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The preliminary effect of whole-body vibration intervention on improving the skeletal muscle mass index, physical fitness, and quality of life among older people with sarcopenia

The preliminary effect of whole-body vibration intervention on improving the skeletal muscle mass index, physical fitness, and quality of life among older people with sarcopenia

After 12 weeks of whole-body vibration, the SMMI be- came significantly higher than those before the interven- tion of whole-body vibration. These results supported the finding obtained from related studies. Machado, López, Gallego and Garatachea [42] introduced a 10-week-long whole-body vibration to older adults with sarcopenia, in which the result showed that the experimental group par- ticipants’ muscle mass increased significantly after the 10- week-long whole-body vibration. Bogaerts et al. [43] and Verschueren et al. [44] found that whole-body vibration can improve bone density, enhance muscle quality, and lower body fat. However, some studies showed that whole-body vibration did not significantly improve the muscle mass of older adults with sarcopenia [45–47]. The results of these studies differed from those of the present study because the vibration amplitude, vibration fre- quency, rest interval, and intervention duration varied across the studies.
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The association between calf circumference and appendicular skeletal muscle mass index of black urban women in Tlokwe City

The association between calf circumference and appendicular skeletal muscle mass index of black urban women in Tlokwe City

Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 22 for Windows (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). Normality of variables was tested using Kolmogorov–Smirnov and Shapiro–Wilk tests. Nor- mally distributed data were reported as means (SD), and non- normally distributed data as median and interquartile ranges (IQR). Categorical variables were described with frequencies and percentages. Because most variables deviated from the normal distribution, the Mann–Whitney test was used to compare the median values of the characteristics of sarcopenic and non-sarcopenic participants. Pearson’s correlation coeffi- cient was used to determine the association between CC and DXA-measured ASM and ASMI. Receiver operating character- istics (ROC) curves were used to determine the optimal Youden index cut-off value of CC in predicting sarcopenia. A p-value of less than 0.05 was regarded as statistically significant.
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<p>Breathing&ndash;Swallowing Discoordination and Inefficiency of an Airway Protective Mechanism Puts Patients at Risk of COPD Exacerbation</p>

<p>Breathing&ndash;Swallowing Discoordination and Inefficiency of an Airway Protective Mechanism Puts Patients at Risk of COPD Exacerbation</p>

A novel technique, namely, a swallowing monitor using a piezoelectric sensor (hereinafter referred to as a “ swallowing monitor ” ), has been tested effective for studying the association between breathing – swallowing discoordination and the risk of COPD exacerbations. 2 However, in this study, the technique was only effective when speci fi cally designated test foods were used. It is challenging to apply these results to daily practice. Further investigation is necessary using a common sub- ject. The primary aim of our study was to evaluate the utility of the swallowing monitor in predicting COPD exacerbation with water. The secondary aim was to fi nd an effective screening test for daily practice, by compar- ing the results of the swallowing monitor with the dys- phagia screening tests. In addition to dysphagia screening tests taken in our previous study, 7 two more measure- ments were taken. The fi rst is the skeletal muscle mass index (SMI). It is becoming evident that a low muscle mass and sarcopenia can cause exacerbations and are poor prognostic factors in patients with COPD. 8 The second additional technique is tongue pressure mea- surement. Tongue pressure measurement has become popular for assessing oral phase dysphagia and sarcopenia; 9 however, it has not been investigated in depth in COPD.
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Developing sarcopenia criteria and cutoffs for an older Caucasian cohort &ndash; a strictly biometrical approach

Developing sarcopenia criteria and cutoffs for an older Caucasian cohort &ndash; a strictly biometrical approach

Height was measured with a Harpenden stadiometer (Holtain, Crymych, United Kingdom), weight, total and appendicular lean body mass were determined using DSM-BIA (Inbody 770, Biospace Ltd, Seoul, Korea). Using a tetrapolar eight- point tactile electrode system that applied six frequencies (1, 5, 50, 250, 500, and 1,000 kHz), this type of BIA device can determine the impedance of the arms, legs, and trunk separately. Skeletal Muscle Mass Index (SMI) was calculated using two different approaches: 1) ASMM/body height 2

