We have presented an approach for the acquisition and segmentation of spectral BRDF data. The data are recorded by relating object intensity data and reflectance standard data, which then directly provides BRDF measurements. We used those data to show that it is possible to obtain accurate segmentation results and endmember abundance estimates for objects with rapidly and with gradually changing materials, even if only a singlelight source position and a single viewpoint is available. The object surface with abrupt region boundaries has been classified with an accu- racy of 88.5% (94.8% with some oversegmentation tolerance). The application of linear spectral unmixing to the separation of iron from rust for the gradually changing material has provided a qualitatively realistic result.
We show in Table 1 the ensembles which have been generated for this project. We have explored a large set of parameters but could only a ff ord small lattices. In Tables 2 and 3 we argue that the finite volume e ff ects remain under control even for those small lattices, thanks to the absence of light pion. As shown in Figure 3, the CPU cost to generate those ensembles depends only mildly on m bare
The study was performed on neurons with dire- ction selective (DS) receptive fields (RFs) in the primary visual cortex of the cat. Preferred dire- ctions (PDs) of these cells to a singlelight spot and a system of two identical light spots moving across the RF with a given angle between them were compared. Directional interactions appear- ed when the angles between the directions of the two moving spots were 30º or 60º. PD for 56% of the cells coincided with bisectors of these ang- les. These cells responded to a combination of the two moving stimuli as if only one stimulus moved in the RF in an intermediate direction. This direction coincided with PD of the DS neu- ron to a single spot. Also, the investigation rev- ealed that DS neurons responded to stimuli moving at such angles as 180º (to preferred and opposite directions simultaneously). In the fur- ther experiment we investigated responses of the DS cells in the primary visual cortex of RF. The angle between the directions of the two mo- ving spots was 60º. These cells responded to a combination of the two moving stimuli as if only one stimulus moved in RF in an intermediate direction. The more relative luminance of one of spots in pair was, the closer the intermediate dir- ection approached to the direction of this spot).
While this approach is highly efficient, it often means that the resulting algorithm is biased. This can be over- come by re-generating these light paths on runtime. Once we start joining samples to random pre-generated paths, it is possible that some samples are to be joined with a singlelight path. This could lead to unnatural patterns in result- ing image, and of course breaking unbiased nature of the algorithm. By re-generating the paths after they have been used, it is possible to avoid this problem.
In this paper, a new methodology is presented  that enables color constancy under multiple light sources. The methodology is designed according to the following criteria: 1) it should be able to deal with scenes containing multiple light sources; 2) it should work on a single image; 3) no human intervention is required; and 4) no prior knowledge or restrictions on the spectral distributions of the light sources is required. Although the proposed framework is designed to handle multiple light sources, the focus in this paper is on scenes captured under one or two distinct light sources. Furthermore, not only images recorded under multiple light sources but also images that are recorded under only one light source should be properly processed. Hence, the improvement on multiple-light-source scenes should not be obtained at the expense of a decreased performance on singlelight-source scenes.
