also cases where Urenco encountered badly designed e-learning modules, from these cases sprung considerable trust issues from within the employee base. In later stages when new e-learning modules was introduced, considerable effort was needed to convince employees of the benefit of e-learning.
Keywords: Second Life, English Language Teachers, Blended, Online
There was e-learning training need among teachers (Tuncay & Uzunboylu, 2008). These needs differed among web-based e-learning training needs, technologically based e-learning training needs and administrative e-learning training needs. There is a digital divide among teachers (Youssef, 2005; Uzunboylu & Tuncay, 2009). This digital divide is among ICT teachers and not-ICT teachers, among internet users and not-internet users, among experienced teachers and not-experienced teachers. Several research results in primary schools, in secondary schools and in high schools revealed this e-learning training need. Based on the answers of the surveyed teachers we can conclude that the use of computer among teachers in the triennium of primary schools is not very encouraging (Hus, 2011). There were also lots of other obstacles for teachers delivering e-learning in their classrooms: Technology also requires English in order to make use of its facilities that will help to facilitate the understanding of difficult subjects, so students believe that while teachers are determining the aims of a lesson plan, they should consider the integration of technology (Hussein, 2010). If we want to bridge the digital divide between teachers, we can help those who are not using these technologies (Youssef, 2005). Information technology has powerful impact on learning and the central idea of the current e-learning technologies is to provide users the ability to use and reuse of learning objects, which must be compatible with the learning management systems and with any other future technology from that field (Smeureanu & Isaila, 2011). What is more, the use of informational technology may differ according to different institutions. It is recommended that the interaction between teaching and learning conditions should be checked in terms of the institutional expectations (Kurnaz & A
Unemployment among women in this age-group also increased from 24.7% in 2008 to 41.4% in 2013; in the southern region it reached 52.2% and 57% in the Islands. Long-term unemployment rose from 3% in 2008 to 6.9% in 2013.
The government’s response to high youth unemployment is to strengthen VET. A comprehensive package of measures was approved at the end of 2013 to improve vocational guidance, prevent early leaving from education and training, increase education and training offers, promote apprenticeships and traineeships, increase staff and improve teachers' professional development. Special attention will be given to the national plan implementing the youth guarantee. The recently published Job Act (Law 78/2014) includes measures to boost employment and simplify bureaucracy for enterprises. It also includes initiatives to simplify short-term and apprenticeship contracts to align them better to labour market needs. Comprehensive reform of the employment services is planned to help match better labour demand and supply through partnerships between businesses, public institutions and non-profit organisations (see also Chapters 2 and 3).
The needs assessment will be used to develop the content, including through use of volunteer teachers. It is important that the design incorporate principles of adult learning to maximize success and that training is based on real life examples. Current priority teacher needs for ICT training have been identified as instructions and use of different electronic media and this should be the initial primary focus. The blendedtraining allowed participants had practical skills. The web-based training used practical examples and homework to reinforce the lessons and familiarity with the program. The trainer and assistant trainer were available to provide assistance at all times. The web-based training allowed participants to work on real examples, review lessons, chat and otherwise collaborate in completing their homework assignments.
Technician programmes (programme de la formation de technician, ISCED 354, EQF 4) cover grades 10 to 13 and prepare learners for the technician diploma (diplôme de technicien, DT) (Annex 1). This programme is offered as a full time track (filière de plein exercice), where all training occurs in an education institution and includes a minimum job placement of 12 weeks. Training focuses on the labour market, aiming at a high professional level, and prepares students for higher technical education through optional preparatory modules. These modules can be acquired either within the normal or extended duration of the studies. The technician diploma certifies that the holder is competent to perform the trade/profession in question. It differs from DAP by in-depth and diversified competences as well as in-depth general education. DT graduates may progress to the third year of the technical programme.
Since 2002, European cooperation on VET within the so-called Copenhagen process has played a crucial role in raising awareness of its importance. This has made a real difference at EU level and in Member States. In the Bruges communiqué, long-term objectives for VET until 2020 were combined with a set of policy measures that countries, the European social partners and the Commission committed themselves to put in place by 2014. Achievements of the past and future challenges, the new Commission’s priorities and revision of Europe’s 2020 strategy set the scene for defining new objectives for European cooperation in VET for the period 2015-17. These new priorities, which will be informed by Cedefop’s review of achievements since 2010, will be decided under the Latvian Presidency. This will also put its VET in the limelight. By providing an insight into the main features and current developments, this short description contributes to a better understanding of VET in Latvia and some of the key challenges the country faces, such as high youth unemployment. Latvia aims at ensuring better labour market prospects and attractive VET options for a decreasing group of young people – a consequence of demographic trends.
