and skin. In addition, it is said to enhance the flow of energy, stimulate the peripheral nervous system, activate the lymphatic sys- tem, clear colon blockages, help activate and clear the arteries, veins, and capillaries, and improve the health of varicose veins [9, 20, 21, 25]. Furthermore, it can increase the levels of local blood and lymphatic circulation to relieve painful muscle tension . Similarly, Noble et al . demonstrated the ability of ICT to improve blood flow in humans . Such an increase in skin temperature has been previously suggested to be indicative of vasodilation that is due to decreased sympathetic nerve activity . Ecchymosis and bleeding were the common immediate skin changes observed in cupping. These result from the breaking of the superficial blood vessels in the papillary dermis because of the negative pressure that creates the dis- tinctive circular cutaneous lesions. The after-effects of cupping often include erythema, edema, and ecc- hymosis in a characteristic circular arrangement . Most cupping therapies leave marks on the skin de- pending on the shape of the treatment tool. This is because the negative pressure leaves a mark on the skin and on the surrounding skin [9, 20, 21, 25]. When we look at the differences in our study before and after ICT, it is helpful to know that it does change the skin condition based on measurements of healthy Korean men. Our correlation analysis showed that wrinkles and pigmentation were positively related. As the blood flow and blood vessel velocity changes, the skin is sucked in to the cups due to the negative pressure . Our study is significant because it resulted in reference values and standardized measurements of the skin of various body parts; thus, these values provide knowledge about the skin condition and physiology of healthy Korean men that can be used for comparison in future studies. Further systematic and social scientific studies in the area of integumentary physiotherapy research and therapy are needed.
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POEMS syndrome, as a rare multi-systemic disease, is characterized by polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal protein and skin changes . There are also several clinical features that not represented in its acronym, such as sclerotic bone lesions, Castleman disease, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) elevation, extravascular volume overload, papilledema, thrombocytosis/polycythemia, clubbing, weight loss, hyperhidrosis, pulmonary hypertension/restrictive lung disease, thrombotic diatheses, diarrhea and low vitamin B12 values [2-4]. All of the above manifestations are thought to be secondary to monoclonal plasma cell- proliferative disorder. Its skin changes are often presented as hyper-pigmentation, hypertrichosis, glomeruloid hemangioma, plethora, acrocyanosis, flushing, and white nails . However, vessel thrombosis is a distinctively unusual feature in patients with POEMS syndrome . In this study, a young man with arterial thrombosis and skin changes as the onset manifestations of POEMS syndrome was reported and similar cases recorded in literature were also reviewed.
The review of the literature (Chapter 2) discussed the impact that external loads have on skin. In-vivo human (Rubin, 1949, Goldblum and Piper, 1954, Pinkus, 1952, Brophy and Lobitz, 1959) and animal studies (Mackenzie, 1974a, Mackenzie, 1974b, Goldstein and Sanders, 1998, Sanders et al., 2002) have shown how skin adapts to friction, shear and compression loads. Under small to moderate loads over a period of up to 35 days, the skin’s mitotic levels increase, and increases in epidermal thickness has been documented. However, these studies have been cited in the callus literature, but in reality cannot be applied to plantar skin, due to the anatomical and functional differences plantar skin has to the areas tested in these papers (e.g. leg, back, mouse ears etc.). Numerous studies have reported increased vertical pressures under callus (Springett, 1993, Pitei et al., 1999, Potter and Potter, 2000b, Abouaesha et al., 2001, Pataky et al., 2002, Menz et al., 2007), which highlights that there is likely to be a relationship between loading of the skin and callus development. However, no work has been done to further address the relationship between loads and callus development. Furthermore, the available evidence is limited in that plantar pressure studies only state the magnitude of pressure beneath the callused skin and not the accumulative increase in load, which is necessary to further understand any link between callus and pressure. This is essential if an understanding of plantar callus, and thus treatment, is to progress. The work outlined in this chapter is the first to ever attempt to cause callus like skin changes using compression pressure application, and to express this in terms of accumulative weekly loads.
