Large amount of cattle dung are generated daily from slaughter houses which are not only of environmental concern due to methane emission but also present a significant health risk if not adequately managed. In this study, cow dung obtained from slaughter house was anaerobically digested and its composition evaluated.8 kg of the collected cow dung was mixed with water using a mechanical stirrer set at a speed of 150 rpm to form slurry before pouring it into a laboratory scale digester affixed with stirrer, inlet and outlet ports and temperature detector. The set up was left for 3days for microbial activation to take place, before daily stirring. Average weekly temperature of the slurry inside the digester tank was observed. Biogas produced was collected in a rubber tube and trapped with activated charcoal dissolved in 500 ml of carbon disulphide (CS 2 ) for 120 minutes in an open
Although in this study, liver samples were not analyzed directly, it is expected that the result obtained using gall bladder contents is an indication of liver infec- tions. Cawdery et al.  had suggested that a prevalence of up to 25% is an in- dication of the level of infection in which most of the animals affected would have had their liver damaged, rendering them unfit for human consumption. The prevalence of 33.0% for F. hepatica placed a probability that each liver sup- plied to the market is unfit for public consumption at 50%. This is consistent with the general observation that most of the cattle brought to the abattoir for slaughter were apparently diseased and weak. Some barely made to the abattoir alive. It was also observed that some of the gall bladder were enlarged resulting to the high volume of the bile content. This also is an indication of infected liver owning to the assertions made by the butchers at the abattoir. This is true to a large extent; since an infected liver is often enlarged, so also the gall bladder which is closely linked to it will be enlarged as a result of the obstruction of the bile ducts caused by these flukes which led to accumulation of the bile fluid.
The Bauchi abattoir and slaughter houses of Misau, and Katagum (Azare) each representing one of the senatorial zones of Bauchi State was included in this study for sampling purposes. Identification of cases was based on presence of typical tubercle, yellowish, granulomatous and caseous lesions in the lungs, lymph nodes, kidneys, intestines, and liver . Aging of cattle was carried out at the abattoir after slaughter as described by ; using the time of appearance and the degree of wear on the temporary and permanent teeth. Additional data taken included sex and breed of each animal sampled.
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ABSTRACT: This work has been undertaken for the screening and isolation of fibrinolytic protease producing mesophilic bacteria from ten soil samples, collected from slaughter houses various regions of Bangalore and used to screen for fibrinolytic protease production by using fibrin plate assay. In the present study, an attempt was made to isolate efficient fibrinolytic protease producing bacteria from diverse environmental samples. Different isolates were screened for possessing the ability to produce fibrinolytic protease. About 5 bacterial isolates were found to be promising to produce fibrinolytic protease. The organisms were tested for various biochemical tests, which leads to their identification as Bacillus cereus, Bacillus circulans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens and E.coli.
Feet were collected from August 31 to September 17. The collection was done by the staff at the slaughter houses. All four feet were cut off from every tenth slaughtered lamb (spread evenly over each day as an effort to not sample lambs from same farms), put into plastic bags, labelled with date and submitted in a padded envelope by regular mail to the NVI. On Mon- day-Thursday slaughter, feet arrived to the laboratory at the NVI within 24 hours. On Friday slaughter, feet were stored in refrigerator over the weekend and thus arrived after four days (Tuesday morning). Information about identity of lamb and sheep farmer was not possible to collect, because of practical reasons.
Marek's disease (MD) is the most common lymphoproliferative diseases of chickens; During the last year the incidence of MD was investigated among slaughter houses and suspected broiler farms, located in Isfahan (Iran) as the region of highest density of poultry husbandry by histopathology, For subclinical MD investigation, in total 1550 chickens originated from slaughter houses were examined, Parallely for clinical MD investigation, 100 chickens from 10 broiler farms were examined.Based on the obtained results, about 6.81% of the liver samples (with average age of 60 days) collected from slaughter houses showed pleomorphic lymphoid cell proliferation and infiltration of mononuclear cells as subclinical MD. The microscopic results of examined broilers (average age of 57 days) with clinical signs of MD , showed pleomorphic lymphoid cell proliferation in sciatic nerves (62%) , spleens (66% ) and livers(71%). Now in Iran, the outbreaks of subclinical and clinical MD in broiler chickens increased but MD vaccination is not permitted so regarding to the results it will be to an obligation for hatchery MD vaccination, and/or decreasing the slaughtering age besides a good bio security of broilers farms.
