The study investigates the essential skill requirements for construction managers in Nigeria. The objective is to determine the most important skill requirements for construction managers. A structured questionnaire was administered to construction professionals who worked recently with construction managers in their recently completed projects. Snowballing sampling technique was used to select seventy (70) respondents, however only forty (40) responses were used for the data analysis. The results indicate that essential skills required by the construction managers for their jobs include: procedural-industrial skills, quality assurance/management, listening skills, knowledge of codes and regulations, sustainable skills and ability to learn skills. These skills are important for the construction manager to practice effectively in Nigeria and other developing countries. These findings have seven practical implications to professional bodies, Universities and other trainers of construction managers, whose present curricula may be deficient in knowledge areas in industry (business, managerial, personal and technical). These institutions may need to re-orientate and improve the curricula for newly trained construction managers to cope with current skill requirements. On the other hand, recruiting agencies should ensure that job applicants with the right hard and soft skills are engaged as construction managers. Consequently efficient and effective management of future construction projects in Nigeria and other developing countries can be ensured.
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In this study, 16 basic primary skill thus required for the organized fashion retail outlets of textile and clothing has been identified which will enable the employees to enrich their skill. The responses paved way to categorize the employees based on the responses. The skills that are prevalent under each category have also been discussed. This will enable administrators to select the category of the employee to strengthen their organization. The eight skills that are essential for the future capability were also identified in the study.
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The rewards in Table 4 illustrate that soft skills that correspond to gender stereotypes about women, such as respectful, empathy and dedication are predominantly associated with wage penalties (with the exception of sensitivity). A similar pattern is found in Table 2, where most of the soft skills related to stereotypes about women are as- sociated with wage penalties, while the ones linked to leadership bring about wage premi- ums. Hence, our study presents evidence on the devaluation of soft skills related to gender stereotypes based on a large-scale list of soft skills derived from real job ads. We thereby conﬁrm previous small-scale research, in which evidence was found that, net of individual labour-market-relevant characteristics such as work experience, single tasks tied to female gender stereotypes (such as nurturing ) are associated with wage penalties [44, 45]. Regarding male-dominated jobs, our results show that soft skills that are associated with commonly shared stereotypes about men, such as analytical skill and self starter , predict statistically signiﬁcant wage premiums. Moreover, Table 4 illus- trates that leadership skills, which are also stereotypically ascribed to men, do come with wage premiums (i.e., ability to win new business, ability to lead project teams, and ability to present ideas). However, we ﬁnd that leader- ship skills associated with female-dominated occupations such as delegation skills, and managerial skills are related to wage premiums as well. This means that soft skills that are associated with a high share of women in an occupation are also more often related to wage penalties compared to soft skills that are associated with a high percent- age of male incumbents. However, if soft skills required in female-dominated occupations represent leadership skills they can also entail wage premiums.
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We argue then that the retail sector has significant variety with regard to the type of work, workers employed and the required elements of skill. More specifically, in fashion retail we argue, drawing on and extending the work of Gatta (2011), Pettinger (2004) and Williams and Connell (2010), that there are differences in price, service model and the type of employees deemed to best represent that model. With regard to price, we distinguished between cheap; affordable/mid-range; high-end and luxury. In terms of service model, there are differences between the high street (where there is some service if customers seek it, but little requirement for product knowledge – mirroring Pettinger’s self- or routine service) and high-end, where there are raised expectations regarding quality of service, product knowledge and levels of employee discretion (mirroring Pettinger’s personal service). This latter model may contain elements synonymous with skill. Employees in high-end fashion retail are expected to have soft elements of skill encompassing aesthetic and emotional labour (i.e. having the ‘right’ look, an appropriate personality and selling ability) as well as harder, technical elements of skill (i.e. having a high level of product knowledge). That is not to say that we can unproblematically and objectively analyse skill, as who is considered suitable for certain jobs, and the true nature of skill involved will be affected by managers’ and workers’ politicised social constructions.
