Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12)

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VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY OF THE MALAY VERSION OF 12-ITEM SHORT FORM HEALTH SURVEY AMONG POSTPARTUM MOTHERS

VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY OF THE MALAY VERSION OF 12-ITEM SHORT FORM HEALTH SURVEY AMONG POSTPARTUM MOTHERS

The Short Form Health Survey SF-36 is a well-known generic health-related quality of life measure that has widely been used worldwide. However, given the cultural, social and ethnic differences in some countries, it might not follow the intended structure of the instrument. Hence, this study aims to determine the psychometric properties of the Malay version of Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) among postpartum mothers. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1- month postpartum mothers attending Obstetric and Gynecology clinic, Universiti Sains Malaysia Hospital, Kelantan, Malaysia. Reliability was estimated using internal consistency and the factor structure was extracted by performing confirmatory factor analysis using SPSS v. 20 and AMOS v. 20. A total of 108 women responded. The mean (SD) score for the Physical Component Summary (PCS) score and Mental Component Summary (MCS) score were 43.3 (7.08) and 42.4 (6.87) respectively. The Cronbach alpha for PCS-12 was 0.749 and MCS-12 was 0.701. Spearman correlations of individual items and the SF-12 component summary scores showed PF, RP, BP and GH items correlated higher with the PCS score, whereas the VT, SF, RE, and MH items correlated higher with the MCS score lending support to its good convergent validity. The confirmatory factor solution showed final model with two factors structure and six items each with acceptable factor loadings, satisfactory absolute and parsimonious fitness (RMSEA=0.1, x 2 /df=2.4). The psychometric tests
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Health related quality of life screening with medical outcomes study 12 item short form health survey (mos sf 12) and 14 item short form health survey for chronic venous insufficiency (mos civiq 14) thai versions

Health related quality of life screening with medical outcomes study 12 item short form health survey (mos sf 12) and 14 item short form health survey for chronic venous insufficiency (mos civiq 14) thai versions

Two typesof health-related quality of life tools were employed.The original tools were instruments developed, validatedfor theirpsychometric properties in terms of face validity, content and construct validity byoriginal investigators (Ware et al., 1996; Ware and Sherbourne, 1992; Le Moine et al., 2016). The Thai version acquired from a translation of originalThai version, adapted touse specifically for medical outcomes study by a generic scale 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey (MOS SF-12) anda disease-specificscale14-Item Short- Form Health Survey of Chronic Venous Insufficiency Questionnaires (MOS CIVIQ14). The MOS SF12 known as SF-12, Was originally published by Ware et al. (1996, 1992) whereasthe original Thai versionearlier validated by Kasemsup et al. (2009). The MOS CIVIQ14, known as CIVIQ-14 was a specific scaleoriginally developed by Launois et al. (2016), validated for its stability for items and dimensions with highreliability and validity in chronic venous insufficiency patients whereas the original Thai version adapted from a version suggested by vascular consortium (Kanchanabat et al., 2010). The SF-12 is a self-administered questionnaire. It employs two items each to estimate scores for four of the eight health concepts (physical functioning, role physical, role emotional, and mental health). Meanwhile, the other four health concepts (bodily pain, general health, vitality, and social functioning) are estimated by using one-items each. There are two types of score, Physical Component Summary score (PCS) and Mental Component Summary score (MCS). The properties and scoring were correlated with the SF-36 (Ware and Sherbourne, 1992). The CIVIQ-14 is a 14-item health survey questionnaires covered in three dimensions, Physical (7-item), Pain (1-item), Psychological (6-item) and then scoring with five response choices (Le Moine et al., 2016). TheCIVIQ-14 was correlate ed with the American Varicose Vein Questionnaire (AAVQ) reported by Kuet et al. (2014). Therefore, CIVIQ-14 is mostly adaptive with participants with leg symptoms whether diagnosed chronic venous insufficiency in the presence of varicose vein.
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The 12-item medical outcomes study short form health survey version 2.0 (SF-12v2): a population-based validation study from Tehran, Iran

The 12-item medical outcomes study short form health survey version 2.0 (SF-12v2): a population-based validation study from Tehran, Iran