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Prognostic value of subcutaneous adipose tissue volume in hepatocellular carcinoma treated with transcatheter intra-arterial therapy

Prognostic value of subcutaneous adipose tissue volume in hepatocellular carcinoma treated with transcatheter intra-arterial therapy

Abbreviations: SATI, subcutaneous adipose tissue index; IQR, interquartile range; BMI, body mass index; SMI, skeletal muscle index; VATI, visceral adipose tissue index; VSR, visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue area ratio; HBV, hepatitis B virus; HCV, hepatitis C virus; NBNC, none of HBV or HCV was infected; ALT, alanine transaminase; AFP, alpha-fetoprotein; TNM, tumor node metastasis; TACE, transcatheter arterial chemoembolization; TAI, transcatheter arterial infusion chemotherapy; mRECIST, Modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors; CR, complete response; PR, partial response; SD, stable disease; PD, progressive disease; BCAA, branched chain amino acids.
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<p>Skeletal muscle mass to visceral fat area ratio is an important determinant associated with type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome</p>

<p>Skeletal muscle mass to visceral fat area ratio is an important determinant associated with type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome</p>

SVR showed a good correlation with serum lipid parameters and other components of MS (Table 3). Q1 – Q3 were shown to be strong risk factors for MS when Q4 were used as the reference which indicated that SVR is a good index for predicting MS. The result was in line with those of the previous study which included a nondiabetic population. 20 First, a recent investigation had suggested that reduced skeletal muscle mass and increased visceral fat were correlated with in fl ammatory cytokines. 30,31 The results of this study indicated that a low SVR may re fl ect a proin fl ammatory state. Second, the two factors of SVR, skeletal muscle and visceral fat, are both closely related to energy metabolism and insulin resistance. These results might explain the close relationship between the SVR and MS. These fi ndings in our research could help clinical physicians identify a group with high risk of MS. The relationship indicates that the SVR is a good way to assess healthy status without the use of an invasive technique.
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Association between sarcopenia and low back pain in local residents prospective cohort study from the GAINA study

Association between sarcopenia and low back pain in local residents prospective cohort study from the GAINA study

Handgrip strength was measured using a TKK 5401 dyna- mometer (Takei Co, Niigata City, Japan). The subjects were asked to squeeze the dynamometer twice with each hand. The highest scores for the left and right hands were summed. Muscle mass was measured by bioelectrical im- pedance analysis (BIA) with a MC-780A Body Composition Analyzer (Tanita Co., Tokyo, Japan). The BIA method re- quires the subjects onto a platform and remain in the standing position for approximately 30 s. Skeletal mass index was calculated by dividing the limb muscle mass (kg) by the square of the height (m). We used quantitative ultra- sound (QUS) to assess the calcaneal bone mass [11, 12]. The speed of sound through the calcaneus was evaluated using a CM-200 sonometer (Furuno Co., Nishinomiya City, Japan). The subject was seated and was asked to place the right heel on the QUS device. Coupling gel was applied to the heel to facilitate the transmission of ultrasound to the skeletal site being examined. The sum of the percentage of young adult mean was calculated. Gait parameters were ob- tained using the Opto Gait (Microgate Co., Bolzano, Italy) designed for optical-sensitive gait analysis. We prepared a 10-m walking line. Walking section and measurement sec- tion were set respectively. The subjects completed a single trial at free speed with the instruction to ‘walk at your nor- mal speed ‘. Walking speed was calculated with specific software (OPTO Gait analysis software, version 1.6.4.0, Microgate S.r.L, Italy).
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Increase in relative skeletal muscle mass over time and its inverse association with metabolic syndrome development: a 7-year retrospective cohort study