In general, most of the nonintrusive vision-based gaze tracking techniques can be classified into two groups: 2-D mapping-based gaze estimation method and direct 3-D gaze estimation method. The configuration of 2-D gaze tracking system is consisted of a single camera and a singlelight source or one camera and four lights source. Single camera system extracts images and parameters of sight from one camera. A mapping from the pupil-glint difference vector to the screen is often conducted. For the 2-D mapping-based gaze estimation method, the eye gaze is estimated from a calibrated gaze mapping function by inputting a set of 2-D eye movement features extracted from eye images, without knowing the 3-D direction of the gaze. Usually, the extracted 2-D eye movement features vary with the eye gaze so that the relationship between them can be encoded by a gaze mapping function. The configuration of 3-D gaze tracking system is consisted of one camera and one light source system or multiple cameras and multiple light sources system. To get gaze direction, the words of  demonstrates that gaze tracking system must be one camera and multiple light source system or multiple cameras system. the configuration of gaze tracking system is consisted of at least two cameras or one camera and two light sources. The performance of 3-D gaze tracking system is better than that of the 2-D gaze tracking system. From 2-D gaze tracking and 3-D gaze tracking two aspects, this paper describes one camera and one light source system, one camera and multiple light sources system, multiple cameras and multiple light sources system. Overview of Gaze Tracking
Confocal microscopy is most widely used to image fluo- rescence - either intrinsic or extrinsic - of an object, such as biological tissue. Different information can be obtained from the tissue under examination when the light scattering properties are examined. The hypothesis of this study is that light scattering quantitatively depends on collagen content and that scattered-light confocal micros- copy can be used to determine collagen content in tissues. Being able to analyze collagen content in tissue is impor- tant for several fields of research, including tissue physiol- ogy and tissue engineering. Collagen plays a key role in soft tissue repair  and is an important determinant in tissue engineered constructs, such as the cornea , the heart valve , and tissue-engineered blood vessels . Collagen is a major source of scattering in skin in vivo , and therefore is a main source of contrast in skin imaging. Confocal microscopy is beginning to establish itself as a method of examining tissues in vivo as a diagnostic tool for the human cornea [6,7] and for skin [8,9]. This tech- nique has also been examined for in vitro quality control of tissue engineered constructs [10,11]. It has been sug- gested that collagen plays an important role in the maxi- mum load force of tissue-engineered constructs [12-14]. For purposes of tissue engineering, quantification of col- lagen content may provide a tool to predict biomechani- cal stability in vivo. In spite of the important role that collagen plays in tissue, noninvasive methods to deter- mine collagen content are not readily available.
wavelength (monochromatic). By contrast, CL hyperspectral imaging is a more powerful technique in which an entire luminescence spectrum is recorded at each pixel in an image created by a scanning electron beam [13, 14]. The result is a multi-dimensional data set allowing the maximum information to be extracted from variations in luminescence spectra across the sample. Conventional CL mapping has been used for various kinds of nanorod structures fabricated from the group III-nitride system, e.g. GaN nanorods of various diameters, InGaN/GaN pedestal nanorods, core–shell InGaN/GaN nanorods or GaN nanorods containing an InGaN single quantum well [8, 15–18]. There have also been a few reports of in-depth spot-mode CL investigations of ZnO nanorods [19, 20]. The emphasis in this study is on simul- taneous combination of high spatial and spectral resolution, with most previous reports employing pan- / monochromatic CL imaging or spot-mode CL.
Abstract. The scope of this article is to point out how the present financial crisis is affecting the European payments landscape and the Single Euro Payments Area implementation. The current unpredictable and very challenging market situation has not fundamentally changed the fact that payment services need to continue modernization in order to become more flexible, agile and adapt in order to comply with its important purpose in society. SEPA is needed to ensure the new modern payment platform that can enable Europe to move beyond basic services, increase payments efficiency, embrace innovation and integrate further services in the trade process. Today, the turbulent market conditions could have the effect of accentuating rather than reducing the business case imperative and momentum to achieving full SEPA implementation.
By the mid-1990s, silicon APDs were the subject of promising research in the area of photon- counting, due in no small part to their commercial availability. By 1993, GM-APDs could be purchased with photon detection efficiencies (PDEs) near 70% near 600 nm, dark count rates (DCR) of 1 kHz, and relatively low operating voltages of 200-600 V (low compared to the PMTs, their main competitor). The notable Slik TM device by Perkin Elmer, available around 1990, was designed specifically for high PDE. Scientists also began to investigate the pros and cons of different quenching schemes (the mechanism by which the internal gain pulse is stopped) (Dautet, et al., 1993). These improvements in design and operation opened the door for more sensitive applications, including time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) for time of flight ranging, time-domain reflectometry, quantum cryptography (Hiskett, et al., 2000), and photon correlation experiments in quantum physics (Noh, et al., 1991). The 1990s also saw significant development in non-silicon APDs, including germanium (Owens, et al., 1994) and variations on InGaAs and InP such as InGaAs/InP (Ribordy, et al., 1998) and InGaAsP/InP (McIntosh, et al., 2002). Devices based on these semiconductor materials started to become available commercially for extended wavelength sensitivities into the infrared (IR) in the mid- 1990s. Materials that are sensitive at longer wavelengths are useful for direct imaging of IR phenomena, but are also useful for applications in which the signal being detected must also be generated: communications, quantum computing, quantum key distribution, etc. Some materials even offer specific advantages, such as noiseless gain HgCdTe in linear-mode (Kinch, et al., 2004) or the fast reset times of InGaAs in Geiger-mode (Dixon, et al., 2009).
