The structure and properties owned BF intensively studied by many researchers but are still hampered by the current leakage problems arising from non-stoichiometric. It is difficult to obtain a singlephasematerial of BF. Phase impurities (oxide phases) that arise during synthesis usually as Bi 2 O 3 , Bi 2 Fe 4 O 9 , and Bi 25 FeO 39 [4,5]. This phase changes stoichiometry and causes oxygen
The dielectric impedance response of singlephase GDC, CFO and their different volume percent mixtures were measured. Temperature and frequency dependent singlephasematerial properties were measured. Measured singlephase values were comparable with literature values. The small differences might have originated from different starting material and sintering conditions. These singlephase values were used in Wagner‟s equation to predict flux using a conformal COMSOL model to simulate impedance response on the real microstructure generated from three dimensional X-ray scans. Total conductivity of the mixture membranes were measured in different gaseous conditions. For all of the cases total conductivity increased with increasing CFO phase where 50GDC-50CFO had the highest value. This behavior was different from our measured flux behavior where an intermediate mixture of 60GDC-40CFO had the highest permeated flux. The in-situ impedance measurements showed that the lower sweep gas flow rates influenced the flux. So to investigate bulk material properties and interphase effects, higher flow rates of sweep gas are essential. Permittivity behavior at the lower temperatures also indicated electrode polarization. With increasing temperature, electrode polarization decreased and the real permittivity indicated non-ohmic conduction of oxygen ions through the membrane material.
Hypercrosslinked poly (styrene (PS)-co-divinybenzene(DVB)) sorbents with a high micropore content (specific surface area up to 2000 m 2 g -1 ) were prepared to provide more interaction points with the analytes. The hydrophobic structure of the original porous polymers of poly (PS-co-DVB) was modified to generate hydrophilic and hypercrosslink parts on the sorbents. It was found that, 76-100% of the pharmaceutical residues were captured by the modified poly (PS-co-DVB) [29-32]. A preliminary study was carried out to investigate the potential of hypercrosslinked poly (acrylonitrile-co-divinylbenzene-co-vinylbenzylchloride) in the capture of polar pharmaceuticals, diclofenac from a polar environment . In addition, chemical modifications of porous materials were carried out to enhance the selectivity of the adsorbents towards pharmaceuticals; for instance, the preparation of copolymer of bis[4(2- hydroxy-3-methacryloyloxypropoxy) phenyl] sulfide and glycidyl methacrylate was modified from the reactions of the surface epoxide groups of the precursor with amines (butylenediamine and diethylenethriamine). The prepared copolymers were utilised as adsorbents in the solid phase extraction (SPE) of the multicomponent mixture of phenolic compounds .
The impact strength of the EG/wax/EVA composites decreased with increasing wax and graphite contents. The addition of rigid EG decreases the impact strength of the wax/EVA blends because the EG particles act as stress concentrators for the development of cracks. Young’s modulus of the wax/EVA blends increased in the presence of and with increasing EG content. This can be attributed to the high strength and aspect ratio of the graphite particles, which were smaller and better dispersed after being covered with wax. Elongation at break of the wax/EVA blends decreased in the presence of EG content. The reason is probably that the highly crystalline, brittle wax covers the EG particles, which contributes to the formation and propagation of cracks under tensile forces. Better interaction between the EVA and wax covered EG may also significantly reduce the EVA chain mobility. Irrespective of the EG content, the stress at break decreased with an increase in wax content. The main reason for this decrease is the increased amount of low molecular weight, highly crystalline wax, which deteriorates the tensile strength of the composites. Wax itself has or tensile properties and the wax-covered EG crystals in the amorphous phase of the EVA act as defect points for the initiation and propagation of stress cracking.
SNAP2 algorithm (https://rostlab.org/services/snap2web/) uses a machine learning system called an artificial neural network to predict the impact of single amino acid substitutions on the function of a protein . The algorithm considers evolutionarily conserved regions, protein secondary structure, biophysical properties of amino acids, residue flexibility, SWISS-PROT annotations, predicted binding residues solvent accessibility amongst others . SNAP2 relies on the query protein sequence as input data and for a given amino acid substitution, computes a score depicting the potency of the mutation to affect the function of the wild type protein. The score ranges from -100 to +100 implying strong neutral prediction and strong effect prediction respectively. Using the query protein sequence, SNAP2 collects dataset from Protein Mutant Database (PMD), SWISS- PROT, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Men (OMIM), and HumVar. The algorithm fetches all amino acid variants from PMD, map the variants to the corresponding sequence and classify the impact as ‘neutral’ or ‘effect . To obtain the enzyme dataset, SNAP2 retrieves the Enzyme Classification Commission (EC) number of the query protein from SWISS-PROT, compares it with enzymes of the same experimental annotation function and determines the residue variations among them . The disease-associated variations retrieved from OMIM and Human Var are all classified as ‘effect’ . Predictions are based on the PMD dataset, Enzyme dataset and Disease dataset.