Fascioliasis is a common disease of cattle throughout the World. The classical diagnosis of Fascioliasis relies on examination of liver and finding of adult parasite or presence of its eggs through fecal examination. A total of 288 livers and gall bladder of cows and 201 of buffaloes were selected randomly from various slaughter houses of Quetta city for the presence or absence of Fasciola species. Over all prevalence of fascioliasis was 24.6% and 27.3% in cows and buffaloes, respectively. The species found in liver of cows were: Fasciola hepatica (15.2%), Fasciola gigantica (3.4%) and mixed infections (5.9%). In buffaloes, prevalence of F. hepatica was 14.4%, F. gigantica 3.9% and mixed infections was 8.9%. No significant difference in prevalence of fascioliasis was found between cows and buffaloes. It was concluded that the prevalence of fascioliasis in buffaloes are higher than cows which may be due to difference in feeding habits and hygienic habitats.
The evaluation of meat tenderness by WB showed that out of the fattening performance traits, slaugh- ter age and slaughter weight had the strongest ef- fect (positive correlation with meat toughness). To compare these two characteristics it is necessary to state that the toughness measured by WB is more influenced by slaughter age (r = 0.68) than slaughter weight (r = 0.43). This fact can be ex- plained by the content of total collagen that was higher in older animals and by the change of the soluble to insoluble collagen ratio with age. On the other hand, the results of compression test (TPA) were more influenced by slaughter weight (r = 0.55), which can be explained by the stronger connective tissue in heavier animals. No relation- ship between WB test and TPA test was found. It indicates that these tests measure different as- pects of meat texture. Therefore further research including sensory analysis would be helpful before definite conclusions can be drawn on the effect of selected quality characteristics on textural prop- erties of beef.
Acenaphthylene (Sample A, 259.561 sample B, 254.022 ; sample C, 259.561), Acenaphthene (Sample A, 95.897 sample B, 89.1218 ; sample C, 95.897), Fluorene (Sample A, 495.085 sample B, 504.549 ; sample C, 495.085), Phenanthrene (Sample A, 268.417 sample B, 261.037 ; sample C, 268.417), Anthracene (Sample A, 135.546 sample B, 119.140 ; sample C, 135.546), Fluoranthene (Sample A, 71.417 sample B, 69.863 ; sample C, 71.417), Pyrene (Sample A, 362.956 sample B, 334.177 ; sample C, 362.956), Benzo(a)anthracene (Sample A, 140.801 sample B, 144.409 ; sample C, 140.801), Chrysene (Sample A, 76.919 sample B, 71 .000 ; sample C, 76.919), Benzo(b)fluoranthene (Sample A, 73.686 sample B, 62.668 ; sample C, 73.686). The results show no significant differences between sample around and away from the slaughter; suggesting that the slaughter under investigation contributes little or no PAHs to the environment.
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In both SS and LS, the highest magnitudes were found for prolonged insufficient feeding (>16 h) during lairage, and prolonged insufficient watering (>8 h) during lairage. Research on physiological effects of temporary depriva- tion of feed and water is diverging. Fisher et al.  found sheep in different body conditions to adapt to up to 30 h of feed deprivation by mobilising their energy reserves without any evidence of metabolic depletion such as low blood glucose or high meat pH. Inaccessibility of feed for a short period of time (possibly 12–16 h) thus does not seem to have large physiological implications, although the animals may experience some degree of hunger. There is also some evidence that sheep have an ability to with- stand prolonged periods of water restriction. Accord- ing to Silanikove  and Jacob et al. , the plasma volume and body water balance can be maintained by drawing water into the circulation from the rumen dur- ing the first 2 days of water deprivation. In some coun- tries, it is standard practice to fast sheep for a prolonged period before and after transport to slaughter. The main reason for this seems to be a reduced risk of faecal con- tamination of the fleece and carcass during transport and dressing. Furthermore, New Zealand’s Occupational Safety and Health Service  recommends that weaned lambs and ewes are fasted prior to shearing, leaving them without feed for 12–32 h and without water for 8–24 h, to avoid discomfort, stress, defecation and urination dur- ing handling at shearing. Our results to some extent con- tradict these recommendations, although the discomfort at shearing may be very different from that experienced during handling before slaughter .
