The concept of work ethics is simply based on a set of rules and principles that must be observed and adhere to and acted upon to be successful in dealing with people and their career. The ethical standards in the field of business are associated with the ethical standards of the individuals. Abu Baker (2010) broadly defined business ethics as “a set of principles and rules and regulations that are formed from specific sources and become the reference case from standards.” Consequently, it determines the method of thinking and behavior of individuals of an organization to distinguish between what is acceptable and what is unacceptable, what is true or false, and what is legal and what is illegal. This includes the consequent career managerial behavior, leadership and institutional uncontrolled moral and value judgment from the points of view of the institution and society. Thus, it can be said that work ethics is the product of all morals because it is formed from individual value and behavior that dictate response to situations, which do not violate prevailing values and customs in their community and workplace.
The revised Society Ethical Principles for Conducting Research with Human Participants were published in 1990. This was a widely used document; many institutions and research funding bodies have used it to inform their own research ethics policies and practices. Since that time, additional supplementary guidance documents have also been published to support members conducting research in numerous different contexts. The Society appreciates that the understandings of ethics in research are constantly developing; in addition, other changes with significance for research ethics, such as the advent of the statutory regulation of professional psychological services by the Health Professions Council, have taken place. The revisions of the Society’s own Code of Ethics and Conduct (2006, 2009) have also influenced thinking in this area. For these reasons, this Code has been produced.
Teachers may consider prior understanding about reasoning and human beliefs to improve decision‐ making abilities. Peirce (1877) described that the entity of reasoning is to find out, from the consideration of what we already know, and something else which we do not know. This is because the question of its validity is purely one of fact and not of thinking. Reasoning is good if it be a true conclusion from true premises, and not otherwise. Both effective reasoning and ineffective reasoning are possible, and such fact of reasoning is the foundation of the practical side of logic (Peirce, 1877). Teachers can play a vital role in encouraging students’ personal decision‐making which involves how to listen respectfully to the positions of others, overcome prejudices, and communicate opinions reasonably on matters that differ from their sentiments or views (Chowning, 2005). Decision making necessarily surrounds a wide scope of other types of knowledge which always include values and personal knowledge, environment, technology, ethics, civics, politics, laws, economics, public policy and ecology (Jime´nez‐Aleixandre, 2002). When students partake in the decision‐ making process, they give priority to values over scientific evidence since values are more important in culture and hence influence their decision‐making process on most socio‐scientific issues involving them (Aikenhead, 2005). This finding (2005) is aligned with what Peirce (1877) described about belief and doubt. Students give priority to values over scientific evidence because values are embedded in the students’ culture, and they find doubts in scientific evidence. In such case students want to remove the doubts to attain a calm and relaxed state of mind that influence their decision making process. In decision making, students may learn and understand what constitutes the data that provide information, and how it can be utilized in the process of decision making. The significance of decision‐making practices can be well understood from the research outcomes (Sadler, Chambers, & Zeidler, 2004) which were based on students’ responses. Students were provided contradictory reports about the status of global warming, and were asked to read the reports and answer the questions set by the researchers. Sadler et al. (2004) found that nearly half (47%) of the students lacked adequate conceptions of scientific data (data confusion and data recognition) presented to them. Some students were able to recognize data without the ability to describe its significance, whereas others could not even distinguish among data, unfounded opinions and predictions. These observations also demonstrated that moral development is an important factor when decision‐making strategies are assessed.
2 Stephen Pope, “Reason and natural law’ in The Oxford Handbook of Theological Ethics, ed. Gilbert Meilaender and William Werpehoswski. Oxford: Oxford Uni. Press 2005, 163. 3 See Benedict XVI, Address to the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, 10 Feb.2006: “The Church welcomes with joy the authentic breakthroughs of human knowledge and recognizes that evangelization also demands a proper grasp of the horizons and challenges that modern knowledge is unfolding. In fact, the great progress of scientific knowledge that we saw during the last century has helped us understand the mystery of creation better and has profoundly marked the awareness of all peoples… Consequently, every study that aims to deepen the knowledge of the truths discovered by reason is vitally important, in the certainty that thee is no ‘competition of any kind between reason and faith’ (Fides et Ratio, n. 17).”