Although in recent years we were witnessed the devel- opment of several health-related quality of life instru- ments in Iran [see http://www.Qolbank.ir], the Iranian versions of the well-developed, and well-known ques- tionnaires still are lacking. Since 1997 we are working with Medical Outcome Trust and now QualityMetric Inc. to provide Iranian standard versions for one of the most popular general health-related quality of life instruments that is the Short Form Health Survey. It was hoped this might contribute to the existing litera- ture and help both researchers and health professionals to have an opportunity to use the questionnaire in their potential research and practices. Thus, as part of a large study on the application of urban health equity assess- ment and response tool (Urban HEART) in Tehran [21], and alongside with our previous efforts [22,23], the aim of this study was to investigate the psychometric proper- ties of the Iranian version of SF-12v2 among a general Iranian population. The second objective of the study was to establish normative data for the questionnaire in Iran.
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Analysis of benzodiazepine withdrawal program managed by primary care nurses in Spain

Analysis of benzodiazepine withdrawal program managed by primary care nurses in Spain

Results: A pseudo-experimental (before-after) study took place in two Primary Care Centres in Barcelona. From a sample of 1150 patients, 79 were identified. They were over 44 years old and had been daily users of BZD for a period exceeding six months. Out of the target group 51 patients agreed to participate. BZD dosage was reduced every 2 – 4 weeks by 25% of the initial dose with the optional support of Hydroxyzine or Valerian. The rating measurements were: reduction of BZD prescription, demographic variables, the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12) to measure quality of life, the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) Sleep Scale, and the Goldberg Depression and Anxiety Scale.
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Randomised controlled comparison of the Health Survey Short Form (SF-12) and the Graded Chronic Pain Scale (GCPS) in telephone interviews versus self-administered questionnaires. Are the results equivalent?

Randomised controlled comparison of the Health Survey Short Form (SF-12) and the Graded Chronic Pain Scale (GCPS) in telephone interviews versus self-administered questionnaires. Are the results equivalent?

By contrast, in designing the present study we hypothe- sized that patients respond differently to questions about psychological states than to those about physical symp- toms. The latter will probably be answered more honestly, because physical problems are more socially accepted[8,9]. For our study we therefore chose to com- pare patient responses to the 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12) [10] and the Graded Chronic Pain Scale (GCPS) questionnaire[11] – two widely used survey instruments that collect data on both mental and physical aspects of pain disorders – in the telephone interview mode and the self-administration mode. A test-retest design was selected to examine whether the order of administration and/or the preliminary information of half the respondents had any effect on patient response behaviour in the comparison of SAQ and TI.
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Deprivation and poor psychosocial support are key determinants of late antenatal presentation and poor fetal outcomes a combined retrospective and prospective study

Deprivation and poor psychosocial support are key determinants of late antenatal presentation and poor fetal outcomes a combined retrospective and prospective study

Two hundred forty-one women consented to this as- pect of study and received questionnaires. We employed a survey instrument to capture validated measures of prenatal attachment, social support, psychological health, self-esteem and general health. The following widely accepted scales were employed: the Maternal Antenatal attachment Scale (MAAS) [17], the Maternity Social Support scale (MSSS) [18], the State Trait Anxiety Inventory scale (STAI) [19, 20], the Rosenberg Self- Esteem scale (RSES) [21, 22] and the Short Form Health Survey version (SF-12) [23] respectively. The MAAS is a 19-item instrument that measures prenatal attachment and take no more than 5–10 min to administer. All of the items are scored on a 5-point Likert scale; ranging from “very weak” to “very strong”. The MSSS is quanti- fied by using 6-item questionnaire and takes no more than 5 min to administer. Each statement has a 5-point Likert scale ranging from “always” to “never”. Factors that are associated with postnatal depression such as conflict with partner, controlled by spouse/partner, feel- ing unloved, low friendship and family support are quan- tified. The STAI measures the emotional reactions in terms of anxiety at a particular moment or period of time and take no more than 5 min. Statements are on a 4-point Likert scale of increasing intensity, from “not at all” to “very often”. The RSES is a 10-item questionnaire and takes no more than 3–5 min to complete. Each statement has a 4-point Likert scale ranging from “strongly agree” to “strongly disagree”. The SF-12 is a shorter version of SF-36; captures both physical and mental health status and takes around 2 min for comple- tion. The physical health section looks at physical func- tioning, body pain and general health, whereas the mental health looks at vitality, social functioning,
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The Effect of Response Shift on Quality of Life among Cancer Patients: A Systematic Review

