The transmitter circuit consists of power supply, soil moisture sensor, humidity sensor, and accelerometer sensor and zigbee module blocks. The sensors are connected to the ADC 0 and ADC 1 of microcontroller. The signalconditioningcircuit is used for sensors to get appropriate output. The data collected from the sensors is in voltage form thus we convert it in suitable format to display the results. The power supply is designed for 3.3V for microcontroller and 5V for peripheral modules. The transmitting of data is done using zigbee. Zigbee has range of 500m approximately.
Abstract—This paper presents the development of a monitoring system for electrical energy consumption and power quality analysis, also known as power quality analyser (PQA). The internal architecture of the developed monitoring system is described in detail along the paper, highlighting the signalconditioningcircuit and analogue to digital conversion (ADC) stage, the advanced RISC machine (ARM) processor, and the digital signal processor (DSP), which are used, respectively, for data acquisition, data communication and power quality calculations. This paper also describes the software developed for a Raspberry Pi, which receives the processed information from the ARM processor and presents it in real-time using a touch screen user-friendly interface. Among all the available features of the developed system, the paper presents the most relevant experimental results obtained with linear and nonlinear loads, showing the main functionalities of the different menus available in the developed user interface, mainly the menus “Scope”, “Harmonics” and “Data”.
The sensor structure was projected to operate in the elastic region. Figure 5 shows the static calibration of the new extensometer being the maximum hysteresis obtained was 3%. The MOD occurred for the force of 1.35 N. The resolution of E c containing the signalconditioningcircuit was 0.09 N, its
So a capacitor filter is used to remove the ac component and produce pure dc. An IC7805 voltage regulator is used to regulate the 12v dc to 5v since the circuit operation requires only 5v. The microcontroller use here is PIC 16F877A.The 5v supply is given to the controller. The transmitter side consists of a PIC controller, Signalconditioningcircuit, 4 sensors interfaced namely thermocouple sensor, Thermistor sensor, Light Dependent Resistor, IR based sensorthat communicates with a PC , RF transmitter module (including RFtransmitter and a 4- bit encoder), and Seawater Monopole Antenna. On the other hand ,the receiver side consists of a PICcontroller, RF receiver module (including RF receiver and a 4- bit decoder),that communicate to the PC at the receiver side
A typical section of PPG traces obtained is presented in Figure 3. The measurements on the finger and in the oesophagus were all made using IRED currents of 40 mA. The electrical characteristics and gain of the PPG signalconditioningcircuit for the oesophageal channel and the finger channel were identical for all the measurements. This facilitated realistic comparisons between the two signals. As can be seen from Figure 3, the AC PPG amplitudes from the oesophagus are at least a factor of two greater than those obtained from the finger. The oesophageal signal appears to be artefact free with a high signal-to-noise ratio.
The optical tomography detect the flowing particle by the principle that the particle will cause the light emit from the transmitter to been deflect by the particle. The deflected light will cause the lesser the light that will be obtains by the receiver. Then, the receiver signalconditioningcircuit will translate the condition of the receiver in term of signal or voltage. This process will continue and reoccur in cycle.
The microscopic photograph of the integrated sensor die is shown in the fig. 8.2. The underlying CMOS readout circuit and interconnects were not apparently seen in the microscopic observation due to the presence of top layers such as the sensor element, anchors and foundry fill dummies. As the release process has been done already during the MEMS process at IMEC, no post-processing is necessary. Experimental tests were straightaway conducted after custom- sealing the device, to study the performance of the sensor micro-system. According to the thin plate theory, the pressure sensitivity is expected to be linear for half the membrane thickness; hence, the 4 µm thick diaphragm can yield linear pressure sensitivity up to a displacement of 2 µm. The vacuum cavity below the diaphragm is 3 µm thick and so do the distance between the plates, therefore electrostatic pull-in will have negligible effect on the performance of the devices. The microscopic measurements of semi-minor and semi-major axis of the elliptic diaphragm were found to be 280 µm and 485 µm respectively. The entire area of integrated sensor die measures 4 mm × 4 mm. The diced chip is packaged using the versatile DIP plastic packaging technique, with an option of ESD taped plastic lid as shown in fig. 8.3, the plastic lid can be pulled open for exposing the sensor to the physical quantity. The packaged micro-system is then soldered to the PCB for establishing proper connections with external testing equipments. Custom PCB design that suits the DIP packaging is done in Altium designer CAD tool. The integrated chip with the PCB is kept in a vacuum chamber for experimental analysis to determine device performance such as sensitivity, linearity, hysteresis and repeatability. The capacitive measurement under different pressure ranges are made possible by lead transfer from the chip to outside LCR meter through an electrical interface of the vacuum chamber. A constant 1.4 V regulated power supply is also designed to power the on-chip signalconditioningcircuit and also to excite the capacitive pressure sensor. A vacuum pump was utilized to form the initial vacuum inside the vacuum chamber; further, nitrogen source was used to increase the pressure inside the testing chamber from the initial vacuum condition. Pressure test calibration equipment, shown in fig. 8.4 controls the vacuum pump and nitrogen gas source.
