This work presented synthesis consisting of a reduction of the silver ions using a Artemisia monosperma extract for the first time. The silver, nanoparticlessynthesis were confirmed using different techniques. In present study, antimicrobial of synthesized AgNPs by green methods from aqueous extract of plant A. monosperma, as well as plant extract alone were assayed against Gram positive, Gram negative bacteria and Candida albicans, the results indicate the higher activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria of synthesis AgNPs than aqueous plant extract, where the solution acting as capping ligand. GC-MS of
Various microbes are known to reduce the metals, most of them are found to be spherical particles as reported earlier. The resistance conferred by bacteria to silver is determined by the ‘sil’ gene in plasmids. Plant mediated synthesis of nanoparticles is a green chemistry approach that interconnects nanotechnology and plant biotechnology . The technique for obtaining nanoparticles using naturally occurring reagents such as plant extracts could be considered attractive for nanotechnology, because the complex process of maintaining cell cultures are removed in this technique and it is also suitable for large-scale synthesis of nanoparticles. Plant parts such as leaf, root, latex, seed, and stem are being used for nanoparticlessynthesis. Nano capsulation has been investigated as a means of protecting palmitate structures against photo degradation by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV-Visible) radiation [16-18].Silvernanoparticles having a surface Plasmon resonance band created at 406nm. Biosynthetic methods employing both biological microorganism such as bacteria and fungus or plant extract, have emerged as a simple and viable alternative to more complex chemical synthetic procedures to obtain nano materials. Extract from plant may act both as reducing and capping agents in silvernanoparticlessynthesis[18-19] is summarized in the Table 1
To determine the size of the diameter and distribution of silvernanoparticles in the sample was carried out using Particle Size Analyzer (PSA). It is a tool used to determine the particle size where the particles are dispersed into a liquid medium so that the particles do not form lumps. Characterization results using PSA showed that the average diameter size of silvernanoparticles which had been successfully synthesized was 97.04 nm (Fig. 3). The resulting nanoscale size proved that Muntingia calabura Leaf extract has the potential as a reducing agent in silvernanoparticlessynthesis.
The protocol for the nanoparticle syntheses involves: the collection of the part of plant of interest from the available sites then it’s washing thoroughly with tap water to remove contamination followed by surface sterilization with double distilled water and air dried at room temperature. These clean and fresh sources are then powdered using domestic blender or cut it into very small pieces. And for the plant broth preparation, around 10-25g of the dried powder or finally chopped leaves were kept in a beaker and boiled with 100mL of deionised distilled water. The extract was filtered with Whatman filter paper No.1 further the filtrate was used as reducing source for the synthesis of silvernanoparticles. Synthesis of silvernanoparticles was carried out by adding 10ml of leaf extract to 100ml of 1mM silver nitrate (AgNO3) solution with continuous stirring at room temperature. Reduction of Ag+ to Ag0 was confirmed by the colour change of solution from colourless to brown. Its formation was further confirmed by using UV-Visible spectroscopy . 
Nanoparticles are one of the drug delivery tools. They can be used either as drug carriers or as the treatment itself. Using this delivery technique, nanoparticles will minimize the side effects of painful chemical therapy as in cancer cases. Several methods have been used to form nanoparticles. One of the simplest ways to form nanoparticles is the chemical reduction reaction in aqueous conditions. It is a chemical reaction that occurs between two components. One of them is the nanoparticles precursor, while the other acts as reducing agent. Several researchers change the chemical reagent with natural products that are enriched with reducing agents compounds such as strawberry, cranberry and others. Using this method, which known as green synthesis of nanoparticle, will produce nanoparticles with less toxicity. The reduction of pure Ag++ ion monitored by the absorption maxima was scanned by UV- Spectral photometer at the wave length of 200- 800nm. The sharp bands of silvernanoparticles were observed around 350 and 400 nm in leaf, 450 and 490 nm in flower and fruit. The antibacterial assays against Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram negative strains (Pseudomonas) and two pathogenic fungi namely Candida albicans and Aspergillus were also performed by standard disc diffusion method.