The Effect of Response Shift on Quality of Life among Cancer Patients: A Systematic Review

I/S invasive surgery; PI: psychosocial interventions; SF-12 or SF-36: medical outcomes study short-form health survey; SEIQoL-DW: schedule for the evaluation of individual quality of life ―direct weighting; EORTC; QLQ-30: European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core quality of Life questionnaire; FACT-G: functional assessment of cancer therapy-general; RHS: Ryff happiness scale; PPP: prostate cancer patient and partner questionnaire; MFI: multidimensional fatigue inventory; FSI: fatigue symptom inventory; RSCL: rotterdam symptom checklist; PCI: prostate cancer index; MCS: mental component summary; NRS: numerical rating scale; SHE: subjective health estimation; PWB: physical well-being; GQL: global quality of life; pF: physical functioning; RP: role-physical; BP: bodily pain; GH: general health; VT: vitality; SF: social functioning; RE: role emotional; MH: mental health; FT: fatigue (as measured with MFI). * Effect sizes are calculated according to the formula M (difference score)/SD (difference score), the size values of 0.2, 0.5, and 0.8 are considered “small”, “medium”, and “large” (Cohen, 1988); No provide enough data origin for ES, underestimated ES by p = 0.05; NA is not applicable; ns indicates non-significance.
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Assessing the reliability of the short form 12 (SF-12) health survey in adults with mental health conditions: a report from the wellness incentive and navigation (WIN) study

Assessing the reliability of the short form 12 (SF-12) health survey in adults with mental health conditions: a report from the wellness incentive and navigation (WIN) study

The SF-12 is one of the most widely used instruments for assessing self-reported HRQOL. Originally developed from the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) 36-item Short-Form Health Survey SF-36 [6], the SF-12v2® covers the same eight health domains as the SF-36 with substantially fewer questions, making it a more practical research tool, especially among populations with limited attention spans or mental health problems. The reliabil- ity of the SF-36 has been documented among various populations. For example, studies have reported good re- liability of SF-36 in patients with schizophrenia [7] and bipolar disorder [8]. However, few studies have investi- gated the reliability of SF-12, including both SF-12 ver- sions 1 (SF-12v1) and 2 (SF-12v2) among populations with mental health conditions [9]. Given the potential of SF-12v2® to measure HRQOL among populations with mental health conditions, it is important to assess the re- liability of SF-12v2®.
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Comparison of health-related quality of life among patients using atypical antipsychotics for treatment of depression: results from the National Health and Wellness Survey

Comparison of health-related quality of life among patients using atypical antipsychotics for treatment of depression: results from the National Health and Wellness Survey

Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) To measure HRQoL, every respondent was asked to complete ver- sion 2 of the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 12 (SF-12) questionnaire [14]. The SF-12 is a generic meas- ure of HRQoL, which assesses 8 health domains: phys- ical functioning, physical role limitations, bodily pain, general health perceptions, vitality, social functioning, emotional role limitations, and mental health [14]. The health domains are summarized by two summary scores: the mental component summary (MCS) and physical component summary (PCS), which are both standar- dized to the US general population (Mean = 50, Standard Deviation = 10). Both domain scores and summary scores vary between 0 and 100; where higher scores indi- cate greater health. Previous findings suggest the SF-12 instrument is sensitive to remission of depressive symp- toms [15] and response to treatment among depression patients [16]. Prior research has suggested that differ- ences of 3 points in MCS and PCS are considered clinic- ally meaningful [17].
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The relationship between health literacy and quality of life: a systematic review and meta-analysis

The relationship between health literacy and quality of life: a systematic review and meta-analysis