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two years. Similar, but less pronounced, differences were seen in the present study where we found a correlation of 0.63 in patients with disease duration shorter than one year and 0.40 in patients with disease duration of one to three years. Our interpretation is again that mRSS reflect the increased skin thickness mainly in early disease and that skin thickness and the mRSS can be disconnected later on, most notably on the fingers and back of hands. One year of follow-up was enough to detect significant decrease or increase in ultrasound examination of skin thickness in a majority of patients although a majority of our patients were not yet normal- ised in skin thickness at this time-point. Of interest, serum-COMP was associated with dynamics of fibrosis on the leg and chest which might reflect the substantial biomass of the skin from these sites compared to the fin- ger and hands. HAMIS, on the contrary, was associated with change in skin thickness on the forearm which may indicate novel speculation on the biological correlates on reduced hand function in SSc. Finally, skin thickness of the hand and lower leg was associated with change in mRSS. This finding might remind us that skin changes in the distal parts of the arms and legs contribute to 30 of the total maximum 51 points in the mRSS.
There are many reviews of the clinical features of XP [1,4-6]. In about 60% of cases, the first signs are extreme sensitivity to sunlight , which takes many days or weeks to resolve. In these individuals, this sunburn reac- tion can happen in the first weeks of life and is often blamed on neglect or labelled wrongly as cellulitis or impetigo. The other 40% of cases do not show any sun- burn reaction. In these cases, the first manifestation, often by two years of age, is an unusually increased number of lentigines (freckle-like pigmentation) in sun- exposed areas. They are present on the nose, zygoma and forehead and then appear on the sides of the neck, sparing the area under the chin. Photophobia is often present. In the absence of sun protection, the skin ages, becoming dry, rough and atrophic. Lentigines increase in number and darken and are difficult to distinguish clinically from the many, flat, pigmented seborrhoeic warts, which also proliferate and become warty. Small, hypopigmented macules are commonly seen amongst the lentigines and may even be the first presentation. Telangiectasia can be a late feature. Stucco keratoses may be present and are readily distinguishable from solar keratoses. As all the skin changes are the result of exposure to UV radiation, the severity of these changes is absolutely dependent on the amount of sun-exposure, the Fitzpatrick skin type and the degree of protection of the skin from sunlight. The effects vary a great deal between individuals. In the absence of rigorous protec- tion from the sun, areas of hyper- and hypo-pigmenta- tion will result, followed by accelerated photo-ageing, warty lesions, in-situ melanocyte and keratinocyte malig- nancy, and eventually multiple basal cell carcinomas and invasive squamous cell carcinomas and melanomas. It has been estimated that XP patients have a 10, 000-fold increased risk of non-melanoma skin cancer and a 2, 000-fold increased risk of melanoma under the age of 20 . The early age of onset and the frequency of skin cancers in an otherwise normal individual should trigger further assessment for XP. In addition to the very large increase in skin cancer there is an approximately 50-fold increase in internal neoplasms, especially of the central nervous system.
Skin photoaging is a complex, multifactorial process resulting in functional and structural changes of the skin, and different phenotypes from chronological skin aging are well-recognized. Ultravio- let (UV)-irradiated hairless mice have been used as a skin photoaging animal model. However, differences in morphology and gene expression patterns between UV-induced and chronological skin changes in this mouse model have not been fully elucidated. Here we investigated differences in histopathology and cytokine expression between UV-irradiated and non-irradiated aged hair- less mice to clarify the factor(s) that differentiate photoaging from chronological skin aging phe- notypes. Eight-week-old HR-1 hairless mice were divided into UV-irradiated (UV-irradiated mice) and non-irradiated (control mice) groups. Irradiation was performed three times per week for 10 weeks. In addition, 30-week-old HR-1 hairless mice were reared until 70 weeks of age without UV irradiation (aged mice). Histopathologies revealed that the flattening of dermal-epidermal junc- tions and epidermal thickening were observed only in UV-irradiated mice. Decreases in fine elas- tic fibers just beneath the epidermis, the thickening of elastic fibers in the reticular dermis, and the accumulation of glycosaminoglycans were more prominent in UV-irradiated mice as compared to non-irradiated aged mice. Quantitative PCR analyses revealed that UV-irradiated mice showed