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o Freedom from hunger and thirst: Farmed fish are usually fed on a daily basis, and care should be taken to avoid changes to this regime as this could be detrimental to welfare. However, fish are often deprived of food prior to some management/slaughter procedures (designed to reduce physiological stress during the procedure) – some for many days or even weeks. The Farm Animal Welfare Council (FAWC) and the Humane Slaughter Association (HAS) recommend that salmon not be deprived of food for more than 72 hours and up to 48 hours for trout, and not for any other reason such as adjustment of body composition. Care should be taken not to dehydrate fish when introducing fish not adapted to a hyperosmotic marine environment, such as salmon smolts, in sea water. A period of adjustment in brackish water may be necessary.
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The frequency and duration of open windows slightly differ in between terraced houses and apartment houses. It should be noted that the frequency of respondents who open their windows during the nighttime in apartment houses is higher by 20% than in terraced houses. Most respondents in apartment houses live on the upper floor than the ground floor (89%). Thus, the above difference between apartment houses and terraced houses is likely due to the variation of occupants’ consciousness towards security based on the difference of floor level. Although the “insects” and “security” were selected with high percentage as main reasons for not opening windows by the respondents in terraced houses, those percentages in apartment houses, especially “security”, are much lower than in terraced houses.
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The analysis starts from the annual in�uiry about costs and production intensity of agricultural products provided by the research institute of Agricultural Economics Prague (riAE) for the year 200�� and on the estimate of cost development for the year 2006 estimate of cost development for the year 2006 (Boudný, Mládek 2007) in compliance with the riAE methodology (novák 1996) and prices of agricultural producers for slaughter cattle for the year 200�� and 2006 according to the czech Statistical office (czSo 200��–2006). The solution also results from the current the current current rate of the SAPS and Top�Up for the years 2007 and 2008 (Scenario 1 – coupling, where the continuation the continuation continuation of the current variant of agricultural policy for the cr is expected) and the estimates of single payment the estimates of single payment estimates of single payment per 1 hectare of agricultural land for the years 2007 and 2008 (Scenario 2 – decoupling, where, except for the SAPS payment, also the “payments dissolving” SAPS payment, also the “payments dissolving” the “payments dissolving” “payments dissolving” Top�Up per 1 hectare of agricultural land is expected). cattle fattening economics includes supports, depend� ing on the given agricultural policy scenarios, both the given agricultural policy scenarios, both given agricultural policy scenarios, both in income (LU support), and in costs through feed (fodder supports and concentrate supports as well as fodder milk). The principles and rules of the czech agrarian policy and the cAP there were described the cAP there were described cAP there were described in “green reports” (Ministry of Agriculture of the czech republic, 200��–2008)..
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The present study evaluates growth, fur properties, health condition and reproduction perfor- mance in mink (Neovison vison) and blue fox (Vulpes lagopus) during growing-furring and repro- duction periods. Diets compared were: Diet A, which was composed of a high amount of slaugh- ter-house offal but less fish products than normal, and diet B, which was composed of low amounts of slaughter-house offal but increased fish production content. Whelping succeeded better in ani- mals on diet B than on diet A. The difference in whelping result between diets was 0.6 kits/mated female for mink (P < 0.05) and 0.4 kits/mated female for blue fox. At age 6 weeks, the difference was significant (P < 0.05) only in mink, i.e., 0.8 kits/mated female. Calculated per whelped female, the difference was most pronounced in mink (0.6 kits; P < 0.05). The weights of vixens at 6 weeks were similar with diets A and B in both species. In mink and blue fox, the body weights of male and female kits were higher with diet B (P < 0.05). During the growing period, weight gain was better with diet B (P < 0.05). Final body weights were higher in males on diet B (P < 0.05). A similar ten- dency was found in females. In blue fox, the skin was significantly longer in animals on diet B (P < 0.05). Significant differences were not found in fur mass, cover or quality. In mink, skin length was similar in both diets. Significant differences were not found in fur properties between the diet groups. The conclusion is that diet B can be better recommended instead of diet A.