Aerosol particles have long been a primary focus of the atmospheric community due to their influence on human health, radiative forcing, and participation in atmospheric chemistry. Conventionally, aerosols have been collected on filters and analyzed off-line by GC-MS, LC-MS, and FTIR. These techniques made valuable inroads to particle speciation, however, the inherent physical and chemical artifacts during sampling initiated the development of a succession of on-line aerosol mass spectrometers. Currently, a variety of real-time aerosol mass spectrometers, many with single particle analysis capabilities, have been developed and installed in laboratories as well as in the field. Atmospheric aerosols are complex mixtures of inorganic and organic species, and whereas analysis of inorganics is rather straightforward due to their robust nature, organics are fragile and analysis is challenging. Several researchers have moved specifically towards analysis of organic aerosol particles, attempting to simplify peak assignment by reducing the fragmentation of these delicate molecules.
assume that suitable light energy could produce some effects on the GSH synthetic mechanism, and that, as a result, the intracellular GSH level was increased in CCA cells. Further studies are needed to clarify this point. GSH levels differed significantly before and after irradiation. Differences in photodamage between HuCC-T1 and SNU1196 cells could be due to varying intracellular levels of GSH and its ability to reduce antioxidants, despite similar levels of intracellular ROS generation (Figures 2 through 5). Several previous stud- ies have described the role of GSH in combating oxidative stress. 24–29 Kimani et al reported that GSH is very important in
Next, we wanted to test if the Chrimson/CoChR pair could be used in the same animals to independently control two neuron populations. To that end, we created transgenic animals combining the FLP::CoChR and TRN::Chrimson trans- genes (Figure 2A). Unlike transgenic animals expressing each single transgene, these double transgene animals produced robust backward locomotion in response to both blue and red light (Figure 2B). The responses were dependent on the presence of ATR in the growth media (Figure 2B). Because the backward locomotion responses triggered by FLP or TRN are very similar, it was important to verify that the behavioral responses induced by blue and red light were indeed medi- ated by FLP and TRN activation, respectively. To differentiate between them, we used the differential habituation properties of these separate neural pathways. Indeed, TRN-dependent behavior habituates rapidly to repeated stimulations, whereas the nociceptive response mediated by FLP is prone to a much slower habituation process (Figure 1F). We exposed FLP:: CoChR;TRN::Chrimson animals to repeated blue or red light stimuli and compared the habituation curves. We conﬁrmed a slow habituation for blue light stimuli and a rapid habitua- tion for red light stimuli, corresponding to FLP::CoChR and TRN::Chrimson, respectively (Figure 2C). Together with the
rearrangements can be identifying and sorted according to clonal relatedness 3 . The antibody phage display technique involves using cell and molecular biology techniques to insert V genes from antibody Heavy and Light chains into phages and propagating to discover patterns of specific antibody and antigen binding 3 . Lastly, the single cell cloning method involves extracting and sequencing RNA from single cells to identify V gene sequences from Heavy and Light chains, and to express these antibody genes to test their specificity 3 . All of these methods are generally low throughput and more time intensive than the method we investigated, bulk
Investigation of light intensity influence. For GC-MS, we used an Agilent Technologies 6890N gas chromatograph fitted with a split/splitless injector and a DB-5MS column (25 m × 0.25 mm, 0.25 µm film thickness, Agilent Technologies). Each sample (1 ml) was injected at 280°C in splitless mode (sam- pling time, 0.75 min). The column oven program was as follows: hold at 45°C for 1 min, ramp to 280°C at 10°C/min, and then hold for 0.5 minutes. The carrier gas was helium at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min in the con- stant-flow mode. The column was introduced though an interface (280°C) into the ion source (210°C) of the mass spectrometer (JEOL, MS-600H). Mass spectra were obtained by election ionisation at 70 eV and analysed with the TSS2000 software package (ver. 2.00.0062, Shrader Analytical and Consulting Labora- tories) using the NIST mass spectra library (ver. 1.6). For GC, we used an Agilent 6890 gas chromato- graph equipped with a DB-WAX capillary column (30 m × 0.25 mm, 0.25 µm film thickness) and a flame ionisation detector. The analytical conditions were the same as those used for GC-MS except that the injector and detector temperatures were both 250°C. Chromatograms were processed with the ChemStation software package (ver. A.10.01, Agi- lent Technologies), and the amount of each vola- tile compound was calculated by comparison of its peak area with that of the internal standard (ethyl n -decanoate).