According to McClellan (2005), moral education became second place to the modern societal and technological advances of the mid-20th century. During this time, Dewey brought ethics into view as the new morality, and schools began to encourage ethical reasoning of moral principles, although this seemed to be semantics at its inception. Even today, in order to get as far away from religion in schools as possible, many moral education programs are now called “Character education” and focus on “problem solving and social learning” (McClellan, 2005, p.58). Still, society’s push for schools to support the home in the moral education of children has gone as far in some homes as to allow the responsibility to fall completely on the classroom teacher. According to a United States Department of Education 2012 census of teachers in America, over 75% were female, showing that this expectation for schools to support the moral education of children still lies with women, specifically female teachers.
MEANING OF MARKETING MIX
The marketing mix refers to the combination of ideas, concepts and features which put together best appeal to the target market segments. Market mix is tailored to each target segment in order to meet the specific needs of consumers in the individual segments. The conceptual framework of marketing mix designed by the different experts is the same. Experts such as Kotler, Keeley Lazar, and Davar etc., agree that the marketing mix comprises four elements, products, price, promotion and place. These elements include those marketing variables that are directly controlled by the organisations. The product mix includes product line and quality, brand, packaging and services. The promotion mix includes, advertising, public relations, sales promotion, word of mouth promotion, personal selling and tele-marketing. The price mix includes strategic decisions related to the use of pricing. The place mix is concerned with the distribution process. The four elements of marketing mix can be combined in different ways in order to produce desirable results in the market. The marketing mix provides a bridge between marketing strategy and marketing tactics. Marketing strategy establishes a match between the organisation's skills and capabilities and the identification of the needs of the target market. Marketing tactics are related to decions as how to deliver the product or service offer that reflects this matching process. Thus, mark ting mix has both strategic and tactical dimensions.
(whose name is legion) or only by some who feel they have a calling for it. Since my aim here is properly directed to moral philosophy, I limit the proposed question only to this: whether one is not of the opinion that it is of the utmost necessity to work out once a pure moral philosophy which is fully cleansed of everything that might be in any way empirical and belong to anthropology; for that there must be such is self-evident from the com- mon idea of duty and of moral laws. Everyone must admit that a law, if it is to be valid morally, i.e., as the ground of an obligation, has to carry absolute necessity with it; that the command ‘You ought not to lie’ is valid not merely for human beings, as though other rational beings did not have to heed it; and likewise all the other genuinely moral laws; hence that the ground of obligation here is to be sought not in the nature of the human being or the circumstances of the world in which he is placed, but a priori solely in concepts of pure reason, and that every other precept grounded on principles of mere experience, and even a precept that is universal in a certain aspect, insofar as it is supported in the smallest part on empirical grounds, perhaps only as to its motive, can be called a practical rule, but never a moral law.