which are avoiding the consumption of dangerous chemicals and this leading to increase request for green nanotechnology . According to the silvernanoparticles and microbes get connected in the direction of the cell barrier, so cause distressing the cellular respiration and penetrability of cell barrier. The nanoparticles enter inside the cell barrier, consequently, producing cellular destruction by connecting using sulfur in addition to phosphorus having compounds like DNA in addition to protein which are considered existing inside the cell. The bactericidal action of silvernanoparticles is due to the discharge of silver ions origination the particles, which give the antimicrobial act . Owing to the increase of bacterial resistance to common antibiotics, the studies of the antibacterial activities of silvernanoparticles are increased . Several studies prove the idea that silver classes release Ag + ions and they are connected with the thiol groups in proteins of bacteria leading to disturbance in the duplication of DNA . The goal of this consideration was tocompare between characterization besides antibacterial activity of silvernanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesis by biological method by marine alga Ulva fasciata and chemical method by sodium borohydride (NaBH4) and estimate antibacterial activity of AgNPs in contradiction of Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli O157(KY797670), Aeromonas hydrophila and Salmonella enterica subsp. salamae (Em.1-EGY015)) and Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus also Bacillus cereus) and tested the synergistic effects of AgNPs loading on various antibiotics against pathogenic bacteria.
Owaidi et al. in his work reported that silver nanoparticle could be produced from yellow exotic oyster mushroom, with species Pleurotus cornucopiae var. citrinopileatus. In this procedure first of all basidiocarps are dried, powdered and boiled along with water after which the supernatant was then moved for freeze drying. The silver nanoparticle is then confirmed when the yellow color change to yellow-brownish color. The absorption peak is found to be at 420 and 450nm in UV-vis region.  Several fungi namely, Aspergillus flavus, F. solani, Phytophthora infestans, A. fumigates, Phoma glomerate, Fusarium oxysporum, F. acuminatum, F. culmorum, Verticillium sp., Metarhizium anisopliae, and Trichoderma viride, lead to the synthesis of the particle at both the location i.e. extracellular and intracellular.
These results suggest that the antimicrobial effects of Ag nanoparticles may be associated with characteristics of certain bacterial species. The growth of microorganisms was inhibited by the green synthesized SNPs showed variation in the inhibition of growth of microorganisms may be due to the presence of peptidoglycan, which is a complex structure and after contains teichoic acids or lipoteichoic acids which have a strong negative charge. This charge may contribute to the sequestration of free silver ions. Thus gram positive bacteria may allow less silver to reach the cytoplasmic membrane than the gram negative bacteria (Ahmad et al., 2011). We think that the lower efficacy of the Silvernanoparticles against E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus may derive from the difference as a point of membrane structure. To confirm this hypothesis, further comparative study between various gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial species is needed. The peptidoglycan layer is a specific membrane feature of bacterial species and not mammalian cells. Therefore, if the antibacterial effect of Ag nanoparticles is associated with the peptidoglycan layer, it will be easier and more specific to use Ag nanoparticles as an antibacterial agent. The AgNPs synthesized from plant species are toxic to multi drug resistant microorganisms. It shows that they have great potential in biomedical applications.
As development of nanotechnology applications advance, silvernanoparticles have found many applications in both optical and electronic applications. This is because of their unique size-dependent optical, electrical and magnetic properties. Everywhere, silvernanoparticles have found applications in biotechnology, bioengineering, silver-based and consumer products. They have also been used as the cathode in a silver-oxide battery. This is because modern technology utilizes change of the size, shape, surface and aggregation state of the silvernanoparticles after integration into a target application is critical for optimizing application performance. Many noble metal nanoparticles have been investigated. This is based on their unique electronic, optical, mechanical, magnetic and chemical properties. These unique properties are the ones attributed to their small sizes and large surface area and that is why metallic nanoparticles find uses in many applications in deferent fields of electronics and photonics. Different types of preparation methods have been tried and also used to prepare metallic nanoparticles. These methods include reverse micelles process, salt reduction, microwave dielectric heating reduction, ultrasonic irradiation, radiolysis, solvo-thermal synthesis and electrochemical synthesis.
Silver nanoparticle has attracted considerable interest due to its potential applications such as in display technologies, thermoelectric and electronic devices, optoelectronic devices and biomedicine. Metallic nanoparticles are traditionally synthesized by wet chemical techniques, where the chemicals used are quite often toxic and flammable. In the present study, we describe a cost effective and eco- friendly technique for green synthesis of silvernanoparticles from 1mM AgNO3 solution using the extract of Crataeva nurvala leaves as reducing as well as capping agent. Nanoparticles were characterized using UV–Vis absorption spectroscopy, FTIR, and SEM. SEM analysis revealed spherical nanoparticles, the nanoparticles were studied for its antimicrobial and cytotoxic effect on MCF-7, a human breast cancer cell line.
