Thus, a higher size of the public sector can increase or reduce welfare, even though it reduces unambiguously the growth rate. The crucial point lies on whether g Q ηC/W . If g < ηC/W , an increase in the size of the public sec- tor raises welfare. That is due to the fact that the marginal utility derived from public consumption is higher than the marginal utility derived from private consumption. If g = ηC/W , an increase in the size of the public sec- tor does not change welfare because the marginal utility derived from public consumption is equal to the marginal utility derived from private consump- tion: it is the size of the public sector that maximizes welfare, as we shall see below. Finally, if g > ηC/W , an increase in the size of the public sector re- duces welfare because the marginal utility derived from public consumption is lower than the marginal utility derived from private consumption. These results are related to those in Turnovsky (2000, p. 438): “Thus we infer that increasing the growth rate by reducing government expenditure is not necessarily welfare improving. This will be the case only if initially g is above its optimum”. We shall see below that this is completely consistent with the analysis of the size of the public sector that maximizes welfare.
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In this paper, we develop a supply-demand model for the public sector, mea- sured as governments’ tax revenues divided by GDP. We use a political equi- librium with a rule of majority. The model takes into account inefficiencies caused by taxes and includes costs associated with public goods provision to consumers. We show that the size of the public sector depends on the median voter’s income, size of population, costs associated with taxpaying, and quality of institutions, which reflect costs of public goods provision. The estimates for the OECD countries (2000-2017), using dynamic panel model techniques, are in line with the theoretical predictions; however, they do not confirm Wagner’s law. Our estimates suggest that the size of the govern- ment sector grows as income increases, but at a slower rate. We show that the quality of institutions matters: a more effective government raises the share of public sector; better regulations, which permit and promote private sector development, reduce it.
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regards expenditure and employment either in the short or long-term. In contrast, fiscal and administrative decentralization, measured as the ratio of expenditure and public employment decentralization, as well as the autonomy of the sub-central government, do seem to lead to a smaller public sector as regards expenditure, both in the short and long-term. We do not find, however, that decentralization led to a reduction in public sector employment. These results may indicate that the observed decline in public spending in the late 1980s and 1990s may not necessarily be truly associated with NPM-style reforms but, rather, simple cost-cutting reform. As a caveat, this paper modestly sought to assess the consequences of NPM-style reforms on public sector size. This is not to forget that NPM pursued not only a slimmer public sector, but also, a more efficient and effective public sector, aimed at increasing consumer satisfac- tion and choice. Clearly, though outsourcing did not lead to a smaller public sector, if public sector working conditions, service quality improved, and/or social welfare was strengthened, this could be interpreted as a benefit of such a policy. If, however, the increase in govern- ment spending was not accompanied by such improvement, this could suggest the existence of high transaction and coordination costs and the appropriation of social income by the private sector (the so-called “hold up” effect), or, that the private provision of public goods does not necessarily entail efficiency gains.
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Extensive theoretical and empirical literature tries to answer the question whether ﬁscal autonomy decreases the size of the public sector. While most argue that ﬁscal autonomy leads to a decrease in the public expenditure, some strands of the literature identify the opposite possibility. There are some theoretical arguments for why centrally allocated grants might in fact reduce the size of the local public sector. As argumented by Oates (1990), when the sub-national provision of services has cross-boundary or spillover eﬀects, sub-national decision making may not lead to the optimal nationwide provision of services. If that is the case, the central government could aﬀect sub-national provision by subsidizing the services. Moreover, whenever economies of scale are an important factor, centrally allocated grants could, in fact lead to eﬃciency improvements. As observed by Bergvall et al. (2006), if ﬁnancing grants are given for imposed programmes or minimum standards, like those for basic sub-national services in the form of non-earmarked grants (general purpose or block grants), best incentives for subnational jurisdictions to seek opportunities for cost savings are created.