3.1. Making Mathematical Models of Music. The above discussion illustrates something of the range and diversity of issues that are involved in making models to assist musical analysis. It highlights the contrast between alternative ways of interpreting group graphs – as encoding distinguished transitions (as in the classical cycle of keys), or as defining a set of transformations in a space of tonality. These alternative views relate to algebraic and topological perspectives on tonal relationships. Waller's model , a variant of the group graph on the left of Figure 4 in which the group generators are the three involutions exemplified by C ↔ a, C ↔ c, C ↔ e, illustrates a further nuance: these three generators are implausible as distinguished modulations in a standard musical idiom, and have no special significance as generators of the automorphism group of the space of keys, but are informative in relation to symmetries and musical chords such as augmented triads and diminished sevenths. Equally important is the nature of the interpretation of mathematical diagrams involved. The virtue of Experiment 2 as a representation is that it accommodates the harmonic excursions of Erlkönig without dispensing with the cycle of fifths model of tonal relationships. In using this model in context (as when tracking the harmonic progressions as the song is played ), it is not appropriate to make sudden transitions between the full group graph and its homomorphic image. The gradual transformation of one group graph into the other suggested by the black arrow in Figure 4 is more convincing, and could be appropriately synchronised with the music so as to suggest the presentiment of encroaching harmonic disintegration that an appreciative and familiar listener experiences. Significantly, such an interpretation exploits a serendipitous informal extension of the semantics of the diagram in Figure 4 whereby the locality of the nodes of the abstract graph is taken into account. Taken together, such model-making exercises suggest quite different priorities from those normally associated with mathematical modelling. A strict and formal mode of interpretation may suit a Pythagorean or Schenkerian view of music, but does not give the scope for ambiguity that is required in creative musical analysis. It is not only helpful to be able to make mathematical models of many different varieties, but also to explore the semantic relationships between them, and to study them in relation to the discourse surrounding them and the processes that mediate their evolution.
The effect of procedure on research ethics is viewed as problematic. This critique has particularly but not exclusively come from researchers in the social science who consider that biomedically dominated research ethics is ill suited to research in health and society (Dingwall 2006; Dingwall 2016; Hammersley 2009), that RECs lack the expertise to make decisions about some methodologies for example, ethnography (Murphy & Dingwall 2007). Philosophical and sociological critiques have shown how procedure can skew the foundational principles embedded in ethics review. For example, in medical contexts autonomy is operationalised as informed consent (Kittay 2007). A parallel formulaic and procedural approach to consent can be seen in ethics review. Informed consent is often viewed central to research ethics (given prominence in review possibly above other ethical considerations) and has been described as functioning as an ‘ethical panacea’ functioning to counteract potentially paternalistic and autocratic practices (Corrigan 2003:769). This procedural and bureaucratic approach leads to ethical principles being reducible to formulaic and technical requirements, abstracted from the contexts of actual research. There has been an ongoing concern with the distance between procedural compliance and actual ethical conduct in the practice of research (Israel and Hay 2006; Guillemin and Gillam 2004).
I was by no means always successful in this endeavour, it took practice, patience and an attunement to the social atmosphere of this space. However, what such an approach highlights is the need to consider more carefully, the ways in which fieldwork produces more than simply ‘data’, narratives or notes to be analysed and represented. Fieldwork produces sensibilities and dispositions, it alters individuals and may orientate them differently towards others. In advocating a less procedural model of research ethics, Thrift (2004:94) argues for the cultivation of ‘responsive judgements’ which are ‘intent on performing each moment with understanding, by cultivating sensitivity to context’. The sensitivity envisaged here is not only to those individuals one may encounter through research, it is a sensitivity to the messiness of research itself, to the entanglements, uncertainties and failings of research as much as the successes. Through examining my own experiences of ‘the field’, I have sought to describe how such a ‘sensitivity to context’ is never a final or full accomplishment. Context and positionality are always shifting beneath our feet as research develops, relationships grow and recede and the lives of those we work with move on around us. As such, fieldwork demands the continual acknowledgement that the accounts we produce are incomplete reflections of a ‘here and now’ never to be repeated. There is then a constant need to be cautious, watchful even, for as Duneier (1999:14) reminds us; ‘[t]hough participant observers often remark on the rapport they achieve and how they are seen by the people they write about, in the end it is best to be humble about such things, because one never really knows’.