The optical setup and the way to stretch DNA were previously described in different works [54,55]. This DNA construct consists of a dimer of PBR322 with a total size of 9.7 kbp and a length of 2.8 µm. We incubated 1 ng of this DNA which represents a concentration of reactive base pairs of 5 nM. The single beam trap obtained through a high numerical aperture objective, catches the dielectric particle linked to DNA. The other side of the DNA molecule is attached to the coverglass which is moved in a controlled way with a piezoelectric translation stage. All the stretching experiments were performed at a pulling rate of ~ 500 nm/s in 10 mM Hepes.
In current severe global emergency situation of 2019-nCov outbreak, it is imperative to identify vulnerable and susceptible groups for effective protection and care. Recently, studies found that 2019-nCov and SARS-nCov share the same receptor, ACE2. In this study, we analyzed five large-scale bulk transcriptomic datasets of normal lung tissue and two single-cell transcriptomic datasets to investigate the disparities related to race, age, gender and smoking status in ACE2 gene expression and its distribution among cell types. We didn’t find significant disparities in ACE2 gene expression between racial groups (Asian vs Caucasian), age groups (>60 vs <60) or gender groups (male vs female). However, we observed significantly higher ACE2 gene expression in former smoker’s lung compared to non-smoker’s lung. Also, we found higher ACE2 gene expression in Asian current smokers compared to non-smokers but not in Caucasian current smokers, which may indicate an existence of gene-smoking interaction. In addition, we found that ACE2 gene is expressed in specific cell types related to smoking history and location. In bronchial epithelium, ACE2 is actively expressed in goblet cells of current smokers and club cells of non-smokers. In alveoli, ACE2 is actively expressed in remodelled AT2 cells of former smokers. Together, this study indicates that smokers especially former smokers may be more susceptible to 2019-nCov and have infection paths different with non-smokers. Thus, smoking history may provide valuable information in identifying susceptible population and standardizing
Due to specific characteristics, such as mechanical properties, appropriate resistance against wear, heat transfer, friction properties, suitable vibration damping potentials, machining potentials and low price gray cast iron is used in diverse forms in industries, especially for various applications in automotive industry. Pistons, cylinders, blocks, and cylinder heads of gasoline and diesel engines, as well as camshafts are some examples of applications of this engineering metal in automotive industries [1, 2]. Brake parts and clutches of vehicles are among the most important and oldest applications of this cast iron manufactured on perlite phase and type “A” graphite for years , which is due to its extraordinary thermal fatigue strength together with its other specific properties . Properties of gray cast irons depend on the phase, size, amount and the method of graphite distribution . Thus, microstructure and properties of cast iron can be modified by addition of alloy elements that have considerable effects on the graphite type and the phase . Gray cast irons can be on various phases, including ferrite, pearlite, bainite, martensite, or a combination of them . It has been showed alloying in many cases leads to increase in mechanical properties together with wear resistance, corrosion resistance, oxidation resistance, etc. . Aluminum is an element that is extensively observed in alloy compounds of cast irons in recent years [7-9]. Aluminum-bearing cast irons exist in two gray and ductile types. Researchers believe that aluminum and silicon have similar effects on iron-carbon alloy systems . However, in addition to silicon, aluminum can also be present in the gray cast iron. These cast irons have become popular due to acceptable resistance against heat and creep and also due to existence of rather cheap alloy elements in their chemical compositions . Unfortunately, casting of aluminum-bearing is one of the technological problems, since aluminum is quite active in the inoculation temperature, and it is necessary for the melt contact with the air and humidity to reach to its minimum, in order to avoid formation of metal slags, non-smooth or ragged surface and defected parts .