Increase in relative skeletal muscle mass over time and its inverse association with metabolic syndrome development: a 7-year retrospective cohort study

investigated the change of relative skeletal muscle over time. In terms of change in relative muscle mass over 1  year, a change of SMI between baseline and year 1 could be easily assessed as a percent change by subtract- ing baseline SMI from SMI at year 1. From a practical perspective, using SMI may be a simple and convenient approach with which laypersons are able to easily assess change in their body composition. In a similar context, several studies have reported an annual loss of approxi- mately 1–2% of lean muscle mass after about age 50 [39– 42]. In the present study, as a continuous variable, there was a significant decreased risk of metabolic syndrome by 11% per percent increase in SMI over a year, after adjusting for baseline SMI and glycometabolic param- eters. In line with this, a SMI change 0–1 or > 1% over 1 year versus < 0% may have the clinical implication sug- gesting that an increase in relative skeletal muscle mass is a potent preventive parameter for metabolic syndrome. However, there might be concerns regarding dependence of body weight on SMI when SMI changes. Therefore, we analyzed the change of body composition and glyco- metabolic parameters between baseline and year 1 after the adjustment for their corresponding values and found that people having an increase in SMI over a year tended to have decreased body weight and increased ASM over a year. Also, a change in SMI was negatively related with body weight, while positively related with ASM. Moreo- ver, we additionally adopted another ASM/BMI index, which was well correlated with cardiometabolic risk fac- tors than when using ASM/ht 2 [43], for assessing relative
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<p>Diagnosis of Presarcopenia Using Body Height and Arm Span for Postmenopausal Osteoporosis</p>

<p>Diagnosis of Presarcopenia Using Body Height and Arm Span for Postmenopausal Osteoporosis</p>

Sarcopenia is a syndrome characterized by progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength with a risk of adverse outcomes such as physical disability, poor quality of life, and death. 1 Since there are several common factors in osteoporosis and sarcopenia, such as aging, malnutrition, vitamin D de fi ciency, disuse, chronic in fl ammation, and decreased levels of sex steroid hormones, many studies of the association between osteoporosis and sarcopenia have been reported. 2,3 The Asia Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) recommends using the skeletal muscle index (SMI), which is height-adjusted skeletal muscle mass, de fi ned by appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASMM)/height 2 for muscle mass measurement in sarcopenia research. 4 The European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) de fi ned low muscle mass only as “ presarcopenia ” . 1 Although loss of height has been shown to be a common clinical fi nding
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High rates of central obesity and sarcopenia in CKD irrespective of renal replacement therapy – an observational cross-sectional study

High rates of central obesity and sarcopenia in CKD irrespective of renal replacement therapy – an observational cross-sectional study

Thus, nutritional status can be measured in different di- mensions: over- and undernutrition, the distribution of fat mass, changes in body composition associated with aging and disease (loss of muscle mass, sarcopenia) or nutri- tional risk. However, in clinical praxis, nutritional status is often defined by body mass index only which is based on weight and height measurements but does not take into account body composition (skeletal muscle mass) and fat distribution. We propose that a single measurement will not be able to capture these different dimensions of nutri- tional status. In addition, renal patients require dietary
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Association of lower limb muscle mass and energy expenditure with visceral fat mass in healthy men

Association of lower limb muscle mass and energy expenditure with visceral fat mass in healthy men

r = 0.88 (p < 0.001) [12]. The repeatability of the fat area analyzer was evaluated by the Bland–Altman plot, which has been described elsewhere [12]. These data in- dicate that this indirect measurement of VFA has a high correlation coefficient with VFA evaluated by computed tomography and does not involve X-ray exposure. Be- cause VFA and SFA were compared with obesity-related variables, which were adjusted with body size repre- sented by body surface area or body weight, VFA and SFA were indexed with body surface area (BSA) as vis- ceral fat area index (VFAI) and subcutaneous fat area index (SFAI), respectively. Skeletal muscle mass was measured with a body composition analyzer (Inbody 7200®; Biospace, Korea) [13]. Body weight and waist cir- cumstance were measured, and BMI was calculated as an index of obesity.
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Comparison of anthropometric and training characteristics between recreational male marathoners and 24-hour ultramarathoners