The included studies were published between 2005 and February 2018. The detailed information for review is de- scribed in Table 1. The design types of these studies in- cluded cohort studies and cross-sectional studies. A total of 13 studies were conducted between 1995 and 2015, but 10 studies had no survey time attributed to them. The study subjects were mainly college students, community residents and patients. They were mostly adults, and the majority of them were women. The instruments of meas- uring QOL were mainly the EuroQol-5 Dimension (EQ-5D) [44], the 12 item short form health questionnaire survey (SF-12), the 36 item short form health question- naire survey (SF-36) [45] and other self-developed ques- tionnaires, while the instruments of HL were mainly the Test of Functional Health literacy in Adults (TOFHLA) [46], the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine
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The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS): translation and validation study of the Iranian version

The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS): translation and validation study of the Iranian version

discriminated well between sub-groups of women as defined by their mode of delivery indicating that as expected depression score was higher in women with cae- sarean section delivery. Although not significant, women who had experienced a caesarean were more likely to be depressed compared with women who had normal births. The results are shown in Table 3. Convergent validity was assessed using the correlation between the EPDS score and mental health component summary score of the Ira- nian version of the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and as expected a significant negative correlation emerged (at time 1: Spearman's rho = -0.41, P < 0.001; at time 2: Spear- man's rho = -0.57, P < 0.001).
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Mecasin treatment in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

Mecasin treatment in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

Background: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease that causes paralysis of limb, swallowing, and breathing muscles. Riluzole, the Food and Drug Administration-approved drug for ALS, provides minimal benefit, prolonging patient life by only 2 – 3 months. Previous studies have found a neuro-protective and anti-neuroinflammatory effect of Mecasin, with retrospective studies providing suggestive evidence for a beneficial effect of Mecasin. The aim of this study was to develop a protocol to determine the proper dosage of Mecasin. Methods: This is a phase II-A, multi-center, randomized study with three arms. Thirty-six patients with ALS will be randomly assigned to one of three groups, each receiving the standard treatment with 100 mg of riluzole in addition to one of 1.6 g of Mecasin, 2.4 g of Mecasin, or a placebo. The Primary outcome is the Korean version of the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale-Revised result after 12 weeks of treatment. Secondary outcomes include results of the Short Form Health Survey-8, Medical Research Council Scale, Visual Analogue Scale for Pain, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, Fatigue Severity Scale, Patient Global Impression of Change, pulmonary function test, forced expiratory volume in 1 s and its ratio to forced vital capacity, creatine kinase, and body weight. The frequencies of total adverse events and serious adverse events will be described and documented. The trial protocol has been approved by the Institutional Review Board of the Wonkwang University Gwangju and Sanbon Hospital (2016 – 5-4 and 2016 – 34-01, respectively). An Investigational New Drug status (30731) was granted by the Korea Food and Drug Administration.
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Quality of life of patients with brucellosis in an endemic area of Mexico

Quality of life of patients with brucellosis in an endemic area of Mexico

The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of life of patients infected with brucellosis com- pared to a control population from the same geographic region. The quality of life of brucel- losis positive and brucellosis negative individu- als from rural and urban areas of Mexico was evaluated using the Short-Form SF-36 Health Survey. This survey is a generic measure of physical and mental health-related quality of life. Data analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance and the Tukey test. Brucel- losis patients had lower overall quality of life compared with the controls. Brucellosis patients from rural areas had lower overall quality of life (P < 0.05) compared with brucellosis patients from urban areas. In conclusion, human brucel- losis affects quality of life, with patients living in rural areas most severely impacted. This may be due to the lack of local public policies and pro- grams for the prevention, diagnosis, and treat- ment of brucellosis.
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Health-related quality of life in persons with West Nile virus infection: a longitudinal cohort study

Health-related quality of life in persons with West Nile virus infection: a longitudinal cohort study