case, the regimes of guilt, shame, and indignation appear as objects of contemplation for self-reflection (Chouliaraki, 2010). Amnesty suggests action can be undertaken by joining the organization’s movement and writing appeals, ending its short video with the statement “join and make a difference” and the organization’s website. The website merely offers a means to act, inviting the spectator to visit the website at his convenience. However, the spectator is not immediately compelled to act based on grand emotions of guilt and indignation. Rather, self-reflection and contemplation guide prospective acts (Chouliaraki, 2010). Human Rights Watch’s appeal encourages spectators to touch the exhibit and states: “The power to free Burma’s political prisoners is in your hands,” reinforcing the concept that action can be undertaken by signing the organization’s petition if the spectator deems it appropriate. The spectator can freely choose whether to touch the exhibit and participate or ignore it. Again, in this situation, the spectator is not overcome with guilt that inspires immediate action to relieve such feelings, but instead processes what is being viewed and contemplates whether action is worthwhile or appropriate. In this sense, action “does not take the form of a request or appeal, but precisely of an invitation” (Vestergaard, 2008, p. 488). If a spectator decides to “follow the invitation to the website” or to sign the petition log, “they are offered the possibility to step out of the spectator role and act” (Vestergaard, 2008, p. 488). The invitation-to-act approach of these appeals places emphasis on the reflexivity of the spectator
for granted that those who affirmed it would necessarily be of the species of the ethically heroic and triumphant; but now it appears possible th a t the mediocre and the failed are also capable of such affirmation That is, it is possible to envisage the mundane man, the man who (by N ietzsch e's lights) is of no account, affirming his actions, precisely in virtue of his lack of spiritual grandeur, his incapacity for spiritual crisis. Another deleterious possibility is the eternal recurrence of the slave consciousness, possessed by the kind of individual who affirms pain on moral-theological grounds (to do with the value of suffering); or the return of the frivolous and ethically shallow man, who embraces life rather like a child who wants to go on a ride over and over again. Moreover, if the ER is understood as a global thesis, as more than an ethical thought-experiment, then the eternal recurrence of the 'sm all m a n ' becomes no longer a possibility, but a necessity. And this causes difficulties, because it undermines Zarathustra s (and - in propriapersona-H\eXzscY\e's) distinction between ' necessary ' and 'superfluous ' individuals. ' Superfluous ' individuals are portrayed as congeneric with the ' many-too-many ', the ' rabble ', i.e. the Nietzschean damned; ' necessary ' individuals are prototypes of the (Jbermensch ( ' Great human beings are necessary, the epoch in which they appear is accidental ', TW I p 1 0 7 ). But, in the light of the ER, the superfluous are made to appear necessary - and this leads Zarathustra into the seeming absurdity of claiming that some people are perforce ' more necessary ' than others. So it seems that the doctrine of ER has implications which could be taken as militating against the whole tenor of N ietzsche's ethical thought” .
Desired by ﺍﻭﺭﺪ ﻭﻫﺎ (An - Nissa: 82) that answered the greeting with the same greeting. Because the answer greeting that means restoring greeting and repeat. If you are glorified by someone with a tribute then retaliate with the same respect or with respect better. Say to those who say: ﺍﻠﺴﻼﻢﻋﻠﻴﻛﻡ with answers ﺍﻠﺴﻼ ﻢ ﻋﻠﻴﻛﻡ ﻭﺭﺣﻣﺔ ﺍ ﷲ or ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻛﻡ ﺍﻠﺴﻼ ﻢ ﻭﺭﺣﻣﺔ ﺍ ﷲ ﻭﺑﺭ ﻛﺎ ﺘﻪ So the answer to add one word or more words that start greeting people.Sometimes - sometimes the answer both in terms of its meaning or how to answer it, for example with the same greeting lafadz lafadznya with people who start paying tribute or with a more respectful attitude thereof. So people who ﺍﻠﺴﻼﻢﻋﻠﻴﻛﻡ thee in a low voice, then say to him ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻛﻡ ﺍﻠﺴﻼ ﻢ (Wa'alaikumussalam). with a louder voice and with an attitude that is more respectful and more honored. It gives the impression that you really - really has given the honor with an attitude and a better way, even though the answer was the same lafadznya. Answer respect that there are two kinds of more modest in speech and attitude, or more elevated in an effort to provide a better answer. People who answer may choose one of two ways to give the answer. As for the unbelievers, then greet him how to answer are: ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻛﻡ Said Ibn Abbas and others. Desired by ﻔﺤﻳﻭﺍﺒﺎ ﺤﺴﻦ ﻤﻧﻬﺎ is when the greeting of the believers, then apply the answer. ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻛﻡ ﺍﻠﺴﻼ ﻢ But if the answer of the infidels as the Prophet Muhammad pronounced against them is ﻭﻋﻠﻴﻛﻡ God teaches that human decency in the association is maintained fraternal relations with the hold order to do when you meet someone. God commanded someone replies respect given to him in the form of greeting he received from someone companions with the penalty or with a better way than that. How to reply in kind or better it can form a pleasant greeting or voice gently or with force that captivate. Allah attention to everything including attention to human life in enforcing manners strengthen fraternal relations among them. In line with the verse there is a hadith - hadith as follows:
factors then became popular, and oligosaccharides such as lactulose (Petury 1957, Terada et al, 1992) as well as dietary fibers have been found to be effective in promoting intestinal growth of bifidobacteria. These oligosaccharides have several important properties. They are basically indigestible in the human digestive tract and reach the large intestine intact, and also that they are preferentially utilized by bifidobacteria.