anotechnology is playing effective role in revolution of biological systems, nano chemistry and medicinal field. 1 Nano biotechnology is well- defined for the nano scale techniques to understand and transform bio system. 2 The noble metals exhibit new physico-chemical properties when brought to nanoparticle size. The size, shape and surface morphologies play an important role in controlling the physical, chemical, optical, and electronic properties of these nanoscopic materials. 3,4 The metal noble nanoparticles Au and Ag have strong surface plasmon resonance fluctuations. 5,6 In biosynthesis of metal nanoparticles from growth and development of clean, nontoxic chemicals, environmentally benign solvents and renewable materials the focus is turned on to green chemistry and bioprocesses now. 7 In recent years metal nanoparticles have been studied extensively for their attractive properties such as electronic, optical, optoelectronics, catalysis, nanostructure fabrication and chemical sensing related to the quantum size effect. 8 The environmentally friendly conversions of various chemical reagents play an important role in the chemical industries and pharmaceuticals. The importance of the catalytic processes is increasing in recent years. 9, 10 Silvernanoparticles can be synthesized by several physical, chemical and biological methods. Metal nanoparticles are highly effective heterogeneous catalysts; due to their
The Antibacterial activity of the extracts was carried out by inhibition zone test 14. Bacterial strains obtained from HiMedia were revived in LB broth (HiMedia) by incubating overnight at 37 ºC. Wattman filter papers of 5mm diameter were sterilized by autoclaving at 15lb/inch 2 for 15 minutes. The sterile paper were impregnated with equal volume (100µg/ml) of fenugreek extracts and silvernanoparticles, and compared with 1mM silver nitrate solution. The round paper containing each of 100µl samples were aseptically placed on plates containing Muller Hinton Agar medium (Merck, Germany) after being sprayed with each of the test pathogens. The plates were incubated at 37 ºC for 48 hours and the zone of inhibition was measured (in mm diameter). Inhibition zones with diameter less than 8 mm were considered as low antibacterial activity. Two bacteria strains were tested using the obtained nano silver prepared by the fenugreek seeds extract. Those two strains are E- coli and staphylococcus aureus.
Although there are many Metal Nanoparticles as the part of Nanotechnology, among which SilverNanoparticles has shown their significance in Diagnostic, Antibacterial, Conductive and Optical applications. This evolved to synthesize the silverNanoparticles by Physical, Chemical and Biological methods rarely. Toxicity may arise from SilverNanoparticles synthesized from conventional methods like physical and chemical methods. These techniques use the harmful reducing agents to produce Nanoparticles because, the type of reducing agents used for synthesis of SilverNanoparticles are crucial for the determination of cytotoxicity. Hence, the green synthesis came into the picture. This paper mainly discusses about advantage in biological way of synthesis which means the synthesis of SilverNanoparticles by using microbial enzymes and plant secondary metabolites. In Microbes, Enzymes acts as Reducing, Stabilizing and Capping agents where as in plants metabolites and phytochemicals acts as capping and reducing agents. Mostly source of silver is from silver sulphate and silver nitrate. Silver nitrate converts to silver ions when added with microbial and plant extracts. These silver ions utilize the machinery of living cells to develop into elemental form of silver combined to form colloidal SilverNanoparticles with different shapes like spherical, hexagonal, octagonal, diamond and thin sheets.
surface morphology, whiteness, silver content, antibacterial activity, and washing durability of nanosilver-treated fabrics were examined. The experimental results confirmed that the in situ synthesized silvernanoparticles evenly distrib- uted on the surface of fibers. The inhibition zone and the antibacterial rate demonstrated that the finished fabrics have an excellent antibacterial property against S. aureus and E. coli. When the nanosilver-treated fabric which in- cluded a silver content of 98.65 mg/kg was washed 50 times, the silver content slightly decreased from 98.65 to 81.65 mg/kg and the corresponding whiteness increased. However, it is surprising that the antibacterial rate is still more than 97.43% for S. aureus and 99.86% for E. coli after 50 washings.
The literature has concluded that silvernanoparticles shown intensive toxic effects upon some tissues and being ingested can induce neurological problems, kidney damage, stomach upset and skin irritation [123-125]. The increasing use of nanomaterials in our life has inevitably caused accumulation in different environments (water, soil and air) and to separate them we need to determinate the aggregation and stability, including tendency of transforming into different species. The approaches presented are necessary to detect the possibilities of the fields of nanotechnology to establish if has any risks for organisms including human beings [125, 126]. Pure silvernanoparticles were used by Kursungoz et al.  to evaluate the neurotoxicity on the rat hippocampal slices. Silvernanoparticles were distributed in the extracellular matrix and were taken inside the cytoplasm of the neutrons. Furthermore, it was found that only larger silvernanoparticles were taken into the neurons via phagocytosis. The silvernanoparticles produced via laser ablation showed that were toxic to the neural tissue  showed that neurons affected only the large nanoparticles by phagocytosis, fact that seems to be the main mechanism in silvernanoparticles neurotoxicity.