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A first, clearly identifiable group is that of the Nordic countries: Denmark, Sweden, Finland and Norway. The main characteristics of this group are: the largest, or among the largest (Finland), size of public sector employment in the EU27, with a high female presence, and a strong welfare state; significant harmonisation processes between career civil servants and employees employed on ordinary contracts, although differences do persist in these countries; very high trade union density, though declining slightly in recent years, and wide collective negotiations practices, within a rather decentralised, two-tier bargaining system with strong and effective coordination mechanisms; few restrictions on the right to strike, but special machinery for collective dispute resolution. Elements of the NPM doctrine have been adopted, including forms of performance-related pay, but incorporated within public administration systems that maintain some (neo-) weberian characteristics (Pollitt et al. 2007; Ibsen et al. 2011). Partial differences relate to the incidence of part-time workers (comparatively low in Finland), of temporary workers (very high in Finland and Sweden), and of young workers (ratio with elder workers below 1 in Finland and Sweden). From an industrial relations point of view, Ireland shares some features with this group of countries rather than with the UK, to which it is often associated. The rate of unionisation is quite high, there is special machinery for handling collective disputes in the civil service, and national ‘tripartite concertation’ has an important regulatory role for central government employees, as in Finland. This is despite difficulties in recent years and the fact that the single level bargaining system is in itself more centralised than in the Nordic countries. Ireland has a public sector employment share that is relatively high but lower than the Nordic countries, the UK and the Netherlands. The incidence of women, part-time workers and, especially, young employees is relatively high, while the presence of temporary employees is relatively low. The Netherlands also has some features in common with this group, although its union density rate is notably lower and its two-tier collective bargaining system is characterised by a weaker degree of coordination; other features of the Netherlands, however, are probably closer to those of the following group.
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This study investigates talent management and employees performance in selected public sector firms in Delta State, Nigeria. Sample size was determined using Taro Yamani’s statistical technique. 364 questionnaires were distributed to respondents, out of which 273 questionnaire were returned. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was conducted using SPSS-20 to compare different population of mean existing within the groups and between the groups at five point- likert scale. The study found that F-calculated value (73.166) was greater than F-tabulated (2.53) value at 5% significant level in the selected public sector firms. Hence, the null hypothesis was rejected. Study concludes that there is an existence of strong relationship between talent management and employees performance in selected private sector organization. Finally, recommendation were made in the following; that organization should align their talent management system to meet up with their business requirements; and, management should know what factors contribute to difficulties in attraction and retention of employees so that effort should be made to keep various retention factors in balance.
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Nevertheless, most political economists deny a singular causality between state in- terventions and corruption. Alemann warns to condemn bureaucracy in general be- cause it would produce security for economic transactions. Rose-Ackerman sug- gests: “The level of malfeasance depends not only on the volume of potential bene- fits, but also on the riskiness of corrupt deals and on the participants’ moral scruples and bargaining power.” (Rose-Ackerman 1996: 1) Whereas, Pritzl underlines the constitutional circumstances that influence the individual choice by incentives and sanctions. (Pritzl 1997: 33) Della Porta and Vannucci use the example of the Scandi- navian countries and argue that the size of the public sector and public market inter- vention is one factor but “…many other factors, such as moral costs and other institu- tional incentives, influence the presence of the phenomenon” of corruption. (Della Porta; Vannucci 1997: 235) This would lead to the conclusion that more state inter- ventions and a bigger public sector lead to the development of higher political rents but if, or how, these rents are used depends on the institutional and societal circum- stances.