Comparison of anthropometric and training characteristics between recreational male marathoners and 24-hour ultramarathoners

The afternoon before the start of the race, anthropometric characteristics such as body mass, body height, limb circum- ference, and skinfold thickness at the pectoral, mid axillary, triceps, subscapular, abdominal, suprailiac, front thigh, and medial calf sites were measured. Limb circumference and skinfold thickness were measured on the right side of the body. Using these data, body mass index, percent body fat, and skeletal muscle mass were calculated by anthropomet- ric methods. Body mass was measured using a commercial scale (Beurer BF 15, Beurer, Ulm, Germany) to the nearest 0.1 kg. Body height was determined using a stadiometer to
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Polycystic ovary syndrome is a risk factor for sarcopenic obesity: a case control study

Polycystic ovary syndrome is a risk factor for sarcopenic obesity: a case control study

Methods: Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to assess body composition in 68 women with PCOS aged 18-35y and 60 healthy age-matched women from the same geographic area. Sarcopenic obesity was defined as having % appendicular skeletal muscle mass 2 standard deviations below the mean for the healthy age-matched controls and a % body fat above 35%. Data were analyzed with Mann-Whitney U-tests and Spearman correlations. Results: 53% of women with PCOS were classified as sarcopenic obese. Women with PCOS had a median (interquartile range) appendicular skeletal muscle mass of 23.8 (22.3 – 25.8)% which was lower than the control median of 30.4 (28.6 – 32.4)% ( p < 0.0001). Among women with PCOS, there were negative correlations between % appendicular skeletal muscle mass and the homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index ( r = − 0.409; p < 0.01), high sensitivity C-reactive protein ( r = − 0.608; p < 0.0001) and glycosylated hemoglobin ( r = − 0.430; p < 0.0001). Furthermore, % appendicular skeletal muscle mass correlated positively with vitamin D ( r = 0.398; p < 0.0001) in women with PCOS, which is thought to positively affect skeletal muscle mass.
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Loss of skeletal muscle mass during neoadjuvant treatments correlates with worse prognosis in esophageal cancer: a retrospective cohort study

Loss of skeletal muscle mass during neoadjuvant treatments correlates with worse prognosis in esophageal cancer: a retrospective cohort study

(32-bit Pixmeo, Sarl, Switzerland). We selected a single image on the level of L3, with both transverse processes and delineated abdominal muscles by use of a semi- automated selection of region of interest. Psoas, quadratus lumborum, paraspinal, transverse abdominal, external oblique, internal oblique, and rectus abdominis muscles were included. The Hounsfield unit threshold range for skeletal muscle was − 29 to + 150. The images were manually corrected, if needed, by the propulsion and brush tools in Osirix©. The cross-sectional total muscle area at the level of L3 (cm2) was divided by the square of height (m2), which produced the skeletal muscle index (SMI). This method is suggested as the preferred method of measuring the muscle mass of cancer patients [25]. SMI limit for sarcopenia was < 52.4 cm2/m2 for men and < 38.5 cm2/m2 for women, based on a previous study by Prado et al. [26] For the survival and complication analyses, the preoperative SMI values were used, unless stated otherwise.
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<p>The Body Composition in Early Pregnancy is Associated with the Risk of Development of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Late During the Second Trimester</p>

<p>The Body Composition in Early Pregnancy is Associated with the Risk of Development of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Late During the Second Trimester</p>

