In addition, UPSilon 2000 monitors, analyses and records a vast range of parameters related to the ope- ration of the UPS. It visualises in real time, in the form of a graph, the input/output voltage, frequency and charge connected to the UPS, the working temperature and the charge level of the batteries. UPSilon 2000 is compatible with the UPS of the series ECO STRIP, ERA LCD, EXA and EVO DSP MM.
The 5KVA single-phaseUPS reference design offers an integrated uninterrupted power supply solution with Infineon microcontrollers (Figure 1). Its main control process including PWM signals generation, output voltage feedback control, system faults and errors managing, charger module control, modules synchronization is all handled by the control board based on Infineon 16-bit microcontroller XC164CM. The information display with LCD and keyboard operations are implemented by the monitoring board based on Infineon 8-bit microcontrollers XC866 (Figure 1).
Uninterruptible Powe r Supply (UPS) is an electrical apparatus that provides emergency power to a load when the input power source (fro m ma in utility) fa ils to deliver electric power. The purpose of this paper is to show development of an o n-line mode singlephaseUPS that suitable for 240 V (A C), 50 Hz type of electrical appliances, esp ecially for personal computers or low power electrica l appliances. The advantage of the on- line mode of UPS is there is no transfer time during the transition fro m norma l to back- up modes. The design consists of battery charger/ rectifier module, inverter module and battery. One of the important components used is IC NE555 and the function is to generate pulses and control the frequency of inverter. Proteus 7.1 SP2 software is used to simulate the designed circuits. The UPS is developed with output specification, 240 V (A C), 50 Hz. The developed UPS has been tested on a personal computer and successfully provides backup power up to 400 W for about 15 minutes . Therefore, the developed UPS is able to provide temporary backup electric power for critica l electrica l appliances when outage condition occurs.
 M. J. Ryan, W. E. Brumsickle, and R. D. Lorenz, ―Control topology options for single- phaseUPS inverters,‖ IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 493–501, Mar./Apr. 1997.  Y.-Y. Tzou, R.-S. Ou, S.-L. Jung, and M.-Y.
To further investigate the interaction of this platinum NHC complex with DNA, single cell experiments were performed using either optical tweezers or AFM microscopy in aqueous environment. Both experiments showed clear interaction between the strands and the platinum complex. Analysing the contour length in both experiments strikingly revealed a two-state behaviour during the experiments. At shorter time scales -between 0 and 7 minutes-, the contour length significantly increased by 6 % (from 0.34 nm/bp to 0.36 nm/bp). At longer time scales -between 8 to 120 minutes- and even longer (24h) the contour length monotonously decreased from 0.34 nm/bp to 0.22 nm/bp. Anthracene complexes are known to intercalate the base pairs (64), thus we assume this interaction to initiate the inter and intra-strand interactions occurring in both cisplatin and transplatin at longer time scales . The duality in the interactions based on the chemical structure of the compounds, as well as the lability of the pyridine ligand are in good agreement with a two-state interaction. A monotonously decrease is also observed over time of the persistence length of the DNA molecule from 50 nm to 12 nm in good agreement with measurements established on cisplatin/DNA complexes . The decrease in persistence length brings the DNA molecule to be more flexible and thus to favour short and long-distance interactions which over time brings the DNA/NHC complex to form compact and dense molecules. This compaction over 12h of interaction has been described at the single molecule level in the cisplatin compounds . We performed single molecule stretching on these dense compounds to characterize the forces involved in this densification We measured a force of around 40 pN to break part of the interactions and to further be able to stretch the DNA molecule. The successive stretching on the sale DNA strand revealed that once these adducts broke, they were not able to form again at the time scale used to perform the successive stretching. This study conducted at the molecular and cellular level shows a strong affinity of these new NHC compounds to interact strongly with the DNA strands and cellular apoptosis at doses that are around 100 times lower than the classical platinum compounds administered in clinics. Although gaps are evident between this molecular study and the in vitro observations and the in vivo effects, it appears that these new NHC complexes have higher cellular toxicity than cisplatin which is commonly used in clinics.
13. Zhou, Y.; Wang, J.; Gu, Z.; Wang, S.; Zhu, W.; Aceña, J. L.; Soloshonok, V.A.; Izawa, K.; Liu, H. Next generation of fluorine-containing pharmaceuticals, compounds currently in phase II–III clinical trials of major pharmaceutical companies: new structural trends and therapeutic areas. Chem. Rev. 2016, 116, 422- 518.