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In recent years, the value of job requirements data has become widely appreciated for the light it sheds on the evo- lution of employment and the distribution of wages. Sources of such data have, however, been relatively scarce, based on surveys in only a few countries. One of these is Britain, where there is a long tradition of applying survey methods to the study of job skills, both at the employer and at the employee levels. The “Social Change and Economic Initia- tive” (SCELI) of 1986 included for the first time a set of questions for individuals on the broad skills requirements of their jobs. These same items were included again in the Employment in Britain survey of 1992, and in 1997 the Skills Survey added to the indicators of broad skill requirements a raft of questions on the generic skills used in jobs. Two more skills surveys were completed in 2001 and 2006, and these were followed by the Skills and Employment Survey 2012. The result is that, even though these surveys were not orig- inally designed as a series, through careful replication of items a systematic and unusual record of change in British jobs has been assembled. Through this development of the job requirements approach, a number of valuable insights have been gained, which have shed light on theories about technological and organisational change, and have helped to mould the way that policy-makers think about the problem of skill in the British context. 1 Our objective in this paper is
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Unfortunately, measuring skill mismatch is particularly challenging, mostly due to the lack of direct information about workers’ skills and job requirements. A large literature has now emerged proposing various methodologies to measure mismatch in skills (Allen and van der Velden 2001; Green and McIntosh 2007; Quintini 2011a; Flisi et al. 2014; Desjardins and Rubenson 2011; CEDEFOP 2010; van der Velden and Bijlsma 2016) and the comparison and assessment of these many methodologies is the subject of a some- times heated debate, centred around the definition of the skill requirements of jobs or the appropriateness of direct comparisons between skill endowments and skill use (Levels et al. 2013). Our view of this debate is that it suffers from a serious lack of theory. The typical paper in this area addresses the measurement problem without really providing a formal definition of the underlying theoretical notion that is meant to be measured, thus making it very difficult to compare the many proposed indicators. In most cases, they simply measure different underlying concepts.
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Few of the skills such as Information Skills (Pintos 2008 ,Walter 2008 , Dell –Price and Cotton 2008) , Information Literacy Skills (Ramesh Babu 2011 , Ramesh Babu&NageswaraRao 2011 , Hagland and Herson 2008) , ICT skills (Thomas and Rulter 2008 , Owvia, Bada&Aimbonam 2006) , Soft Skills (Harris 2007)  that are need has been discussed in the literature. The skills which are required for various professionals had been studied. The skills required by LIS professionals by Thenmozhi, N and Gopalakrishnan S. (2013) ,Muthukumar G, Venkataraman S, Gopalakrishnan S and Gopalakrishnan S (2014) ,Pattabhiraman T, Gopalakrishnan S, Gnanasekaran D and Gopalakrishnan S (2014) ,Balakrishnan, T, Gopalakrishnan, S and Gopalakrishnan, S (2014) ,Sadagoban, K, Tamizhchelvan, M, Gopalakrishnan, S and Gopalakrishnan, S (2015) . Capabilities and Skill requirements by fashion professionals by Mohanraj,
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Thus, some writers utilise indicators that are essentially driven by the proportion of graduates in the occupation (e.g. Mason et al. 2009; Wilton 2012). This approach fol- lows the tradition that measures unit group skill requirements by the mode or median educational level of the individuals doing them, in order to contribute to an indicator for overeducation (Verdugo and Verdugo 1989). Perhaps the most sophisticated ap- proach of this kind was that of Elias and Purcell (2004a, 2004b), whose classification distinguished between different kinds of graduate jobs. Distinction was made between “ traditional ” , “ modern ” , and “ new ” graduate jobs, according to age cohorts and the dif- ferences between them. Use was also made of source materials on job titles to identify “niche” graduate jobs. A similar approach has been applied in Portugal (Figueiredo et al. 2011). This method was a step forward because it highlighted the breadth of the types of skilled work that graduates were doing, moving away from the traditional def- inition that was starting to look outdated. Nevertheless, the reliance on supply to indi- cate demand became increasingly questionable following the massification of higher education (Elias and Purcell 2013).
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Studies (such as Ibru (2009); Amadi (2012)) have made it known that „entrepreneurial skill acquisition‟ is a process which involves people acquiring or learning one or more collection of skills or a particular entrepreneurial behavior that can transform into venture and employment creation. Bolarinwa and Okolocha (2016) in their opinion also expressed that entrepreneurial skills are a wide range of competencies that are seen as entrepreneurial and useful to youth entrepreneurs such as; knowledge, skills and personal traits. Entrepreneurial activities are substantially different depending on the type of organizational activities involved. Researches have indicated that certain skills seem to be associated with entrepreneurs. Laura (2005) and Marsan (2009) identified some essential skills needed to build a great business and become a successful entrepreneur. These skills are divided into personal characteristics, interpersonal, creative thinking, practical, technology, decision-making and financial literacy skills. Entrepreneurial skills acquisition programmes are therefore a well-packaged learning process which is designed to provide participants with one or more collection of skills (interpersonal, creative thinking, risk-taking, technology adoption, decision- making and financial literacy skills) or necessary entrepreneurial behaviour needed to start a new venture or nurture an existing one. Idoko (2014) viewed the development of creativity skill as an empowerment to the youth. This significance of entrepreneur‟s decision-making skill for self-employment is also emphasized. Faloye and Olatunji (2018) noted that risk-taking, high level of creativity and innovation are crucial for entrepreneurial success. Also, there is need to obtain technology adoption skill. According to Hisrich and Peters (2002) „technical skills and business management skills‟ are so much important in entrepreneurial engagement. The cleavage created between „technical skills and business management skills‟ appears confusing. Technical skill is an aspect of management skill, and the dichotomy between them may be unnecessary.