keratinocytes. During routine Haematoxylin and Eosin preparations, the cells shrink and detach from each other except at the sites of attachments of desmosomes, which appears like spines. The synthesis of keratin filaments is continued in this layer and they are arranged in bundles of tonofilaments. Stratum granulosum, the third layer has cells containing dense keratohyaline granules, so called the granular layer. These granules produce soft keratin of the skin. This layer also contains membrane bound lamellar granules. These granules are discharged into the intercellular
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In non-human animals, skin temperature changes following emotional stimulations have also long been reported . In one study, facial imprints of captive rhesus monkeys were monitored, as they were approached by a threatening individual (a veterinarian). A drop in nasal temperature was observed within seconds after stimulation . In a subsequent study, Kuraoka & Nakamura  found similar effects on nasal temperature within 20 s after the onset of a video depicting an aggressive conspecific. More recently, Kano et al.  found that captive chimpanzees, exposed to sounds and videos of agonistic interactions involving conspecifics, also showed a drop in nasal temperature. This shift in temperature was related to heart-rate responses and was thus supposed to reflect the activity of the sympathetic nervous system . Importantly, Kano et al. controlled for movement artefacts thus providing evidence that shifts in nasal temperature indicated changes in emotional states rather than locomotor responses. However, the nasal part of the face may be problematic for assessing underlying psychological activity, for two reasons. First, in primates and a number of other species, direct and prolonged gaze is a signal of aggressive intent, so experimenters are often barred from directly facing the subject, a prerequisite of IRT. Second, the nasal temperature is largely affected by the breathing pattern, with increased breathing causing significant and rapid cooling of the nose, a pattern of activity which might erratically be associated with shifts in the emotional state of the animal. However, a recent study  observed rising temperature in the nasal region in situations (such as crying) where increased breathing is typically expected.
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Although these tools are commercially available, there seems to a lot of room for further improvement. The goal of this thesis is to make a system to recognize skin diseases using Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and Support Vector Machines (SVM). After testing both methods results will be compared. System should learn from the set of skin segments images taken by digital camera. After that it should return the probability of existence of any recognized disease, based on the same type of image made by user. Images should have the same size and should be taken from the same distance. Some practical study may display need of using other information (not only pictures) to train the network, for example part of the body where the symptoms were found or if the patient feels pain or tickle.
Objective: Vascular disturbances leading to tissue hypoxia have been named as one of the possible causes of restless legs syndrome (RLS). Whole body vibration (WBV) in healthy individuals results in nitric oxide (NO) generation, which then leads to increased blood flow. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if WBV can: 1) improve skin blood flow, as measured in flux, in individuals with RLS, and 2) induce increases in NO blood concentration. The data were compared to healthy age-matched subjects.
TGF-β/TβRs signaling is supposed to be critical for the loss of COL I expression in chronologically-aged skin . Among the collagen families, COL I is the major component to determine the total bulk of collagens and tensile strength of the skin. With these backgrounds, we focused on the modulation of COL I in studying a new candidate molecule to modulate collagen levels in the skin. Methyl-β-cyclodexrin (MβCD), which is synthesized by random methylation of β-cyclodextrin (- CD), is a cholesterol-depleting agent that disrupts caveolae by virtue of anti-Cav-1 activity . CDs have been widely used for foods, in drug delivery, in cosmetics, and in chemicals, as well as agriculture and environmental engineering, as they are very safe molecules to our body . The most common CDs are -α-CD, β-CD, and
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This study showed that dietary RPE supplementation inhibited the AD-like pathology induced by DNCB treat- ment in BALB/c mice. RPE treatment suppressed not only the clinical symptoms of dermatitis such as ery- thema, edema, erosion and dryness (Fig. 2), but also its histopathological changes such as epidermal hyperplasia and infiltration of mast cells and eosinophils in the der- mis (Fig. 4). In addition, RPE treatment suppressed the DNCB-induced attenuation of skin barrier function, as evidenced by the changes in TEWL (Fig. 3). The im- mune cells infiltrated in the skin tissue, following anti- gen binding, become activated and secrete a variety of bioactive chemical mediators including histamine, prote- ases, eicosanoids, cytokines and chemokines, and proin- flammatory proteins . Bioactive mediators can cause locally and systemically diverse symptoms and signs in- cluding those observed in Figs. 2, 3, and 4 . There- fore, our results indicate that dietary RPE may effectively prevent AD symptoms.