Data were obtained from an existing cohort study of 156 Canadian adults with confirmed WNV infection [5]. From provincial laboratory testing, patients with positive results were recruited by physicians and confirmed to have WNV through hospital, clinic, and laboratory re- cords. Patients were predominantly from Ontario (65%), as well as Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta. Data were collected on sociodemographics, and comorbid diagnoses including cardiac disease, peripheral vascular disease, chronic obstructive, pulmonary disease, diabetes, renal failure, peptic ulcer disease, cancer, and rheumato- logic disease. The study aimed to recruit patients within four weeks of symptom onset and interviewed patients during home visits or in ambulatory care over their follow-up of up to three years. The study measured pa- tient HRQoL using the Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form 36 (SF-36) questionnaire, which consists of 36 questions that can be summed into eight subscales (physical functioning, social role functioning, bodily pain, general health perceptions, role limitations due to physical health, role limitation due to emotional prob- lems, mental health, vitality) [6]. Each subscale has a score from 0 (maximum disability) to 100 (no disability). The eight subscales can be further aggregated into the Physical Component Summary and Mental Component Summary scores, which also range from 0 (maximum disability) to 100 (no disability).
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Reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment questionnaire in patients with skeletal muscle injury of the upper or lower extremities

Reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment questionnaire in patients with skeletal muscle injury of the upper or lower extremities

Methods: The original SMFA was translated from English into Chinese and culturally adapted according to cross- cultural adaptation guidelines. A multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted, comprising 339 skeletal muscle injury patients (aged 20 – 75 years) from 4 hospitals. The SMFA, the health survey short form (SF-36) along with a region-specific questionnaire (including the disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand questionnaire (DASH), the hip disability and osteoarthritis outcome score (HOOS), the knee injury and osteoarthritis outcome score (KOOS), and the foot function index (FFI)) were completed according to the region of injury. Reliability was estimated from the internal consistency using Cronbach ’ s α and validity was assessed via convergent validity, known-groups comparison, and construct validity.
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The estimation of the psychometric properties
of the MHC SF for the broad South African organizational context

The estimation of the psychometric properties of the MHC SF for the broad South African organizational context

investigates a single factor as representation of mental health and wellbeing. As stated by Gallagher et al. (2009) the correlated first-order factors of the MHC-SF were found to adequately represent mental health, however the three-factor model fitted the data significantly better. Although, the three-factor model has been supported within the current study it has to be mentioned that also a bifactor model of wellbeing might have fit the results as well. The bifactor model, consisting of a general factor of wellbeing and the three specific factors of emotional, psychological and social wellbeing, has been found to be the best-fitting solution for the MHC-SF compared to the three-factor model (De Bruin & Du Plessis, 2015; Hides et al., 2016; Jovanovic, 2015). The question which model will fit the data better should be investigated in the future. With respect to the current findings it can be stated that a three-factor model was confirmed to represent the data at best. Additionally, all items were found to have the highest factor loadings on their intended factor. This finding indicates firstly supplementary support for the three-factor structure and secondly illustrates an accurate estimation of these three factors. In sum, the current findings indicate for one that the subscales of the MHC-SF can be used for the investigation of mental health and wellbeing within the South African organizational context. Secondly, the fact that the three-factor model has been found to illustrate the best fitting- solution indicates that the items of emotional, psychological and social wellbeing reflect three distinct but correlated factors. Thirdly, increases or decreases in one of the three wellbeing factors may also lead to increases or decreases in the other two wellbeing factors.
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Prognostic ability of the German version of the STarT Back tool: analysis of 12 month follow up data from a randomized controlled trial

Prognostic ability of the German version of the STarT Back tool: analysis of 12 month follow up data from a randomized controlled trial

While the SBT comprises only modifiable risk factors, the literature states that inclusion of other factors could improve prediction [20, 28]. Therefore, the potential to improve prognoses for disability by adding further vari- ables was investigated as a secondary approach. This was only done for our primary outcome disability at 12 months based on the CPGS-DS as the outcome variable. The procedure encompassed two main steps. First, uni- variate linear regression analyses were carried out to check for, at least, a minimal dependence. Considered were disability at baseline, depression/anxiety based on the PHQ-4, patient self-prognosis for workability, phys- ical activity and global health. All these variables were derived from the survey. STarT-Classification was in- cluded as two dummy coded variables, medium and high risk (patients with a medium and high risk coded as 1 respectively), in each case against the other two groups (coded as 0). Patients with a low-risk were used as the reference, being 0 in both dummy variables. For the vari- ables to pass to step two (multiple linear regression ana- lysis), a result of p ≤ 0.2 was necessary from univariate analysis. For the multiple linear regression analysis, the variables were included block-wise. First, the STarT-Classification variables were included to deter- mine the variance explained by the STarT-G. Second, the covariates from the univariate analyses were in- cluded before the final model was determined by apply- ing a backward stepwise method.
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nihms-1064375.pdf

