Fortunately, situationalinterest, temporary interest elicited by an individual’s interpretation of environmental factors, has also been shown to positively affect levels of comprehension (Hidi, 1990; Schraw, 1990; Schraw & Lehman, 2001). Similar to personal interest, Hidi & Renninger (2006) suggest that both text-based and environment-based factors such as novelty (Bergin, 1999), cohesion (Bergin, 1999; Schraw, 1995), surpise (Bergin, 1999), puzzles (Mitchell, 1993), and narrative (Bergin, 1999; Schraw, 1995) trigger states of heightened affective and cognitive processing independent of prior experiences or personal interest. Therefore, the malleability of situationalinterest makes this construct especially appealing for classroom instruction. However, regardless of students’ topic interest, informational texts are often incongruent with sources of situationalinterest and are instead commonly littered with cohesion breaks, information incompleteness, and implicit information (Garner, 1992). For this reason, researchers have turned to environmental-based manipulations (e.g., task instructions/prompts, level of activity) designed to not only promote interest in the topic of text, but also sustain interest in order to compensate for structural deficiencies (Guthrie et al., 2006).
In recent years, an array of technologies such as pedometers, smartphones, tablets (applications) virtual reality simulators, heart rate monitors, and Exergames (e.g., Dance Dance Revolution, and Sony Play Station games) are being used in physical education, sport, and physical activity to enhance engagement, pedagogy, and performance (Hall, 2012). Sun (2012) investigated the effect of Exergames on students’ situationalinterest in physical education. Students participated in an Exer- game unit and physical fitness unit and their physical activity and situationalinterest levels were tracked over a four week period. In this study, situationalinterest was measured by using student responses to the Situ- ational Interest Scale (Chen et al., 1999) to determine the initial level of interest and retained level of interest. The Exergame unit was more effective than the fitness unit at engaging students’ initial situationalinterest sources. However, these effects were not retained for all areas of situationalinterest by the end of the Exer- game unit. Sun (2012) also suggested that the students did not meet recommendations for MVPA during the
Although DBL programs and makerspaces are touted for their motivational benefits, few studies have directly ex- amined how DBL are related to motivational outcomes. Our objective was to gain insights into how participation in a design-based makerspace course influenced stu- dents’ situationalinterest, self-efficacy, and achievement emotions. Further, questions remain about how best to tailor DBL programs for different student populations to support positive self-efficacy beliefs and interest. In par- ticular, educational scholars have voiced concerns about design-based instruction and its suitability for students who have lower levels of scientific knowledge related to the design task. For example, the open-ended nature of the design process may be too difficult for low-performing or younger students who are still grappling with understanding basic STEM concepts (Doppelt et al. 2008). Students who lack a strong back- ground knowledge in STEM are more likely to have low self-efficacy in learning and using STEM concepts, and may have less confidence in executing design tasks. This lack of confidence is especially detrimental when the design process calls for a high degree of self-initiation and self-regulation. Students’ lack of knowledge could also lead to feelings of frustration, which further undermine self-efficacy and interest development. Despite these context-specific concerns, few existing studies have examined the motivational processes occurring in DBL programs for young students in an elementary school context. Relatedly, the role of important factors such as self-efficacy and achievement emotions in interest development within this setting remains unclear.
The most common responses for why an activity was not interesting to students were that the activity was boring, that it was hard or confusing, and that it was not relevant to the real world or to the student’s career interests. Students described a boring activity to be one that was tedious and repetitive. Students most often associated all of these categories with the mineral and igneous rock ID activities. Based on this analysis of all of these responses, it seems that the ideal activity for promoting situationalinterest is one that is presented in a game-like format and involves students working in groups to solve real world problems by designing their own methods and procedures. For example, the mineral mining activity and the groundwater consulting case both involve all of these aspects and scored high in SI. It is especially important for instructors that teach introductory courses to use this information when planning course materials because situationalinterest has been linked to subsequent course choices (Harackiewicz et al., 2008).
Third, given the conclusion that a varied method of instruction will not increase student success all alone, future studies may begin to address the effectiveness of a varied method of instruction combined with other reformations in developmental mathematics, such as learning communities, contextualized curricula, and support services. For instance, a future study may compare the effects of a varied method of instruction on student outcomes in developmental mathematics using contextualized curricula to courses without contextualized curricula. Or, a traditional method of instruction may be compared to a varied method of instruction during which students in both classes are required to attend supplemental instruction workshops. Overall, future research is needed to continue investigating the effects of the developmental mathematics reforms identified by AMATYC (2006), Boylan (2002), the California Community Colleges Student Success Task Force (2013), and Epper and Baker (2009) on student achievement, knowledge transfer, situationalinterest, and course retention rates.