ABSTRACT: The complexity of the wound healing process, which is still poorly understood, prompted us to perform an immunohistochemical investigation using rat skin as an in vivo model. Fifteen Sprague-Dawley rats were included in the experiment. Two round full thickness wounds, 4 mm in diameter, were made on the backs of all rats. Haematoxylin and eosin basic staining as well as antibodies against wide spectrum keratin, keratin 10, keratin 14, α-smooth muscle actin, vimentin, fibronectin, collagens Type 1 and 3, and the transcription factor Sox-2 were applied to paraffin and frozen sections of skin wound specimens two, six and fourteen days after surgery, respectively. New hair follicles with Sox-2-positive cells were present after fourteen days; keratin/vimentin positivity was restricted to specimens of day two. Collagen-3 expression prevailed over collagen-1 expression at all evalu- ated time intervals, except in the uninjured part of the dermis. In conclusion, rat skin wound healing is a dynamic process which can serve as a model for studying phenomena such as cell-cell interactions and transitions in vivo.
SIT is the process of inducing immune tolerance by giving increasing doses of allergenic allergen vaccine to patients with AR  . When the patient is re-exposed to the corresponding allergen, the clinical symptoms are absent or reduced. However, the sensitization of allergens was unchanged, perhaps be- cause immune tolerance and minor histamine release played clinical therapeutic effects. Clinical trials showed that the younger the age, the more pronounced were the erythema changes of histamine release intensity. These preliminary re- sults need to be confirmed in a large sample size clinical study.
To test the hypothesis that mist sauna is a safer way of bathing than dry sauna, we compared changes in circulatory and thermoregulatory functions during 10 min sauna bathing in mist sauna at 40˚C with relative humidity of 100%, and in dry sauna by infrared ray at 70˚C with relative humidity of 15%. Subjects were seven healthy young men aged 29 ± 6 yrs (mean ± SD). We measured blood pressure, heart rate, skin temperatures at chest, forearm, thigh, and leg, tympanic temperature (Tty) by thermistors, skin blood flow at forearm by laser Doppler flowmetry, and sweat rate by ventilated capsule method at 1 min intervals throughout the experiment. Total sweating and change of hematocrit were also measured for dehydration analysis. Blood pres- sure was elevated more and changes in heart rate and total sweating were larger in dry sauna than mist. A significant hematocrit increase was observed in dry sauna bathing only. Mean skin temperature and Tty in dry sauna were elevated higher than those in mist. Heat stress of the dry sauna may be stronger than that of the mist, leading to dehydration and hypovolemia by sweating. Percent plasma volume loss was sig- nificantly larger in the dry than mist sauna. Changes in skin blood flow and sweat rate/∆Tty during mist sauna were significantly larger than those during dry sauna bathing despite heat stress of the mist sauna. The mist sauna bathing may thus be safer physiologically, and provide more effective vascular dilatation and sweating than the dry sauna bathing.
The physicochemical characterization of the PSF, of the control pizza and of the one with PSF 18% addition is presented in Table 2. Inferior results of ash (5.3%), carbohydrate (38.2%) and calories (292.9 kcal), superior results of moisture (7.7%) and protein (19.9%), and similar results of lipid (6.7%) were noticed in the literature (Santos, 2013) for the PSF. The variation in the nutrient level is related to different growing methods, fertilizer use and the genetic enhancement of food (Rocha et al., 2008). Additionally, the processes employed for the production of flours, such as skin thickness and the weather/temperature binomial may influence the nutritional composition (Chisté and Cohen, 2011). The PSF’s ash level indicates high mineral concentrations in the pumpkin skin. Some examples are iron (225.7%), potassium (66%), zinc (55.3%) and calcium (11%) (Pigoli, 2012).