The schematic of the signalconditioning is presented in Fig. 3. A list of parts is available in the Appendix. The circuit board on which the signalconditioningcircuit been implemented (shown in Fig. 5) is a 4-layer board, 5 cm x 3.2 cm (approximatively. 2 in x 1.2 in) in size. It connects to the mote by a standard 10-pin header. The layout of the circuit board is shown in Fig 4(a). In addition to the basic signalconditioningcircuit, it has four jumpers which can be used to configure the circuit and operate it in specific modes. The jumpers seen in Fig 4(b) are described below. Please note that in Fig 4(b), each jumper (named JP1 through JP4) has four pins and there is a rectangular box between two of its pins. These two pins are the pins numbered 1 & 2 in the schematic of Fig. 3, while the other two pins are pins 3 & 4.
Abstract— This project proposes a miniaturized module of the FPGA interfacing system with Zigbee transceiver. This offer a powerful system, which will monitor the human heartbeat and EEG signals. In existing system NIOS II embedded and MATLAB are used, instead of that we use LABVIEW platform for simulate the response signal. It will reduce the hardware complexity of the system. The main aim of using software in monitoring system is data visualization and analysis. On the system, analog and digital circuits are integrated, whereas field-programmable gate array hardware and LABVIEW are co-operated. FPGA has been programmed with software module. In this monitoring, the unusual reaction in the system will send the information to the doctor via the recorded voice. In this we use Zigbee transceiver for efficient treatment to the patient. The analog section is composed of amplifier, analog to digital converter, signalconditioning unit. Signal capture and amplification are realized by an analog circuit, whereas signal process, signal analysis, and man-machine interface control are implemented on a field programmable gate array digital platform. In addition to this, to pursue high performance and good expandability, LABVIEW is employed and system tasks are partitioned to hardware and software. It is mainly used in the application of brain death detection for coma patient.
Abstract: This paper consists of the design and implementation of a simple conditioningcircuit to optimize the electronic nose performance, where a temperature modulation method was applied to the heating resistor to study the sensor’s response and confirm whether they are able to make the discrimination when exposed to different volatile organic compounds (VOC’s). This study was based on determining the efficiency of the gas sensors with the aim to perform an electronic nose, improving the sensitivity, selectivity and repeatability of the measuring system, selecting the type of modulation (e.g., pulse width modulation) for the analytes detection (i.e., Moscatel wine samples (2% of alcohol) and ethyl alcohol (70%)). The results demonstrated that by using temperature modulation technique to the heating resistors, it is possible to realize the discrimination of VOC’s in fast and easy way through a chemical sensors array. Therefore, a discrimination model based on principal component analysis (PCA) was implemented to each sensor, with data responses obtaining a variance of 94.5% and accuracy of 100%.
The current output from a single PZT was about 1µA, which is very low. Connecting piezoelectric transducers in parallel increases their current output while keeping the output voltage constant. The transducer AC output voltage is rectified by an off- the-shelf circuit (LTC3588), which regulates the output voltage to 3.3 V. The rise time of a load capacitor charging curve was measured in order to evaluate the systems performance. A plot showing the comparison of the rise time of the different combinations of piezoelectric diaphragms is illustrated in Figure 9, which shows that with increased number of PZT diaphragms, the time to charge the capacitor decreases. The piezoelectric diaphragms are generally modeled as current sources. Therefore parallel configuration of piezoelectric diaphragms is expected to increase the power output and thus lead to charging the capacitor faster. The approximate input frequency is about 5Hz in the experiments.
ABSTRACT: This dissertation is intended to design and simulate electronics computational circuit which help in checking uniqueness property of voice/ audio signal to help communication engineers consider human speech as a unique biometric character which can be used for people identification in internet security and also in searching people online from calls they made or voice chat. The design was successfully completed and result obtained from Simulation shows that human voice can be considered as a unique biometric character. It can be used as a weapon against Criminals, Militant and Extreme groups to get access to their current information like phone number, IP addresses, location and other useful information. In this dissertation saved offline data were used to verify we can check for identical voice. This device work based on the targeted voice and Time required to search for a person online was not taken in to consideration. What I believe is “if the entire world i.e. about 7 billion will make a call at the same time, electronics has sufficient switching time to search for just one person within acceptable time limit” KEYWORDS: Security, Speech Uniqueness, Voice uniqueness, Voice Recognition, Pattern Recognition,
Abstract—This paper demonstrates the exhibition of pulse compres- sion from an electronic circuit with negative group delay (NGD). This circuit consists of a field effect transistor (FET) cascaded with shunt RLC network. Theoretic and experimental investigations have proved that, at its resonance frequency, the group delay of this circuit is al- ways negative. The present study shows that around this resonance, it presents a gain form enabling to generate pulse compression. To validate this concept, as proof-of-principle, devices with one- and two- stages FET were implemented and tested. Measurements of the one- stage test device evidenced an NGD of about −2.5 ns and simulta- neously with 2 dB amplification operating at 622 MHz resonance fre- quency. In the frequency domain, in the case of a Gaussian input pulse with 40 MHz frequency standard deviation, this resulted in 125% ex- pansion of pulse width compared to the input one. In time domain, simulations showed that the compression was about 80% in the case of an input Gaussian pulse with 4 ns standard deviation. With the other prototype comprised of two-stage NGD cell, the use of a sine carrier of about 1.03 GHz allowed to achieve 87% pulse width compression.