strategies being identified for “triggering interest,” “immersing interest,” and “extending interest.” Nevertheless, when it comes to concrete learning design, there may or may not be clear distinctions among the three components/states. Instead, they can be seen as a continuum of various types of activities that support the students in the process of interest development. Moreover, the design considerations being laid out in the “Trig- gering interest—“curiosity”,” “Immersing interest—“flow”,” and “Extending interest— “ meaningfulness ”” sections are not necessarily restricted to the respective learning strategies. For example, while we emphasize meaningfulness only in the “ extending interest ” component, it does not mean that curiosity-driven learning and flow activities could not be designed in a meaningful manner. An “interest loop” designer may start with adhering to the delineated framework in this paper. Once (s)he becomes adept in the design skills and gains experience in enacting interest loops, (s)he may then exer- cise flexible and differentiated designs to optimize the effectiveness of learning activ- ities. When such interest loop activities are repeated according to the school curriculum (thus affording plenty of opportunities for reengagement) and when student interest develops from situationalinterest into individual interest, triggering interest will no longer be needed. Also, with the appropriate design of a school curriculum and challenging activities, not only a learning interest will be developed but also the learn- ing interest may also become a passion, a learning habit (the last anchored concept of IDC), and, hopefully, a lifelong habit.
Within the above figure it can be seen that for low complexity environments Format D somewhat adequate, of which 59% of participants were able to acquire full awareness using. This was supported by the many comments obtained indicating that participants found Format D quite “adequate” for the assessment applied within Scenario 1. Evidently, it can be seen that as the environment complexity increased participants were required to rely upon more data-intensive formats to consistently attain complete situational awareness. Such an observation is emphasised by the considerable reduction participant usage of Format D from 59%, 34% to 0% in low, moderate and high complexity environments respectively. Furthermore, it can be seen that as the use of Format D declined the significant majority of participants were able to instead use the next least data-intensive format (Format C). This can be identified in considering the allocation of the reduced percentage usage of Format D from low to moderate and moderate to high complexity environments. Within the moderately complex environment the percentage increase of Format C and B were 15.6% and 9.3% respectively whilst this ratio was considerably different, 31.3% and 3.2%, within the high complexity environment. This particular correlation was further examined by investigating the factors which contributed to Format D’s inability to address the
The organization recommended that upper management be excluded from the study. In past studies, Norris and Vecchio (1992) recommended testing Hersey's and Blanchard's (1974) Situational Leadership Theo- ry's "... three-way interaction (leader task, leader relationship and follower readiness level) using a hierarchical regression approach"(p. 335) the researcher did not utilize this recommended methodology. The follower readi- ness level was not surveyed, and the researcher was not looking for causation; therefore, this methodology was not used.
Based on the findings in chapter four and conclusions above, the study recommends that commercial banks evaluate their lending rates properly to ensure that they have adequate loan disbursement but also high returns that would improve the interest income of commercial banks. This therefore means that commercial banks need to clearly evaluate their lending rates and the costs attached to the finances. The study also recommends that financial institutions increase their management efficiency because unless this is done, the high interest income earned from interest rate volatility could easily be wiped out by high operating costs. In order to adhere to recommended interest rate volatility ratios and earn optimal interest income, this study recommends that commercial banks accurately evaluate all factors influence the interest income applicants to ensure that the loss or bad investment practice are eliminated. Therefore, the government regulators should tighten its regulations on these factors to ensure that the interest rate in the economy is well contained. The quantity borrowed, operation costs, commercial bank negotiation power, credit contract enforcements, and credit monitoring technique are key ingredients in ensuring reasonably low interest rates and its volatility. Commercial banks ought to keenly look into the issues affecting these factors to ensure the interest rate levels and its volatility is contained in the economy.
Politicians usually enact policies that are congruent with their political ideology, even when the net utility of doing so is not yet known. Democratic accountability may exacerbate this tendency, as political leaders may feel pressure to ideological congruency especially keenly when they are seeking office or running for re-election. This is contrary to the widespread notion that democratic accountability is the most powerful lever that constituents have over their elected officials for ensuring the advancement of public interest. In this study, subjects were asked about two politically-charged issues, environmental cleanup or gun safety, and whether they preferred a risky enactment of such policies for saving lives (e.g., a 90% chance of saving 100 lives, a 50% chance of saving 100 lives, or a 10% chance of saving 100 lives) over an ideologically and value neutral one, in this case, funding a new hospital (e.g., which would save 90, 50 or 10 lives, respectively). Subjects universally preferred politically congruent policies, despite a value neutral option being available. This preference occurred regardless of whether they were held accountable or not. Political ideology predicted the amount of ambiguity reduction needed for recommending both the environmental cleanup and gun safety policies.