confirming the facile kinetics of the photocathode and are catalytically active. The Nyquist plot shows the two distinctive semicircles, which represent the frequency-dependent resistance- capacitance (RC) characteristics. The equivalent circuit, which is depicted in Supporting Fig. S2b consists of constant phase elements coupled with the charge transfer resistance. Measured parameters are summarized in Tale. S1. R refers to the charge transfer resistance at the p- Si/MoS 2 junction, R is the charge transfer resistance between the MoS 2 and the
Abstract: Nanoparticles of platinum‐group metals (PGM) on carbon supports are widely used as catalysts for a number of chemical and electrochemical conversions on laboratory and industrial scale. The newly emerging field of single atom catalysis focuses on the ultimate level of metal dispersion, i.e. atomically dispersed metal species anchored on the substrate surface. However, the presence of single atoms in traditional nanoparticle‐based catalysts remains largely overlooked. In this work we use aberration‐corrected scanning transmission electron microscope to investigate four commercially available nanoparticle‐based PGM/C catalysts (PGM = Ru, Rh, Pd, Pt). We show that in addition to nanoparticles, single atoms are also present on the surface of carbon substrates. These observations raise questions about the role that single atoms play in conventional nanoparticle PGM/C catalysts. We critically discuss the observations with regard to the quickly developing field of single atom catalysis.
Abstract: The organo-catalyzed enantioselective benzylation reaction of α-trifluoromethoxy indanones afforded α-benzyl-α-trifluoromethoxy indanones with a tetrasubstituted stereogenic carbon center in excellent yield with moderate enantioselectivity (up to 57% ee). Cinchona alkaloid- based chiral phase transfer catalysts were found to be effective for this transformation, and both enantiomers of α-benzyl-α-trifluoromethoxy indanones were accessed, depended on the use of cinchonidine and cinchonine-derived catalyst. The method was extended to the enantioselective allylation reaction of α-trifluoromethoxy indanones to give the allylation products in moderate yield with good enantioselectivity (up to 76% ee).
Apparently, both studied complexes have a different organization in the solid state, as it is evident from their diffractograms (Figure S3, SI). If for 1 their molecular structure was determined form SCXRD date, then a lack of the single crystal structure for 2 does not permit us to explain definitely why the magnetic behavior of this compound is so different compared with 1. However, our conclusion that 2 is a 1D coordination chain is based on a totality of the experimental facts. At first, the compound 2, having a ratio [Mn(SB + )] 3+ / [W(CN) 8 ] 3- = 1:1, is insoluble in any solvent and can
Griffiths and Eames (2007) studied experimentally the pumping of a mPCM slurry from BASF manufacturer through a chilled ceiling in a room. The room was tested during four months with a 40% PCM concentration. When water was pumped through the chilled ceiling, a mass flow of 0.7 l/s was required for an inlet temperature of 16ºC and outlet temperature of 18ºC, maintaining the room at 19ºC. When water was substituted by the mPCM slurry, the slurry was capable of maintaining a temperature of 20-21ºC with a mass flow of 0.25 l/s. This means that the ceiling required a lower mass flow (pumping savings were not quantified), could absorb energy at a constant temperature, avoiding increments in the panel surface temperature when internal gains increased. Another well-known application, similar to the previously described, was carried out at the Narita Airport in Tokio by Shibutani (2002). The issue in the installation of the Narita Airport in Tokio was the change of refrigerants due to environmental reasons. When R11 and R22 were substituted by R134a and R123 without changing the chiller unit, this resulted in lower cooling power and the chiller was non-capable to absorb the demand peaks at specific times of the day. This problem was solved through the installation of a tank filled with a mPCM slurry custom-developed by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries. The characteristic temperatures on the demand side were a supply temperature of 5ºC and a return flow temperature of 12ºC. A mPCM slurry was selected with a phase change temperature range between 5 and 8ºC. The demand peaks occurred between 8:00 and 22:00, and therefore the cooling produced during the night by the chiller unit could be stored and reduce the demand peaks during the day. The slurry presented a storage density of 67 MJ/m 3 , lower in
62. The conduct of a single monetary policy in ECU by the ESCB and the emergence of a critical mass of activities in ECU would require the establishment of a European system of real time gross settlement (RTGS) for wholesale payments. TARGET (Trans- European Automated Real time Gross settlement Express Transfer) will be the payment system, specifically designed by the EMI, for the implementation of the monetary policy of the ESCB in ECU. This system will link the existing national RTGS systems to the ESCB. Its use would be compulsory for all payments directly related to the implementation of the single monetary policy. It may also be used by private market operators for processing large value payments. This new payment arrangement operated by the ESCB should enhance technical efficiency, minimise systemic risk and be cost effective. As mentioned in the 1994 Annual Report of the EMI, the operational features of the system will be defined in the course of 1995 by the EMI in close co-operation with EU central banks and other parties such as credit institutions.