Apparently, both studied complexes have a different organization in the solid state, as it is evident from their diffractograms (Figure S3, SI). If for 1 their molecular structure was determined form SCXRD date, then a lack of the single crystal structure for 2 does not permit us to explain definitely why the magnetic behavior of this compound is so different compared with 1. However, our conclusion that 2 is a 1D coordination chain is based on a totality of the experimental facts. At first, the compound 2, having a ratio [Mn(SB + )] 3+ / [W(CN) 8 ] 3- = 1:1, is insoluble in any solvent and can
Depending on the degree of distortion in the S-Mo-S atomic planes, 2H and 1T phases exhibit different structural and electronic properties. The 2H phase has semiconducting properties and is more stable compared to other phases (e.g., 3R and 1T), whereas the 1T phase is metallic and unstable. A key mechanism may be the inclusion of an excess chlorine moiety along the MoS 2 basal plane upon incomplete reactions at low temperatures as probed by elemental
SNAP2 algorithm (https://rostlab.org/services/snap2web/) uses a machine learning system called an artificial neural network to predict the impact of single amino acid substitutions on the function of a protein . The algorithm considers evolutionarily conserved regions, protein secondary structure, biophysical properties of amino acids, residue flexibility, SWISS-PROT annotations, predicted binding residues solvent accessibility amongst others . SNAP2 relies on the query protein sequence as input data and for a given amino acid substitution, computes a score depicting the potency of the mutation to affect the function of the wild type protein. The score ranges from -100 to +100 implying strong neutral prediction and strong effect prediction respectively. Using the query protein sequence, SNAP2 collects dataset from Protein Mutant Database (PMD), SWISS- PROT, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Men (OMIM), and HumVar. The algorithm fetches all amino acid variants from PMD, map the variants to the corresponding sequence and classify the impact as ‘neutral’ or ‘effect . To obtain the enzyme dataset, SNAP2 retrieves the Enzyme Classification Commission (EC) number of the query protein from SWISS-PROT, compares it with enzymes of the same experimental annotation function and determines the residue variations among them . The disease-associated variations retrieved from OMIM and Human Var are all classified as ‘effect’ . Predictions are based on the PMD dataset, Enzyme dataset and Disease dataset.
Abstract: Nanoparticles of platinum‐group metals (PGM) on carbon supports are widely used as catalysts for a number of chemical and electrochemical conversions on laboratory and industrial scale. The newly emerging field of single atom catalysis focuses on the ultimate level of metal dispersion, i.e. atomically dispersed metal species anchored on the substrate surface. However, the presence of single atoms in traditional nanoparticle‐based catalysts remains largely overlooked. In this work we use aberration‐corrected scanning transmission electron microscope to investigate four commercially available nanoparticle‐based PGM/C catalysts (PGM = Ru, Rh, Pd, Pt). We show that in addition to nanoparticles, single atoms are also present on the surface of carbon substrates. These observations raise questions about the role that single atoms play in conventional nanoparticle PGM/C catalysts. We critically discuss the observations with regard to the quickly developing field of single atom catalysis.
Abstract :Phase-change materials (PCMs) are particularly attractive for latent heat storage because they provide a high energy storage density at a constant temperature, which corresponds to the phase transition temperature of the material. Various techniques have been introduced to enhance the thermal conductivity of PCMs. Expanded graphite (EG) is a thermal enhancer because of its high thermal conductivity, low density, and chemical inertness. This paper provides a brief introduction of several techniques for heat transfer enhancement and EG preparation. The present review focuses on studies that examined the preparation and characterization of EG/PCM composites, as well as the simulations and applications of EG/PCM composites in thermal management and thermal energy storage systems. , melt-blending, impregnation, and compression methods are used to prepare the binary system which only contains PCMs and EG. Melt-blending, hot-pressing, impregnation, polymerization, sol-gel, and piercing-solidifying incuber methods are used to prepare the ternary system, which contains PCMs, EG, and matrix. EG/PCMs have been used for various applications such as thermal management, thermal energy storage, heat exchanger and building applications. the coupling effects with the other systems are also introduced. The simulation and application data also confirm that EG has heat transfer reinforcement effects in
Formation of this phase is definitely due to increasing silicon and presence of 4 wt. % aluminum that reduce the thickness of graphite layers as compared to cast iron sample 3 (fig. 4c). According to microscopic diagram (fig. 4e), by the presence of 4 wt. % aluminum and silicon, the accumulated phase and the mentioned mass in it has occupied a greater volume of the matrix .