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One environmental factor that could be of particular importance to the trust-corruption relationship is whether the individual is living in a democracy. The theoretical model of Mohtadi and Roe (2003) and the empirical analysis of Rock (2009) suggest that democracy is an important factor with regards to the prevalence of corruption and that corruption follows an inverted U shape as the democracy matures. In addition to differing levels of corruption, norms and expectations regarding behaviour and punishment may be different in a context of autocratic rule and such differences could in turn influence how people react and adapt to an experience of corruption. To see if our relationships of interest vary according to regime type, we split the sample using the Polity IV measure which takes values from -10 (autocracy) to 10 (full democracy) (Marshall, 2013). A score of 6 or greater is taken to reflect a democracy. We take the average value of the Polity measure over the period 1994-2003. Table 7 shows that in the both types of regime bribery experience is negatively associated with trust in big private corporations. However, the estimated magnitude of this negative spill-over is greater in democracies. This difference in magnitude is also evident with regards to the other dimensions of private sector trust although the statistical significance of these marginal effects falls short of the 5% level for the most part. The corruption perceptions variable is always significant and interestingly the size of the association seems to be less influenced by regime type than in the case of the experience variable. We conclude from this exercise that while democracy may strengthen the relationship between experiencing corruption and private sector trust, such a relationship is evident in both broad regime types (at least with regards to big private corporations).
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for 2009 from the National Employment Survey (NES) and data for 2010 from combining the 2009 NES with administrative records from Revenue. This analysis suggested that the public-private sector pay gap ranged between 6.1 per cent and 18.9 per cent in 2010. The report also showed that the premium fell between 2009 and 2010, which is to be expected given the substantial public sector wage cuts implemented in 2010. The CSO report showed that, on average, public sector workers earned over 26 per cent more per week, and 40 per cent more per hour, than employees in the private sector in 2010. However, as the CSO report notes, much of this differential is due to differences between public and private sector workers in terms of education, experience and other factors that influence pay. Thus, while the average hourly pay of public sector workers might be 40 per cent higher, if half of this were attributable to superior experience and education levels of public sector workers, then the estimated public sector pay premium (i.e. the part that cannot be explained by differences in the characteristics of the workers) would be 20 per cent. Given this, it is crucial when attempting to
Finally the current study deals with the various aspects of banking sector and a comparison between various kinds of banks with regard to services, strategies and customer satisfaction level etc. E- Banking Technological innovations have been identified to contribute to the distribution channels of banks. The electronic delivery channels are collectively referred to as Electronic Banking. Electronic Banking is really not a technology, but an attempt to merge several different technologies. Bankers now see a kind of evolution in their business, partly, because the world has taken a quantum leap in the use of technologies in the last decadal years.
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Since 1983 the Financial Management Improvement Program has been central to the reform program in Australia. Halligan (2009) argued that the FMIP dominated the reforms of the 1980s as an initiative designed to produce more efficient use of resources. FMIP is the product of a report on the efficiency and effectiveness of the civil service. A governmental inquiry committee was formed and John Reid chaired the Committee (Common Wealth of Australia, 1983). Reid believed that private sector management techniques could be used in government to improve the public sector (Zifcak, 1994). In the public sector, the leadership should be improved and managerial authority should be developed. Zifcak (1994) further argued that principles of accountable management should be introduced to ensure that performance was regularly evaluated against approved goals, strategies and priorities. The major components of the program were in the areas of forward estimates, the running costs system, portfolio budgeting and program management and budgeting (Ball, 1990; Holmes, 1990; Shand, 1990). Barton (2009) argued that the adoption of accrual accounting and budgeting systems was central to the program of Australian public sector financial management reform over the past 30 years. Halligan et al. (1992) claimed that FMIP was essentially an umbrella concept for a range of initiatives which involved a standard managerialist line-up: corporate and program management, corporate planning, program budgeting and performance evaluation. The program aimed to help managers to focus on „managing for results‟, rather than directing their efforts to inputs and processes in order to obtain greater resource efficiency and effectiveness (Shand, 1990; APSC, 2003).