nihms-1064375.pdf

We developed two multivariate logistic regression models to examine associations between PO use and independent variables of interest. Independent variables of interest included age, gender, body mass index, health insurance status, and Hispanic/Latino group; these were forced into both models. Both models controlled for SF-12 physical and mental health scores. Age, gender, and body mass index, and physical and mental health tend to be highly correlated to arthritis severity (Barbour, Boring, Helmick, Murphy, & Qin, 2016; Curtis, Greenberg, Harrold, Kremer, & Palmer, 2018), so these were determined to be important covariates a priori. GPAQ scores were not added into models as these tend to be correlated with physical health scores (Vancampfort et al., 2018). The Hispanic/Latino background model included age, gender, body mass index, health insurance status, Hispanic/Latino group, SF-12 physical health score, and SF-12 mental health score. The acculturation model added (1) SASH language acculturation scores, (2) SASH social acculturation scores, and (3) length of residence in the United States (categorized as ≥10 years in the United States and born in the U.S. mainland, or ≥10 years in the United States and not born in the U.S. mainland, or <10 years in the United States and not born in the U.S. mainland) to the Hispanic/Latino background model. Because Hispanic/Latino group was highly correlated with field site, we did not formally adjust for site. To address this, we performed exploratory stratified analyses of the Hispanic/Latino background model by Field Center to detect whether differences detected in Hispanic/Latino groups could be caused by local differences in prescribing patterns at Field Centers.
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The effects of thiopurine therapy on health-related quality of life in Inflammatory Bowel Disease patients

The effects of thiopurine therapy on health-related quality of life in Inflammatory Bowel Disease patients

The Δ IBDQ at 12 months was correlated with the number of previous admissions in both CD (r = 0.58, P = 0.047) and UC (r = 0.30, P = 0.029) patients. Addi- tionally, in those patients with CD, the improvement was significantly greater in those patients treated with steroids at the beginning of treatment. In UC patients, the gain was significantly higher in those for whom the indication of treatment was maintenance after a severe flare or induction of remission. Other clinical variables studied were not related to the ΔIBDQ. Regression ana- lysis confirmed that the improvement in HRQoL in CD patients correlated only with steroid use at the begin- ning of treatment and this association was independent of the indication and other concomitant treatments. For UC patients, no association was seen in the multivariate analysis.
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Six month quality of life and functional status of acute respiratory distress syndrome survivors compared to patients at risk: a population based study

Six month quality of life and functional status of acute respiratory distress syndrome survivors compared to patients at risk: a population based study

QOL was assessed using the 12-Item Short Form Survey (SF-12), which is a validated tool developed to replicate the 36-Item Short Form Survey (SF-36) and minimize respondent burden [21, 22]. Functional status was as- sessed using the Barthel Index (BI), one of the best meas- urement scales for activities of daily living, previously used in ICU survivors [23, 24]. These surveys were adminis- tered by trained study coordinators [21]. Assessments were performed at baseline and at 6 months from the first questionnaire date. The baseline survey was done during hospitalization; however, the patients were asked about their pre-morbid condition before acute illness. After in- formed consent was obtained, study coordinators decided whether the patient was competent enough to inde- pendently complete the questionnaire by performing the mini-mental status examination (MMSE). If the patient was deemed incompetent (abnormal MMSE) or too ill to complete the survey (unable to speak due to critical ill- ness), a surrogate was acknowledged to help answer the questions on behalf of the patient. Follow-up contact information was attained, and the patients or their surro- gates who successfully completed the baseline survey were contacted by the center personnel by telephone 6 months after that hospitalization. The pre-specified primary end- point was the change at 6 months from baseline in QOL and functional status. QOL and functional status mea- sures were then compared between patients who did and did not develop ARDS.
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