The Multiple Mini-Interview (MMI) has been shown to be reliable [1-10] and acceptable [1,7-9,11-15] in not only undergraduate [1-4,11,12], but also postgraduate [5-10,13-15] medical selection in Canada [1,2,6,7,9,11,13,14], Australia , the UK [5,12,14], the US [4,8,15], and non- western countries . As it overcomes ‘ context specifi- city’ [1,16] through a wide sampling process, this selection instrument is considered more reliable than the Single- Station Personal Interview (SSPI), no matter how struc- tured the latter may be [17,18]. A decade of research evidence suggests that a set of 10 to 12 stations with one examiner (interviewer) per station assessing candidates’ capabilities on multiple occasions (contexts) is proven to be reliable [1,6,7,19,20]. However, the structure of the MMI station per se varies from study to study, and from station to station, i.e., there is a range of the degree of: job analysis; developing the questions based on job analysis; standardisation of interview questions; standardisation of assessment format (rubrics of rating scales); and inter- viewer training [1-15,20]. Amongst those, as a station interview format, most studies have used the Situational Question (SQ) [21,22]: a question type of “what would you do in this situation?” combined with traditional SSPI questions: “tell me about yourself.” or “describe your strengths and weaknesses” [1-4,6-8,10]. Recently, within the nomenclature of ‘MMI’ , station formats have been pre- sented in a more complex manner including clinical knowledge tests , Situational Judgment Tests (SJT) , skills tests [9,15], role-playing with examiners [9,12,15], and interviews with SQs [1,5-7,9,12]. Some MMIs assess more than one candidate’s competency per station using assess- ment centre or selection centre principles [8,9,15,23-26]. Constructs assessed have also varied depending upon the availability of a job analysis with or without a set of na- tionally declared competencies, such as Canadian Medical Education Direction for Specialists (CanMEDS) Frame- work [6,26].
movement of the opposing team’s robot. We would like to know if the strategic H-map takes into effect for better prediction of the opposing robot’s positions. Secondly, we test two main strategies on our own robots and see if the estimation performance is boosted due to new strategies. In summary, in this section, all the simulations are closer to the real RoboFlag environment and the situational awareness performance can be more
As noted by Cooper and Frasher, poor communication among crew-members contributes to the loss of situational awareness (Cooper and Frasher 32). In addition, a study conducted by the U.S. Coast Guard explored communication problems and marine casualties. The purpose of this study was to analyze the most prevalent communications problems associated with 589 marine casualties over a seven-month period. The study procedure analyzed communication in terms of four communication processes: prepare and send message, message transmission, receive and interpret message, and act on message (McCallum et al. 6). The results showed that 87% of communication problems were associated with the prepare and send message process; specifically, the inability of mariners to initiate communication when it would have been appropriate. In almost every marine casualty, at least one mariner did not perceive that a dangerous situation was developing, which is characteristic of situational awareness level 1, and did not communicate the information because he or she did not realize the need. The other reason for the lack of communication is that some mariners did perceive a dangerous situation, but assumed that other persons knew about it and would take action to avoid it (McCallum et al. 28).
Finally, comprehension question accuracy was high (M = 89%, range = 80 - 98%). At two timing intervals, relational concepts demonstrated significant situational priming whereas internal state concepts did not. Thus, it appears as though when grouped separately, only concepts that integrate multiple aspects of the scenario are activated by situation descriptions. One possible explanation of the results obtained in Experiment 2 is that I happened to choose good situational exemplars for relational concepts, but not internal state. Although relatedness ratings did not differ between the two concept types, in the initial relatedness norming study, participants rated a set of concepts that I had chosen based on intuition. Therefore, it is possible that although participants may judge a situation and concept as highly related based on the provided items, there might be concepts that are more highly related, or better exemplars of the situation.
The essential point is designating a value for the linear gradient based on the total amount of the current worth of the capital, preserving in the process, the conformity of the future worth of the money and its adherence to the rules of the market’s financial regulations. The purpose is to eliminate interest on past principle payments, which is essential to compounding and limiting payments to reach the exact the number of future periodical payments with uncompounded interest rate. The process is purely mathematical but simple and hopefully will be em- ployed in open financial markets. Slumping trend of the world economy may propel bankers in that direction.
Usual methods for modeling trust assume a context-free environment, i.e., the trust level of an entity has no dependence on a particular situation. However, we believe that elevating the role of trust in system interactions will require situational awareness. For example, suppose that an electronic commerce transaction over the web shows that a supplier has provided a bad outcome in 3 of 10 examples in their history concerning a specific product. This poor reputation has importance in any trust model concerning that product. However, the same supplier may have a perfect reputation for another type of product, establishing situation importance. Context also pertains to the so-called “cold-start” problem, in which there is no historical record or reputation track record to provide information and guidance .
Drinking Context Scale-Revised (DCS-R). A revised version of the Drinking Context Scale (DCS; O'Hare, 1997) assessed participant typical drinking quantity across eleven social situations (e.g., at a party, after school/work), nine interpersonal circumstances (e.g., on a date, with a close friend), and six negative emotional situations (e.g., when angry at others, after a fight). To assess situational drinking quantity, DCS items were measured using the DDQ scale (i.e., 0 to 30 or more drinks). Subscale scores were derived by summing item responses that loaded into each subscale. The measure consists of three factor-analytically derived subscales: social/convivial drinking (e.g., drinking at a club, bar, party); personal/intimate drinking (e.g., drinking after work/school, on a date); and negative emotional drinking (e.g., drinking when sad, angry, lonely). Internal consistency for each drinking situation was adequate: social/convivial (α = .93); personal/intimate (α = .79); and negative emotion (α = .85).