It must be noted that there are some inherent issues with the existing techniques and instruments. The first is that the use of expert visual grading or self-assessment brings forth the bias concerns of subjective evaluation. Although skin aesthetics are important for product marketing and consumer satisfaction, visual evaluations of skin do not encompass the tactile feeling of softness. The poor reliability and repeatability of such sensory evaluation methods are not suitable to the global scale of the skin care industry. The skin mechanics tests listed may be able to effectively determine the elasticity of the skin but the results do not take frictional effects into account. Water moisture is a significant contributing factor to skin’s feeling, yet the skin softness cannot be fully described by the information of water moisture content or the rate of water loss within the skin. Research has shown that water moisture alters stratum corneum elasticity, roughness, and friction  [18, 19]; yet by measuring the water content alone, there is no way to determine how the water presence alters the tactile sense of the skin. Although skin aesthetics are important for product marketing and consumer satisfaction, visual evaluations of skin do not encompass the tactile feeling of softness. To collect the complete results from these tests, multiple methods would be needed—further complicating time, resources, and result analysis.
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Advances in physics and in biomedical engineering have led to better treatment planning and dehvery. The introduction of megavoltage radiation and its skin sparing îffect increased the clinical indications for radiation treatment. In the field of radiation biology it became apparent that the biological effect of radiation on both normal tissue md tumour was dependent on the scheduling of dose as a function of time and Fractionation. This resulted in formulae being derived to relate these parameters to the otal dose, with Strandquist (1944) proposing the first mathematical formulae to relate lose and overall treatment time to skin tolerance. EUis (1969) subsequently ntroduced the NSD model which separated the effects of fraction number and overall leatment time. However, it became evident that when less than 10 fractions were ?iven there were greater late normal tissue effects than predicted by the Ellis formulae. During the 1980’s the linear quadratic formula was introduced to relate dose to effect appendix, 7). At clinically relevant doses, early reacting tissues or tumours demonstrate predominantly a linear relationship (a component) between dose and îffect. However, with late reacting tissue a large part of the effect is related to the jquare of the dose (p component). Thus the giving of small doses per fraction should ipare late reacting tissue. The linear quadratic equation is now favoured as the best nethod of predicting the relationship between radiation dose and effect (Fowler, 1989).
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Figure 5 shows TEM images of ultrathick sections of por- cine skin treated with ULs (from Figure 2C). Figures 5A and 5B show the degraded corneodesmosomes at the interface of the stratum corneum and stratum granulosum (black arrow). In Figure 5B, disintegrated particles were observed near the desmosomes. In viable epidermis (Figure 5C), desmosomes and hemidesmosomes, which connect stratum basale and papillary dermis (Figure 5D), were normal. From Figures 5A through 5D, it is apparent that only corneodesmosomes were degraded, whereas the desmosomes in viable epidermis and hemidesmosomes in the epidermis–dermis interface were normal. Desmosomes are intercellular junctions that maintain tissue integrity of the epidermis. The main components of desmosomes are cadherins, armadillo proteins, and plakins. Corneodesmosomes are cellular junctions, derived from desmosomes, that provide strong intercorneocyte cohesion within the stratum corneum. The extracellular proteins of corneodesmosomes, which mediate corneocyte cohesion, are desmoglein 1, desmocollin 1, and corneodesmosin – a secreted glycoprotein that is incorporated into desmosomes prior to their conversion to corneodesmosomes in the
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These colour associations may be well founded with reference to long-term or general health. Peripheral blood flow is associated positively with physical fitness and negatively with smoking as well as many chronic health conditions (Anton et al., 2006; Carmeliet, 2003). Also, carotenoid colouration of human skin is associated with high levels of fruit and vegetable consumption (Alaluf et al., 2002; Tan et al., 2015; Whitehead et al., 2012b). In many bird species, carotenoid colouration of ornaments (feathers, beaks or skin) are a well-established signal of health, correlating negatively with parasite load (Mougeot et al., 2009), positively with disease resistance (Nolan et al., 1998) and positively with ability to mount a strong immune response (Aguilera and Amat, 2007; Peters et al., 2004). These associations suggest that in evolutionary terms, sensitivity to colour cues may well have provided indirect benefits by allowing individuals to select mates with genes for good health.
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