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This study was based on a comparative study of organizational commitment of teachers in public and private universities thus though dimensions of organizational commitment are analyzed still the impact of each factor is not analyzed on the dimensions of the organizational commitment. Thus, further study could be either specific dimension of OC based comparative analysis of public and private university teacher’s commitment or individually each dimension could be included in the study. This would help in determining the kind of commitment teachers have with the university. Further, this study focuses on some specific factors. However, there are many other factors like local government policies, teacher’s personalities, school principals, cognition, absence, and organizational citizenship, which affect the commitment of teachers (John P. Meyer et al., 2002Werang, 2017). A study of 332 teachers (Terzi, 2015) suggests that Organizational citizenship behavior has a significant relationship with OC and showed that OCB via its dimensions of civic virtue, courtesy-altruism, affective commitment, and sportsmanship act as a mediating factor which led to influence the efficiency and performance of teachers. Further, a study conducted by (Chi, Yeh, & Choum, 2013) suggested that personality traits of teachers have an impact on their efficiency. Even job involvement has a mediating effect between OC and teacher’s efficiency, but personality traits don’t have any moderation effect between teaching efficiency and job involvement. Thus, these studies suggest that many other relevant factors could be included in the study which has mediating and moderating effects too. This analysis is based on analyzing individually via factors the OC of teachers of public and private universities. Further this could also be done that impact of employee-relevant outcomes and organization-relevant outcomes can be analyzed in composite form i.e. instead of individual factor analysis, the analysis could be done in combined form so as to determine whether employee-centric or organization- centric strategies regulate the commitment of teachers. Further, the analysis could also be done so as to empirically test the mediating and moderating effect of factors on the relationship between the OC of teachers and performance and also include more of the studies based on using structural models so as to reduce the effect of measurement errors.
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Irrespective of the demise, or not of VS and the creation of public-private sector replacement organisation, there is need for such a body to be funded. It could be argued that such an organisation should be funded by membership fees to support marketing campaigns, but, as discussed above, tourism benefits many more businesses than those who fund any marketing promotion. If the industry is unable or unwilling to fund tourism marketing campaigns, and the benefits are wide-ranging, this raises the question of the elephant in the room i.e. the need for a tourism/bed tax. The Calman Commission (2009) suggested that the Scottish Parliament should be given additional tax-raising powers, and the legislation for Parliament to introduce such new taxes (subject to the approval of Westminster) has been incorporated into the proposed Scotland Act (2011). As with any tax, a tourism/bed tax needs to be easily collected, difficult to avoid and be readily set up, which is why many destinations have opted for a bed tax, usually paid each night, based on either a fixed fee or as a percentage of the accommodation price. Sometimes these taxes vary by grade and/or type of establishment, by location (with city locations paying a higher tax than rural locations) or even by season. This tax works best when called by some other name such as a Tourism Development/Marketing/Green tax, which tends to make it more acceptable, as its purpose is clear. Also if such a tax were to be hypothecated so that it could be used only for tourism purposes, it is likely to be more acceptable, especially if it were to be paid only by non- Scottish residents, and thus may also encourage Scots to holiday more at home. As to the argument that it would have a detrimental impact on tourism, given how common such a tax is in other parts of the world, the evidence of any detrimental impact is very limited.
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Relative performance of twenty six Indian public urban transport organiza- tions with 19 criteria—grouped in 3 heads; operations, finance, and accident- based—was carried out by Vaidya (2014). The author computed efficiency using the CCR DEA approach. Analytical Hierarchy Process was used before applying DEA to assign weights to each criteria group and finally, a Transportation Effi- ciency Number (TEN) was developed to quantify the overall performance . Hanumappa et al. (2015) studied the premium bus services operated under Ban- galore Metropolitan Transport Corporation using input oriented CCR model of DEA. Analysis indicated that most depots were efficient, but some routes have significant opportunities for further improvement . Venkatesh and Kushwaha (2017) is a recent attempt to measure technical efficiency of passenger bus com- panies in India using non-radial DEA .