However, previous studies have shown that the Chinese population, like other Asian populations, has a lower BMI but a higher percentage of body fat than Caucasians of similar age and gender. 29 BMI does not differentiate between bone, mus- cle, and fat mass, so a simple and inexpensive method of assessing fat mass may be better for predicting the develop- ment of GDM. Methods such as bioelectrical impedance ana- lysis for the assessment of fat mass and fat-free mass in pregnant women in the body composition studies have been described. 30 – 35 Our study establishes that BIA is a feasible and reproducible method that can be used during pregnancy. We found pregnant women with FMP over 28% had a higher risk of developing GDM than women with normal FMP (adjusted OR 1.572, 95% CI 1.104 – 2.240). These results are similar to those of previous studies, in which the visceral fat mass, 12 thickness of subcutaneous adipose tissue, 15 and body fat index (thickness of pre-peritoneal fat (mm) × thickness of subcutaneous fat (mm)/height (cm)) were good markers for determining the risk of the development of GDM. 17 We also found that SMMP was negatively correlated with increased risk of gestational diabetes. According to a study conducted by Kawanabe et al, inadequate appendicular skeletal muscle mass/fat mass ratio is a risk for the development of insulin resistance in Japanese patients with GDM. 29 Unfortunately, we did not evaluate the relationship between SMMP and insulin resistance since insulin test is not included in the routine
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Walking Speed is the Sole Determinant of Mild Cognitive Impairment in Japanese Patients with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Walking Speed is the Sole Determinant of Mild Cognitive Impairment in Japanese Patients with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Abstract: Diabetes is a risk factor for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. However, how the clinical characteristics of type 2 diabetic patients with MCI are linked to sarcopenia and/or its criterion remain to be elucidated. Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were categorized into the MCI group for MoCA-J (the Japanese version of the Montreal cognitive assessment) score <26, and into the non-MCI group for MoCA- J ≥26. Sarcopenia was defined by a low skeletal mass index along with low muscle strength (handgrip strength) or low physical performance (walking speed <1.0 m/s). Univariate and multivariate-adjusted odds ratio models were used to determine the independent contributors for MoCA-J <26. Among 438 participants, 221 (50.5%) and 217 (49.5%) comprised the non-MCI and MCI groups, respectively. In the MCI group, age (61 ± 12 vs. 71 ± 10 years, p < 0.01) and duration of diabetes (14 ± 9 vs. 17 ± 9 years, p < 0.01) were higher than those in the non-MCI group. Patients in the MCI group exhibited lower hand grip strength, walking speed, and skeletal mass index, but higher prevalence of sarcopenia. Only walking speed (rather than muscle loss or muscle weakness) was found to be an independent determinant of MCI after adjusting for multiple factors, such as age, gender, BMI, duration of diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, smoking, drinking, eGFR, HbA1c, and history of coronary heart diseases and stroke. In subgroup analysis, a group consisting of male patients aged ≥65 years, with BMI <25, showed a significant OR for walking speed. This is the first study to show that slow walking speed is a sole determinant for the presence of MCI in patients with type 2 diabetes. It was suggested that walking speed is an important factor in the prediction and prevention of MCI development in patients with diabetes mellitus.
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<p>Progressive reduction in skeletal muscle mass to visceral fat area ratio is associated with a worsening of the hepatic conditions of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease</p>

<p>Progressive reduction in skeletal muscle mass to visceral fat area ratio is associated with a worsening of the hepatic conditions of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease</p>

Recently, we reported on the cross-sectional study that a low skeletal muscle mass to visceral fat area ratio (SV ratio), 8 an index of sarcopenic obesity, is related to exacerbation of the hepatic conditions in NAFLD; eg, moderate to severe steatosis and advanced fi brosis. 9 When SV ratio was strati fi ed using quartiles, the group with the lowest SV ratio were more likely to worsen NAFLD pathophysiological conditions such as insulin resistance, adipokine imbalance, and in fl ammatory or oxidative stress, leading to the exacerbation of hepatic function, hepatocyte apoptosis, and liver fi brosis. Thus, it is likely that a low SV ratio aggravates the risk of NAFLD onset and is an important factor for the progres- sion of hepatic fi brosis. However, no studies have been published that assess the in fl uence of longitudinal changes in SV ratio on the features of NAFLD.
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Prevalence of and factors associated with sarcopenia among multi-ethnic ambulatory older Asians with type 2 diabetes mellitus in a primary care setting