In this context, Al-Ghazali (2000) and al-Muhasibi (1991) divided akhlaq into two, good and bad. Deeds and behaviour coming from a psyche which accord to reason and religion is good akhlaq or moral character while deeds which are contrary to intellect and religion is known as bad morals or akhlaq. Mohd Nasir (2010) explained that moral character or akhlaq can be shaped and is not inherited or static but is responsive to education, training, advice, guidance, rules, laws and discipline. Hence, youngsters need to be educated on good morals so that they grow up to be useful adults. Many studies have been conducted on the educational aspect for the young, especially regarding parenting skills, for example, by Mustafa (2004), Rosnaaini & Suhanim (2012), Fauziah Hanim et al. (2009) and Azizi et al. (2010) which study parental functions in building an excellent generation. Studies on education for the young in the aspect of psychology conducted by Hafizah (2012) and Che Hasniza (2011) found the importance of selecting a leadership parental style to shape the value of self-esteem among the young. A study by Nurul Ain and Azizi (2012) touched on the parental role in giving motivation to their young to improve their academic achievement. Many studies have also been done on akhlaq or moral education for the young. In some Western countries such as the United Kingdom, moral education is emphasized by using ten books entitled, Morals and Manners Made Easy, published by the Jamiatul Ulama (Council of Religious Scholars) in Transvaal in South Africa. They are designed for children between the ages of six and fifteen and are increasingly in use in the makātib (supplementary Muslim schools) in the UK and other Western countries (Mogra 2007). This shows that akhlaq or moral education have been taught in schools since childhood. Other studies on akhlaq education associated it mainly with Islamic teachings and found that education based on Islamic teachings are significantly related to akhlaq and behaviour of the young, and that Islamic teachings can shape the akhlaq and good behaviour among the young (Fauziah Hanim et al. 2009; Rabiahtul Adawiyah 2014; Mohd Khamal 2015; Zakiyah & Ismail 2004; Badrulzaman 2006; Listyono et al. 2018; Hayah 2017). These days, it is observed that many adolescents face psychological
Conrad D. Johnson, Moral Positivism and the Internal Legality of Morals, 17 Val. U. L. Rev. 383 (1983). Available at: https://scholar.valpo.edu/vulr/vol17/iss3/2
This Article is brought to you for free and open access by the Valparaiso University Law School at ValpoScholar. It has been accepted for inclusion in Valparaiso University Law Review by an authorized administrator of
Each objective is based on extensive paper machine building expertise, utilizing top of the line hardware and software for analysis. Valmet's vibration studies combine mathematical analyzes and diagnostic measurements in a distinct aim to make your machine run smoother, faster and more cost efficient. Now we'll focus on actual results obtained by two North American mills who benefited from Valmet's field service expertise. These case studies involve vibration analysis, both Valmet's findings and the bottom line production impact of implementing our recommendations.