octadecene (ODE) and myristic acid (MA). Several parameters in synthesis condition including reaction temperature, type of reaction solvent, ratio of stabilizer (MA) to reaction solvent (ODE), amount of reaction solvent, reaction time, and ageing time were investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results suggested that singlephase BPO material with high crystallinity was obtained at reaction temperature 180°C with reaction time of 30 minutes and ratio of MA:ODE of 1:90. The XRD pattern of this material was best fitted with that of reported Bi 3.69 P 0.31 O 6.31 (PDF 2010:43-0455),
The electric networks for the distribution to low voltage costumers can be configured in different layouts. Two main approaches are used: the European system composed by three-phase distribution transformers or the North American system composed by single-phase distribution transformers and three-phase transformer banks of sin- gle-phase transformers. With respect to harmonic analysis, much more attention has been focused on the three-phase balanced systems arrangements than on the unba- lanced four-wire delta system extensively used to supply low voltage loads of 120/240 V. Different authors have shown the three-phase power systems modeling on a phase- coordinates frame. However, the presence of significant asymmetries in the network forces the need of adding a new phase-coordinates model to represent the three-phase transformers banks of two or three single-phase transformers in its various connec- tions. Several papers treat the use of harmonic analysis programs based on a phase- coordinates frame to study the Wye or Delta connected three-phase systems. How- ever, the commonly used four-wire delta connected systems are not fully treated in literature. This paper presents a phase-coordinates model for the representation of the commonly used three-phase transformer banks of three or two single-phase trans- formers, and single-phase distribution transformers for the harmonic analysis of the four-wire delta connected systems. The harmonic analysis method based on the pre- sented model is used to examine the characteristics of this kind of distribution sys- tem with respect to the penetration of harmonics currents from loads to the primary system.
The solid-solid phase transition between hexagonal close- packed (hcp) alpha and hexagonal omega phases in tita- nium has important implications on mechanical proper- ties. Omega phase can form in hcp metals under shock loading conditions, and, as a metastable phase at ambient pressure, can be retained in the microstructure after un- loading, where it can contribute to subsequent deformation behavior [1–5]. Previous studies have examined the shock response of Ti single and multicrystals , and polycrys- tals [7–9]. Post-mortem microstructural investigations are an essential piece to determination of phase transformation pathways, but can only infer likely operations based on be- ginning and end states. In previous work, it was observed that when shock-loaded to ∼ 15 GPa, titanium forms a two- phase microstructure, with characteristic omega lathes in- side alpha grains (suggesting a predominately forward, α → ω pathway where the grains never reach 100% ω- phase). It also suggested that the observed material behav- ior during shock can be described by the complex inter- play between traditional plasticity and phase transforma- tion mechanisms. Like twinning, it is expected that the α– ω phase transformation is a process characterized by both nucleation and growth. However, such post-mortem anal- yses are not well-suited to measure order of operations, relative activity of mechanisms during testing, or kinetics. Hence, in-situ x-ray di ff raction (XRD) is required to ob- tain a complete picture of deformation behavior and phase transformations during shock loading. Recent advances in in-situ characterization techniques, including shock test-
Most of the rural region does not have the include right of passage to three phase electric power on a discerning expense. It intended for this improvement is toward develop a singlephase to three phase converter with the expectation of singlephase electric capacity to three phase control. Phase remodel hardware arrangements three phase control beginning a singlephase establishment to control inductive, resistive and capacitive stacks through isolated remuneration in overabundance of whichever alive converter gear. The expectation of embryonic this wander is to figure three phase control realistic cost-viably. There involve not been each major logical progressions animal finished in cultivating locale while contrast in transit with previous area. The three-Phase supply structure is at display available all inclusive, aside from potentially in different rustic regions where scarcely a single or two phase supply is realistic.
In order to get the proportion of each species, liquid phase after complete phase separation had been heated to release CO2, rotary evaporated and vacuum drying, successively. The proportion of [TMA][Gly] in the liquid was 62 wt% of total addition. It easy to get that the proportion of [TMA][Gly] in the solid phase was 38 wt%, while the volume ratio of solid was 22%. According to the integral area of peaks in 1H-NMR spectrum, the ratio of different species could be obtained. It had been calculated that the weight proportion of -OOC-CH2-NH2, -OOC-CH2-NH-COO- and (CH3)3N+ in liquid phase and solid phase, respectively. It can be seen in Fig 2.8 that most of the carbamate was in the liquid phase, only a small part precipitated. Due to the intermolecular force, some of the initial absorbent- [TMA][Gly] was precipitated.