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The word ‘privatisation’ hence does not seem to be the right term to grab the essence of what is going on. What we are seeing is not simply the transfer of security functions or responsibilities from the public sector to the private sector, as the number of public police officers, for instance, has increased largely in recent years and both the economic and political capital allocated to public policing is growing (Zedner, 2006b, p. 269). We see an expansion in both private security and public security. Therefore, it seems more accurate to speak of the commodification of security, which can give rise to different ethical dilemmas, all relating to some of the basic principles and values underlying modern Western democracies. One of the ethical problems noticed by scholars is that of purchasing power on the private security market. If private security and justice are administered through the market, they will not result in the social goal of uniform justice for all, as those lacking in purchasing power will be systematically excluded from participation (Kempa et al., 1999, p. 205). Some scholars argue that private security practices actually establish a system of private justice that runs parallel to the state judicial system. It is typical for the private sector to settle internal problems quietly (Dorn and Levi, 2007, p. 224). This way, in the shadow of the law, private orders take place as forms of ‘customised justice’.
To Frank Ogle and my colleagues at the State Service Management Office (formerly the Public Sector Management Office), in the Department of Premier and Cabinet, thank you for your support and encouragement; and for contributing your views, which have assisted in further developing my understanding and skills regarding the complexity of public sector human resource management.
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theoretical foundation of the study is based on various secondary sources such as texts book on service quality, articles, quality magazines, and published papers. For the purpose of the study, a questionnaire was designed on 5 point Likert scale, where '1' represents SD (strongly disagree) and '5' represents SA (strongly agree), and the total 410 respondents were asked to respond to the statements in the SERVQUAL scale. Questionnaire consisted of 26 questions related to five dimensions of service quality in which the customers of various banks responded against their expectations and perceptions. Questionnaires were personally delivered by hand at workplaces and homes, which was used as a method for data collection. The respondents (220 of public sector banks and 190 of private sector banks) were required to record their perceptions and expectations of the service of the respective public sector Bank and private sector banks in Lucknow. Three public sector banks-SBI, PNB and BOB and three private sector banks –HDFC, ICICI and Axis were selected for the study. The study is based on the assumption that all banks belong to the same category. This categorization was based on the responses of the customers.
Table 3 indicates the changes in headcount by local authority and indicates a decline in Local Authority employment of 5,300 (1.9%) over the year. The majority of authorities have now published budgets with proposals for further employment reductions, increased charges for services and reductions in the range and depth of services. Developments in English local authorities highlight the increasing use of outsourcing, accounting for some 60% of the value of all public sector outsourcing contracts. It is estimated that 50% of council waste management services and 23% of HR, IT and payroll functions are now outsourced.
The quest for higher performance by public organizations is a central and recurring theme in government policies and academic research (Boyne, Farrell, Law, Powell, Walker, 2003; Pollitt, Bouckaert, 2000). For complex and permanent modernization of public sector, a complex strategy of modernization is required (vision, mission, provisions, and concepts of modernization) (Skietrys, Raipa, Bartkus, 2008). An effective strategy formation capability is a complex organizational resource – a dynamic capability that should lead to superior performance (Slater, Olson, Hult, 2006). Although the notion of strategy has its origins in the military arena, strategic planning in recent years has been primarily focused on private sector organizations and much of the theory assumes that those in executive control of an organization have the freedom to determine its direction. Strategic planning is a means to an end, a method used to position an organization, through prioritizing its use of resources according to identified goals, in an effort to guide its direction and development over a period of time (Wilkinson, Monkhouse, 1994).
Measuring the public sector performance has always a number of shortfalls, given that the psychological, cultural, social characteristics of a given society play a major part in this process. Therefore every measure of performance is a proxy measure. Moreover, the performance of the public sector is often judged in terms of the secured wellbeing and public goods quality. But, computation constraints force the use of market values to assess public goods and services. Since the quality of public goods is very difficult to determine, the measurement issue becomes more complex as one proceeds up the scale from input measures through process indicators. Consequently, performance indicators are most appropriate for sectors where there is a direct and immediate relationship between the government agency’s outputs and the desired outcomes.
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