A major weakness of these cross-sectional studies is that they do not provide information over how property values have changed over time because data is collected from a single point in time. Secondly, because the analyses do not compare property values from before and after the opening of the light rail system, it is also impossible to attribute changes in property values to the addition of transit. For example, it is possible that the corridor chosen for light rail construction was a valuable corridor prior to the installation of transit or that stations were placed in undesirable areas of the city. A third limitation is the use of property value assessments rather than sales data in two of the studies (Hess & Almeida, 2007, Lewis-Workman & Brod, 1997). Because a property assessment is an estimation based on the value of comparable homes, it does not adequately capture the price of composite goods as traded in a free market, which is one of the fundamental principles behind hedonic price analysis (Rosen, 1974). Before-after studies
Space debris and flows of natural particles (meteoroids) create a fragmental and meteoroidal environment that poses a danger to spacecrafts. Therefore, one of the tasks concerning the development of designs for space rocketry is to provide the fracture resistance during a high-velocity impact of mechanical particles. Various particle acceleration methods including light-gas guns (LGG) which occupy a leading position are widely used and improved to study experimentally the strength characteristics of materials and structural elements [1-4]. The two- and three-stage light-gas guns are used for the high-velocity (2-8 km/s and higher) throwing of mechanical particles with a mass from the fractions of a gram to a kilogram and more [5-8]. Experimental results on the high-velocity interaction of particles with targets
Optical systems are typically consist of multiple lenses and mirrors and are used in a wide variety of fields. While there exist a variety of setups, there are a few key concepts that are at the core of all of them. These could be used from the most advanced scientific research to a simple magnifying glass. They are also used in industry and consumer products such as glasses and cameras. We are going to go over these key concepts and show how they apply to telescopes, or more specifically rifle scopes. First, we will go over Snell’s Law of refraction  as this is central idea governing almost all of the light interactions within the scope. Then we will apply this to simple one and two lens systems . Larger systems are more tedious to calculate, so we will then go over how to make calculations using matrices . The last optical theories that we will discuss are aberration  and reflections  along a few experiments to demonstrate their effects. We will also go over bullet trajectory  as one needs to be able to know the path of the projectile in order to know where do aim using the scope.
This paper uncovers that quantum uncertain principle makes the single particle with global property have no certain path, and then wave of quantum particle can simultaneously do pass the double slits. The two subwaves after passing Young’s double slits are entanglement, they may form interference of subwaves. Consequently, we find a kind of quantum probabilistic entanglements with Wheeler's delayed choice. Quantum particles such as photons, electrons, neutrons, protons etc mean that wave of the quantum particle can simultaneously do pass through Young's double slits, rather than individual quantum particle may pass through Young's double slits at the same time. When considering wave property, we cannot consider particle property (Just as in the photoelectric effect, considering the particle nature of the system, people cannot consider wave property, otherwise the photoelectric effect cannot appear). Therefore, this paper discovers that the ability of single photon to hit electrons out in photoelectric effect is complementarily equivalent to the ability of wave of the single photon to simultaneously pass through Young's double slits in wave-particle duality. Objective criteria for distinguishing classical and quantum particles are discovered and objectively give the applicable realm of quantum mechanics for the first time. The crisis of the single particle’s simultaneously passing through Young's double slits, which has been plaguing physicists in the whole world up to now for decades, is solved, in which the studies are classified as classical and quantum particles, the classical particle and quantum particle wave cannot and can pass the Young’s slits, respectively. This paper discovers both the new physics mechanism of passing the double slits of the wave with the amplitude of 4-dimensional momentum representation wave function reflecting particle nature and the principle of self-adaptive emergence of wave-particle duality, and then using the principle, this paper gives both direct explanations to the current experiments and new predictions of new some experiments for wave-particle duality. All the deduced results here are consistent with all relevant physics experiments.