The programme is not necessarily vocational, but generally combines general, vocational and practical elements. The three-year programme begins with a 12-week clarification period based on which an individual education plan is drawn up in collaboration with local youth guidance services (Chapter 8), students and their parents. The objective is that students acquire personal, social and academic competences enabling them to have as independent and active an adult life as is possible, and perhaps access to further education and training and/or employment. In preparing students for adult life, the programme seeks not only to continue academic development begun during compulsory schooling, but to ensure students encounter everyday practical situations and develop socially. As such, an education plan can consist of periods spent at various institutions including VET colleges, schools of production, folk high schools, continuation schools and schools of domestic science as well as various work placements. On completion, students receive documentation of the competences acquired.
Online and blended learning (OBL) is valued for its potential to remove barriers, such as accessibility and flexibility, that prevent students from participating in traditional education (Shea, 2007). Institutions face challenges when they (plan to) redesign their programmes in order to implement OBL (Jara and Mellar, 2009; Moskal, Dziuban and Hartman, 2013). Indeed, successful adoption, implementation and improvement of OBL requires that the needs of the different stakeholders in institutions are taken into account (Moskal, Dziuban and Hartman, 2013). This is important to ensure that the institution puts reliable and robust infrastructure and sufficient resources in place to support the faculty and the students during OBL (Moskal, Dziuban and Hartman, 2013). For instance, if it appears in the context of OBL that students do not receive sufficient support in an OBL programme, the institution must take actions to address this. This implies that professionals from the meso (the management) and micro level (the faculty responsible for courses/modules in a programme) enter into dialogue, consult the students, and decide what measures are appropriate (Deepwell, 2007; Ehlers, 2007).
Internet-based online education, while a natural evolution of the instructional technology that has been a part of higher education since the middle of the 20 th century, is also a major leap forward in terms of how faculties teach and students learn. Online education is not simply an adjunct to the traditional classroom; it has replaced the classroom in many schools and programs. There are a number of very successful academic programs and colleges (i.e., University of Maryland – University College, Western Governors University, Rio Salado Community College) that now operate extensively on the Internet with few brick and mortar buildings. Approximately twenty-five to thirty percent of the college population or 5.5 to 7 million students are now enrolled in at least one fully online, for-credit course in any given year (Allen & Seaman, 2016; Allen & Seaman, 2015). An online course was defined in the Allen & Seaman study as one where eighty percent of the seat time is replaced by online activity. Millions of other students are enrolled in blended or hybrid courses, although accurate data on this population is minimal, mainly because generally accepted definitions are non-existent. For the purposes of this article, the word “blended” will be used to designate courses in which a certain percentage of in-class time is replaced with online instruction and activities. The percentage of class time that occurs online varies by college and university, and typically ranges between 30% and 80%. Web-enhanced courses that do not necessarily replace seat time, yet but have substantial Internet-based activity, are also becoming commonplace at all colleges and universities. MOOC providers offer close to 1,200 courses enrolling 1.3 million students (Sturgis, 2015). Most of these courses are not taken for credit. In sum, American higher education is reaching a point where the majority of college courses have some Internet components ranging from the fully online to Web-enhancements. In a mere twenty years, online education has become integral to instructional delivery in many colleges and universities.
In this chapter we have considered the complex issue of determining what constitutes quality in blended learning courses and programs with the goal of identifying principles and practices that designers of blended courses might enact as they create environments and experiences (Thompson, 2005) most likely to result in student success and satisfaction. It is fitting that we consider this topic as the culminating chapter in the BlendKit Reader. The component themes addressed in the preceding chapters (i.e., blended learning definitions/design, interaction, assessment, and content/assignment modules) are undeniably contributing factors to quality blended learning courses and programs. Yet, we must conclude that there is a work-‐in-‐progress aspect to conceptualizing quality in blended learning. Blended courses/programs are still relatively new, and research and innovation will most certainly result in new understandings of how to best design blended courses. Those of us involved with blended design will need to adopt the attitude of learners, examining our practices and seeking continually to improve based upon the most current information available. Perhaps this is best done in dialogue with trusted colleagues. Future editions of the BlendKit Reader will continue to address new findings as they emerge.