Hypercrosslinked poly (styrene (PS)-co-divinybenzene(DVB)) sorbents with a high micropore content (specific surface area up to 2000 m 2 g -1 ) were prepared to provide more interaction points with the analytes. The hydrophobic structure of the original porous polymers of poly (PS-co-DVB) was modified to generate hydrophilic and hypercrosslink parts on the sorbents. It was found that, 76-100% of the pharmaceutical residues were captured by the modified poly (PS-co-DVB) [29-32]. A preliminary study was carried out to investigate the potential of hypercrosslinked poly (acrylonitrile-co-divinylbenzene-co-vinylbenzylchloride) in the capture of polar pharmaceuticals, diclofenac from a polar environment . In addition, chemical modifications of porous materials were carried out to enhance the selectivity of the adsorbents towards pharmaceuticals; for instance, the preparation of copolymer of bis[4(2- hydroxy-3-methacryloyloxypropoxy) phenyl] sulfide and glycidyl methacrylate was modified from the reactions of the surface epoxide groups of the precursor with amines (butylenediamine and diethylenethriamine). The prepared copolymers were utilised as adsorbents in the solid phase extraction (SPE) of the multicomponent mixture of phenolic compounds .
In order to get the proportion of each species, liquid phase after complete phase separation had been heated to release CO2, rotary evaporated and vacuum drying, successively. The proportion of [TMA][Gly] in the liquid was 62 wt% of total addition. It easy to get that the proportion of [TMA][Gly] in the solid phase was 38 wt%, while the volume ratio of solid was 22%. According to the integral area of peaks in 1H-NMR spectrum, the ratio of different species could be obtained. It had been calculated that the weight proportion of -OOC-CH2-NH2, -OOC-CH2-NH-COO- and (CH3)3N+ in liquid phase and solid phase, respectively. It can be seen in Fig 2.8 that most of the carbamate was in the liquid phase, only a small part precipitated. Due to the intermolecular force, some of the initial absorbent- [TMA][Gly] was precipitated.
the system design -. In this paper, a single- phase to three-phase drive system composed of two parallel single-phase rectifiers and a three-phase inverter is proposed. The proposed system is conceived to operate where the single-phase utility grid is the unique option available. Compared to the conventional topology, the proposed system permits: to reduce the rectifier switch currents; the total harmonic distortion (THD) of the grid current with same switching frequency or the switching frequency with same THD of the grid current; and to increase the fault tolerance characteristics. In addition, the losses of the proposed system may be lower than that of the conventional counterpart. The aforementioned benefits justify the initial investment of the proposed system, due to the increase of number of switches.
adjustable speed drives (ASDs); uninterruptible power supplies (UPS), static vary compensators, active filters, flexible ac transmission systems (FACTS), and voltage compensators, which are only a few applications. For sinusoidal ac outputs, the magnitude, frequency, and phase should be controllable. According to the type of ac output waveform, these topologies can be considered as voltage source inverters (VSIs), where the independently controlled ac output is a voltage waveform. These structures are the most widely utilized because they naturally deport as voltage sources as required by many industrial applications, such as adjustable speed drives(ASDs), which are the most popular application of inverters; Similarly, these topologies can be found as current source inverters (CSIs), where the independently controlled ac output is a current waveform. These structures are still widely utilized in medium-voltage industrial applications, where highquality voltage waveforms are required. Static power converters, categorically inverters, are constructed from power switches and the ac output waveforms are consequently composed of discrete values This leads to the generation of waveforms that feature expeditious transitions rather than smooth ones. For instance, the ac output voltage engendered
To deal with instantaneous voltages and currents in three phase circuits mathematically, it is adequate to express their quantities as the instantaneous space vectors. For simplicity, the three-phase voltages and currents excluding zero-phase sequence components will be considered in the following the DSP TMS320LF28335 DSP model is used for control the current and the voltage in the system this DSP model is used to generate the pulses which is used to required to the statcom which can be produce the stability or the unbalanced system
6 phase errors were observed in the asymmetric distribution case (Figure 2d). At higher observation times ( ∆ = 200 ms), where propagator asymmetries become more significant, phase errors reached 60% of the expected phase for this q range. Depending on the q values used for the velocity calculations (equation 7), this can lead to more or less important velocimetry errors.