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Based on these assumptions, we propose a Joint Prediction Factor Graph (JPFG) model, which collec- tively predicts personal skills with help of both personal and skill connections. In particular, the JPFG model provides a general framework to integrate three kinds of knowledge, i.e. local textual attribute functions of an individual person, personal connection factors between persons, and skill connection fac- tors between skills, in collectively inferring personal skills. Specially, we extract personal connections with similar academic and business background (e.g. co-major, co-corporation). We then extract skill connections between skills from same person. Evaluation on a large-scale data set from LinkedIn.com indicates that our JPFG model can significantly improve the performance of personal skill inference.
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The importance of possessing soft skill is no longer an odd subject. Each graduate will need to face the reality in job’s life. Therefore, it is really important to equip them with soft skill that will enable them to promote themselves to their employer. A graduate should also realize that the real world is far more different than the reality in classroom. And the experiences are not something that you can get directly from a lecture. Soft skill can be interpreted in various conditions. Formal education is one of the mediums to ensure the students have master soft skill. However, some students acquire this skill in their daily life. Their surroundings, and the social groups they mingle with, will determine the level of their soft skill. The scenario in Malaysian education system nowadays starts to pay particular attention towards the development of soft skill among the students. Hence, the country has carried out a few methods that are believed to be helpful for the students.
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Quality delivery has become a key requirement for ascertaining competitive edge, and it turned out that the availability of raw materials, labor, and technology could be the basics for achievement of require productivity, further process, policy and quality control leads to the long-term sustainability and organizational success. A study conducted in 1993 by the Institute of Personnel Management (Institute of Personnel Management - IPM), showed that human resource management is crucial factor for the successful execution and continuation of quality delivery and that their input is not just an issue of preference, but an essential condition, if the purpose is an efficient quality management (Powell, 1995). Thus, human resources management and quality management have reciprocal relationship that can be represented responsive reaction: quality management causes changes in the processes of human resource management, and the success and effectiveness of the quality management affects commitment of human resources management. Quality delivery leads to changes in the role of human resources management in organizations of the food industry. Due to the rapid pace of changes in technology, international trade, market prices, competitive products, customer demands and expectations, many companies are forced to change the way of business practices. Sometimes the changes are reflecting in the reduction of the number of employees due to absence of a particular skill set required to perform that job. There are numerous specialized and technical expertise food processing industry demands. The higher the quality human resource the higher would be the performances. Many studies have advocated the roles of skilled, trained and educated human resource are making the organization successful. The proactive response from the government side to uplift human resource
In order to understand how offshoring affects the workforce in advanced countries, Blinder (2009a) provides a new index of offshora- bility of 291 US occupations, which gives an idea about the potential impact of offshoring on the structure of occupation and thus the consequences for workers in the US. However, our concern is regarding the effects of offshoring for domestic skill groups. We aug- ment Blinder’s offshorability index in the following way, while for details regarding the estimation of the offshorability index we refer the reader to Blinder (2009a). First, we extend the Appendix Table in Blinder (2009a) by collecting data from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics on the skill distribution in each occupation. More specifically, we use data from the Employment Projections Program, which contains information on education and training measurements for workers 25 years and older by detailed occupations in 2008. We summarize the educational attainments into three broad skill groups. Low-skill denotes educational attainment “Less than high school diploma”; Medium-skill is the sum of the following educational attainments: “high school diploma or equivalent”, “some college, no degree”, and “Assiciate’s degree”; High-skill is defined by the following educational attainments: “Bachelor’s degrees”, “Master’s de- grees”, and “Doctoral or professional degree”. We then adjust the offshorability index by the employment share of each occupation to account for the potential magnitude of the job-destruction impact of offshoring for the domestic workforce. These results are presented in Table A.1 below. In the second step, we order the 290 occupations by the high skill-intensity and estimate the fractional-polynomial prediction of the adjusted offshorability index. Figure 1 in the main text depicts the predicted fit of the adjusted offshorabiltiy index.
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Drawing from skill acquisition and skill development literature, we present a novel tackle skill training framework and skill load measurements that can be used to design and monitor tackle training, with the goal of reducing players’ risk of injury while improving their tackle performance in matches. The tackle skill training framework starts by outlining the objectives a contact skill training session or plan might be to: i) learn a proper tackle contact technique(s); ii) develop and refine technical proficiency; iii) build technical capacity; iv) develop and refine tackle contact skill proficiency; and v) build skill capacity, or a combination of the aforementioned outcomes depending on the training goals. Once the purpose of the training session is known, the difficultly of the task(s) and the available information in the training environment can be set to meet the training outcome(s). The task difficulty and the availability of information can be used as an external quantification of skill load. The perceived challenge of this skill load can be measured using a 1-10 rating scale, with 1=not challenging and 10=highly challenging.