Prevalence of and factors associated with sarcopenia among multi-ethnic ambulatory older Asians with type 2 diabetes mellitus in a primary care setting

Sarcopenia is the age-related loss of muscle mass and muscle function. It is a newly recognized geriatric syn- drome [1] associated with adverse health outcomes in older persons, such as functional decline, physical disability, frailty, increased fall risk, poorer quality of life, increased healthcare costs and higher mortality [2–4]. According to the diagnostic criteria defined by the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS), sarcopenia is diagnosed when there is low muscle mass (defined as skeletal muscle index < 7 kg/m 2 in males and < 5.7 kg/m 2 in females), together with either low muscle strength (defined as handgrip strength < 26 kg in males and < 18 kg in females) or low physical performance (defined as six-meter gait speed ≤0.8 m/s) or both [5]. Sarcopenia can be regarded as a spectrum of severity. As for the staging of sarcopenia, the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWG- SOP), ‘pre-sarcopenia’ is characterized by low muscle mass without impact on muscle strength or physical perform- ance; ‘sarcopenia’ is defined by two criteria: low muscle mass, plus low muscle strength or low physical perform- ance; ‘severe sarcopenia’ is present when all three criteria of the definition are met [1].
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High risk of malnutrition is associated with low muscle mass in older hospitalized patients - a prospective cohort study

High risk of malnutrition is associated with low muscle mass in older hospitalized patients - a prospective cohort study

To the best of our knowledge, no study has previously addressed the association between the risk of malnutri- tion at admission and change of muscle strength or muscle mass during hospitalization. We did expect to find a decrease of muscle mass during hospitalization due to the high prevalence of inactivity and malnutrition in older patient populations. A balance between anabolic and catabolic processes is required to maintain skeletal muscle mass [13]. Evidence shows that malnutrition can lead to a negative skeletal muscle protein balance, fol- lowing muscle loss [4]. Theoretically, a week of physical inactivity increases skeletal muscle catabolism and decreases anabolism [27]. Notwithstanding, we did not find a significant decrease of skeletal muscle-, fat free mass and skeletal muscle index in the low-risk or the high-risk group. This was in line with a previous study in which no statistically significant change of fat free mass (measured by BIA) during hospitalization was found in 23 COPD patients with a mean age of 63 years [28]. In another study, a significant decrease of lean body mass was found after seven days of hospital stay in a group of 20 patients who had a median age of 70 years and underwent colorectal surgery [29]. This result may be due to low appetite, vomiting and disturbed gastro- intestinal function after abdominal surgery in this se- lected patient population. Our study design minimized the risk of selection bias and the variety in specialisms ensured heterogeneity and a good representation of daily clinical practice.
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<p>Correlation of body composition by computerized tomography and metabolic parameters with survival of nivolumab-treated lung cancer patients</p>

<p>Correlation of body composition by computerized tomography and metabolic parameters with survival of nivolumab-treated lung cancer patients</p>

Both a common para-neoplastic syndrome as well as an important prognostic biomarker for all cancer types is weight loss, or cachexia. An international con- sensus published by Fearon et al 1,2 has classi fi ed cachexia as a syndrome with three stages depending on patients ’ weight loss, body mass index (BMI), and muscle loss as measured by skeletal muscle index (sarcopenia). Recent studies showed that quanti fi ed muscle mass loss indexes (sarcopenia markers) such as fat-free mass index (FFMI), fat mass index (FMI), and skeletal mass index (SMI), calculated using computerized tomography (CT), might serve as prognostic factors for cancer
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