My interest in enhancing the achievement of boys in physical education led me to explore the use of technology to aid learning. From many years of teaching experience, I have found that using ICT in class gains the attention of students. I wanted to determine whether teaching in blended learning can gain attention and play a part in raising student achievement. “A starting point for action research is best thought of as the first impression” (Altrichter, Posch, & Somekh, 1993, p. 44). When selecting a starting point for action research, Waters-Adams gives four rules for selecting a topic: “Keep it manageable, it should be interesting to you, it should be workable and it should not be too disruptive of normal routines” (2006, para. 1). This action research investigation was manageable as I was able to conduct the study at a school with which I was familiar (it was my place of employment). It was also manageable because I had received a study leave award from my teaching duties for the period of the study. This allowed me to fully focus on my research without the demands of full time teaching. Working with only one group of students from a single class over a limited period of time also added to the manageability of the project. Using ICT to aid learning is a genuine interest as I have used computers, mobile phones, cameras and video cameras in the classroom before and have previously taught two units of work in a blended format. I have completed post-graduate papers in best practice in online teaching and learning and also e-learning and pedagogy. I was very familiar with the resources, timetable and students at School A and the investigation was not disruptive of my or the students’ normal routines. The planning process also involved choosing a colleague to be part of my research. This colleague would be a significant part of the research as they would be team teaching the unit of work with me. I carefully considered who I would choose and further details are discussed in section 3.6.6.
The results of this research can help guide students who are considering which method of educational study pursue. If an individual has career goals that include a full time faculty position it may be beneficial to seek out a blended doctoral program. Despite overwhelming research, that shows online students have comparable educational success to their traditional counterparts there are still concerns. These concerns could result in candidates with a blended or traditional degree having better chances of achieving full time faculty employment. Furthermore, participants in this study preferred someone from a blended degree because it gave the candidate experience in both worlds. Educators are reaching a point in education where new professors are required to be a skilled classroom professor as well as a skilled online professor. Educators still value other skills, such as ongoing professional development, research, and publications.
Driving is a serious responsibility. This online Defensive Driving Fundamentals course explains how the five fundamentals of defensive driving can be used to reduce this risk to you and others.
• Think and look ahead • Anticipating hazards • Keeping options open • Managing risk
Abstract: Finding time for place-based instruction can be difficult using a traditional ground classroom or online format. This is a case study report showing how blending the two modalities can increase opportunities to go more in depth on environmental topics. This blending of both classroom and online creates a sense of place and encourages teaching with multiple learning styles. The increased classroom flexibility allows more individualized instruction for student’s needs and interests. This report will share how an environmental biology class implemented a blended learning class over two semesters. Results of this pilot show an increased student effort by allowing for more varied learning about the local environment.
What this paper adds
This research found that most Australian universities do not have explicit and consistent centralised procedures or guidelines for allocating academic workload which take into account the specific activities associated with online-only or blended learning. Generalised guidelines appeared mostly within collective workplace agreements or implicitly in other policy documents at school, discipline or faculty levels. We found a lack of documented evidence in the Australian university sector which could accurately reflect or even estimate workload associated with teaching online or in blended learning environments. Nor is a rigorous cost-accounting protocol applied at universities to detail the full cost (including staff time) of e-teaching: few universities apply Activity Based Costing (ABC) methods to cost or time-allocate actual teaching tasks/activities. Unsurprisingly, the study found overload due to e-teaching was a significant factor in staff dissatisfaction.
III. WHAT ARE THE POSSIBILITIES?
Although a variety of models exist to describe possibilities available through blended approaches to training [3, 4], we present opportunities afforded by blended instruction in terms of time and place. Synchronous forms of training are often associated with instructor-led events, although such instruction can be mediated as well. Synchronous sessions can be blended with asynchronous instruction for a number of different purposes. For example, prior to engagement with asynchronous learning, participants often attend face-to-face sessions for orientation to the learning environment as well as possible preparation for advanced content. For primary instructional delivery, synchronous approaches to teaching are essential when immediate interaction and feedback are necessary, when outcomes are related to interpersonal skills development and behavioral or attitudinal change, and when skills require demonstration or application by the instructor. Synchronous sessions are also used for post-instruction purposes, such as group debriefing, assessment strategies, and evaluation data collection.