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Aim: Maintaining neonatal resuscitation skills among health workers in low resource settings will require continuous quality improvement efforts. We aimed to evaluate the effect of skill drills and feedback on neonatal resuscitation and the optimal number of skill drills required to maintain the ventilation skill in a simulated setting. Methods: An observational study was conducted for a period of 3 months in a referral hospital of Nepal. Sixty nursing staffs were trained on Helping Babies Breathe (HBB) 2.0 and daily skill drills using a high-fidelity manikin. The high-fidelity manikin had different clinical case scenarios and provided feedback as “ well done ” or
Implementation of apprenticeship programme has a substantial positive effect on improving the skills and abilities of apprentices. Furthermore, it helps to develop the apprentice ability to do work in their fields (BIS, 2012). In principle, apprenticeship programmes emphasise not only the technical skills (hard skills) but also the non-technical skills (soft skills) of work. Soft skills or generic skills are one's ability to achieve success in life in the context of a socio-cultural environment (Curtis, 2010; Talavera & Pérez-González, 2007). Also, soft skill is an intrapersonal and interpersonal or socio-emotional skill which is essential for personal development, social participation and success in working that includes skills such as the ability to work on multidisciplinary teams, communication, cultural awareness and expression, perseverance, adaptability, and honesty (Kechagias, 2011). According to Pizam (Wilks & Hemsworth, 2011), soft skills which are very important to be applied in the hospitality industry are such as good manners, politeness, and right speech.
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Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate the employers’ satisfaction with the skill of engineering graduates in Malaysia. This study use 195 survey questionnaire distributed to the manufacturing senior manager at Melaka, Negeri Sembilan and Pulau Pinang. Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) software version 22.0 have been used to extract the data needed from the survey. Finding indicate that employer are satisfy with the skill equip to the engineering graduates and show that fundamental general skill (FGS) and engineering skills (EgS) are the most essential to employer satisfaction and follow closely by others skills. The results offer important practical implication for engineering graduates to be success in employability. Proper skills a helpful in a race to get employer satisfaction for employability with the necessary skill equip to engineering graduates. It is hope with this data it can be an essential reference for engineering graduates to prepare them self to enter the working environment at today challenging economic situation
) elucidated that for workers to be effective they need to be trained and re- trained in order to imbibe the philosophy (incase of the new personnel) and update the knowledge and skills (incase of the old staff) needed to achieve the organizational objectives. Dialoke (2015) affirmed that training can be in the form of technical or technology training, quality training, skills training, soft skills training, professional training, team training, managerial training etc. Employees’ skills can also be developed through on-the-job training, off-the-job training and job rotation (Ongori and Nzonzo, 2011). David (2006) cited in Amir and Amen (2013) argue that training not only develops the capabilities of the employee but sharpen their thinking ability and creativity in order to take better decision in time and in more productive manner. Skill documentation refers to when employees’ skill are documented for future purposes in the organisation’s database. Oil and gas workers possess different skills that may not be common to other industries but such skills may be domiciled with one employee. Thus, to preserve the skill of such employee; firms document the procedures or process in which that employee uses in solving problems both in offshore and onshore operations (Saeedeh and Rouhollah, 2014). This documentation can be stored in computer systems as well as office files. This is very important because of how sensitive the oil industry is to Nigeria’s economy and the world at large. Skills for offshore operations are quite different from onshore operations, hence the documentation of such skills is very essential for the sustenance of the industry to avoid spontaneous employee turnover that will affect the industry in the future
Interpersonal skills (IS). Interpersonal skills featured the most often in the studies on graduates’ soft skills from the perspective of Asian employers with a total of 19 studies. Abbasi et al. (2018) defined interpersonal skill as an ability to relate well, cooperate, empathise and work productively with people from a wide range of backgrounds. Jackson and Chapman (2012), suggested interpersonal skills comprise task collaboration, team working, social intelligence, cultural and diversity awareness, influencing others and conflict resolution while Kalaivani et al. (2012) listed respect of the other opinion and views, racial tolerance and conflict resolution as a subdomain for interpersonal skill.
special structures without feedback, in which weighed method and membership functions are used. The system will first model the set of skills attributes & will specify role required for particular job specification. The system will then record ranking decision on CV‟s made by each expert on set of requirement specifications. The fuzzy sets are used to model this ranking decision made by expert. A consistent coefficient is assigned to weigh CV and this will help HR department to shortlist candidate CV. This enables to automate the process of job requirements specification for candidate ranking in HR systems. This system will help the human resource department to select right candidate for particular job profile, which in turn provide expert workforce for the organization.