The accelerometer sensor senses the angle of the fall. The output of the angle sensor is analog and also it was very low.The signalconditioning board will amplify the signals and sent those signal to the micro controller.The micro controller converts the analog signal into digital and the threshold for the particular person is already stored.The current value is compared with the stored value and it decides whether the fall is going to occur or not. When it decides that the fall is going to occur, then it activates the solenoid valve.The solenoid valve is activated through relay driver and relay. The micro air compressor and cylinder are used for filling the air bag. When air is filled in the air bag, the fall can be avoided and whenever it is not necessary the air will get released. The filling of air in the air bag will be done by using solenoid valve.The releasing of air is done by using the outlet tap. By using this, the fall can be detected and it can be avoided by using these concepts.
Fig. 5 shows the simulink model of controller with air conditioning system. Here neural network is self-learning system. There is no need in modification or changing in neural block or activation function if there is change in reference speed (denote the temperature of air conditioning system) by the operators. The neural network controller receives data from output of air conditioning system and output of self-block as input to controller. The output of controller is such that the output of air conditioning system is very close to desired response.
In this project only two sensors are used in the track. So, the signal interruption is less. And also the authority person needs not to monitor the candidate who enters for the license test. Before entering for the driving license test normally LLR is applied for training and experience. It’s not needed in this project. If the candidate knows driving well then the candidate can fill the form for driving test and drive the vehicle. During driving license test the person has to wear the shoe which was given by the authority before driving the vehicle. Then the person is identified by limit switch sensor and proximity sensor with the help of lab view which is connected to laptop or PC. During driving the person is monitored by the sensors. If candidate gets qualified he can get license within two days. Suppose if the candidate fails to drive properly then that test is postpone for next particular day. By using Labview software it should be monitored and data stored without the help of licensing authorities.
The output voltage sampling and signal conversion circuit converts the strong electric signal output from the main power circuit into the 0 ~ 3.3V weak signal recognized by the STM32F103RBT6 chip A / D module and isolates the main power circuit and the control circuit. Output voltage sampling and signal conversion circuit using Hall voltage sensor WHV05AS5S6 and one to one of the inverting operational amplifier. WHV05AS5S6 is a closed-loop voltage sensor made using the Hall effect principle, capable of measuring AC, DC, pulse signals and other irregular signals. The rated current IPN is 5mA, the measurement range IP is 0 ~ ± 10mA, the measured voltage VPN is 5V ~ 1200V, the output voltage Vo is 2.5 ± 0.625V * (IP / IPN). Supply voltage of 5V, it has high precision, good linearity, temperature range and other advantages.
The potential of the Ag/Agcl electrode is determined by the silver-ion activity in solution, which is inversely related to chloride activity through the solubility product. Any additional ion present in sufficient concentration to form an insoluble silver salt, such as may be found in solutions of biological origin, will contribute to the resultant potential. In Figure 1, the four electrodes (Ag/Agcl) are placed on the surface of the body (either on the surface of foot or hand).The first and fourth electrode is connected to function generator which acts as the current source. The function generator is set with 10KHZ frequency and 100 mill volt peak to peak. From the second and third electrode the input is generated and it is given to the voltage follower. Then the signal is amplified followed by Differential amplifier, Non Inverting amplifier and Full Wave Rectifier. Finally the output voltage is measured in CRO.
First we simulate a series matching circuit with a short stub, as shown in figure 3.22. Using the equations from Section 2.2.2, the stub lengths are calculated to fit our parameters. Figure 3.23 and 3.24 show the difference between matching at 1 and 5 GHz (stublengths mentioned in the figures are in meters). The higher frequency gives us more bandwidth. For both frequencies the length of the stub needed to match the load (l) is only a few micrometers. This is quite low for our purposes, since the width of the transmission lines will be at least around 100 µm, making the stub of a negligible length.
To overcome the above undesirable effects, many techniques developed over these years. Repeaters are often used  to minimize the delay required to propagate a signal through those interconnect lines that are best modeled as an RC impedance. But the major drawback was increased power dissipation and delay when used in large numbers when required. In  a current sensing method for ULV Applications is presented using a new auto-regulated current sensing scheme (ARCS).