Silvernanoparticles were synthesized using eco-friendly method with the ex- tract of Carica papaya as a reducing and stabilizing agent. Metronidazole 200 mg was loaded as a model drug to the silvernanoparticles. The percentage yield of the metronidazole nanoparticle was high (96.00%). The entrapment efficiency 85.60% while the loading capacity was 8.90%. Differential scanning calorimetry showed there was no interaction between the reducing agent and model drug. Characterization of the metronidazole malpractices using UV- vis spectroscopy, zeta sizer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was per- formed. The UV-Vis spectroscopy showed surface plasmon resonance of 435nm for the silver nanoparticle. The mean particle size was 250 nm while the polydispersity index was 0.22. The metronidazole nanoparticle showed an extended and controlled release profile. The kinetics of release was zero-order (R 2 = 0.9931) for the metronidazole nanoparticle while the metronidazole
four intense peaks in the whole spectrum of 2θ values ranging from 20˚ to 80˚. XRD spectra of pure crystalline silver structures have been published by the Joint Com- mittee on Powder Diffraction Standards (file no. 04- 0783). A comparison of our XRD spectrum with the Standard confirmed that the silver particles formed in our experiments were in the form of nanocrystals, as evi- denced by the peaks at 2θ values of 38.45˚, 44.48˚, 64.69˚ and 77.62˚, corresponding to (111), (200), (220), and (311) planes for silver, respectively. The unassigned peaks could be due to the crystallization of bioorganic phase that occurs on the surface of the nanoparticle. Two small insignificant impurity peaks observed at 68˚ and 75˚ are attributed to the presence of other organic sub- stances in culture supernatant. The X-ray diffraction peaks were found to be broad around their bases indicat- ing that the silver particles are in nanosizes. The peak broadening at half maximum intensity of the X-ray dif-
DOI: 10.4236/opj.2018.87020 237 Optics and Photonics Journal UV-Vis spectrometer (Shimadzu UV-1800). It is well known that the metal na- noparticles exhibit distinctive optical properties due to the combined oscillations of conduction band electrons in resonance with the incident wavelength, which is known as the Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) band. The identity of the sil- ver nanoparticles was confirmed by recording the absorption spectra over 200 - 600 nm after 30 minutes of the heating process. Figure 1 shows UV-Vis absorp- tion spectra of silvernanoparticles for boiling and Microwave Heating. The ob- served SPR peaks around 433 nm is an indication of the formation of silver na- noparticles. The full wave at half maximum (FWHM) of Plasmon peak gives in- formation regarding the particles’ size. It can be seen from Figure 1 that the FWHM of SPR for nanoparticles synthesized by the boiling method is larger than the one of nanoparticles synthesized by Microwave method. This indicates that the size of the nanoparticles is larger for the boiling case than the MW case, which was confirmed by TEM images and size distribution of nanoparticles analyzed using ImageJ 1.5J software see Figure 2. The sharp peaks and symme- trical nature of the absorption spectrum indicate the formation of spherical na- noparticles, which was confirmed by TEM images. The stability of the samples was monitored over one month by recording the absorption spectra. During this period, the absorption band was constantly observed around 433 nm, confirm- ing the preservation of nanoparticles in the solution. The broadening of the SPR band and a small shift in absorption peak of SPR (redshift) were observed over the time Figure 3. The shift in the absorption peak is an indication of the in- crease in sizes of nanoparticles . It was observed that the SPR peak at 433 nm increased as a function of time up to 14 days. After that time, a very small varia- tion in the SPR peak was observed. This indicates the stability of concentration and sizes of nanoparticles . This stability may arise from a balance between
S u r f a c e m o r p h o l o g y o f s i l v e r nanoparticles was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The sample was prepared by centrifuging colloidal solution after 6 h of reaction at 14,000 rpm for 4 min. The pellet was the re-dispersed in deionized water and again centrifuged. The process was repeated three times and the material was finally washed with acetone. The purified silvernanoparticles were sonicated for 10 min for making the suspension and then a drop from the suspension was placed on the carbon coated copper grid. The sample was kept under lamp until completely dry. The prepared sample was subjected to SEM analysis by using Jeol JSM- 6490A Analytical Scanning Electron Microscope at king Saud University, Riyadh.