The suggestion for investor or portfolio manager that investing in terraced houses within the study area in Malaysia will be more diversified. Generally, this study has highlighted that regional diversification is more significant than property sector in Malaysia. In the review of the above study, Markowitz’s portfolio theory is still valid. The previous research (Liang et al., 1996; Foort Hamelink and Martin Hoesli, 2003; Piet M. A. Eichholtz et al., 1995) was critic about the shortcoming of theory Markowitz. It may influence the result become less accuracy. The property sector of analysis in this study is only residential property. Most of the research are use mix property such as residential, commercial and industrial as their property types of study.
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This report aims to establish a comparative LCA of the construction and insulation materials which are used for a tiny house, which emphasized the effect to the envi- ronmental impact and notwithstanding the effect of the transport distances. Not all the tiny houses are built at the final living location. Figure 3 shows the transport of the materials to the final destination, place D where the tiny house will stay for several years. The system bound- ary to calculate and compare the environmental impact of the construction and insulation materials concludes the process of cradle-to-gate as shown in Figure 3. The lifespan of the tiny houses is set to 50 years because this is the lifespan the three residents aspect. Due to time limitations and data availability not the whole LCA, cradle-to-cradle, is executed.
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Several studies showed that increase of slaughter weight of fattened pigs reduces quality of carcass modified body and meat quality (Latorre et al., 2004, Czyzak-Runowska et al., 2015). At the same time growing slaughter weight increases age of slaughtered pigs for 1.5 days per kg (Čandek-Potokar et al.,1998). Conte et al. (2011) mentions in his study that increase of pigs slaughter weight is one of the options which increases profitability and competitiveness of pig producers. It is estimated that increase of carcass modified body weight for 10 % could reduce average producer’s costs for 3 – 5 cents / kg. According to Sieczkowska et al. (2008) meat industry prefers higher slaughter weight of carcass pigs, but many authors like Zybert et al. (2001), Gardzińska et al. (2002) and others mention lighter carcass pigs have higher meatiness compared to heavier pigs. Mentioned dependence corresponds with finding of Pulkrábek and Pavlík (2000), when he proved that with reduction of slaughter weight for 10 kg lean meat portion increases in pig carcass body for 1.5 % and vice versa. Wähner (2002) mentions portion of lean meat should be between 58 and 60 % during slaughter. According to Stege et al. (2011) slaughter pigs in Denmark have some weight restrictions and they have high lean meat portion. These pigs have the best prices on slaughter. Optimal values are given according to consumers demands. According to Oliveira et al. (2015) today thanks to genetics pigs were improved to have maximum potential for protein saving even in higher slaughter weights, but still an optimal slaughter weight should be determined. Many studies are concerned with an influence of slaughter weight on development of growth and quality of carcass modified body (Correa et al., 2006).
Electric conductivity values and pH values were measuring during 60 till 330 minutes post mortem in breast muscles. Aproximately 9 millions chicken was annually slaughtered and 13 thousands of them was confiscated out of the slaughter line by reason of myopathy. It amounts to 0.14 per cent of annually count of processed chickens. Myopatical chickens had significantly higher muscle pH values as com- pared with healthy ones. Healthy chicken muscles decreased on ultimative pH values aproximately past 3 hours post mortem. It means pH 6.03, and after 300 minutes decreased to pH 5.82. However, myopa- tical chickens values varied from pH 6.46 to pH 6.30.
Similar results were observed in Brazil by Passerat de Silans et al.  who showed that residual insecticide applications of cypermethrin had no effect on the overall density of peridomiciliar Lutzomyia longipalpis popula- tions. Alexander et al.  also found that residual spraying of walls with delthamethrin in a Colombian vil- lage surrounded by forest had no perceptible effect on the number of sand flies entering houses; although the insecticidal activity of the treated surfaces was undimi- nished during the study period. While other authors re- ported that residual pyrethroid spraying reduces sand fly indoor density in various localities in South America [14-16] and China  probably, because of their repul- sive effect.
This research presents a comparison study between the vernacular architecture represented by the heritage houses (Fallahy Houses) and the typical contemporary houses in Umm Qais city in the northern part of Jordan, in terms of thermal performance. It analyzes the parameters of the heritage houses to explore the impact on the human thermal comfort and energy consumption compared with the typical modern houses. The study investigates the performance of the vernacular houses and how they respond to the physical and climatic conditions. It also shows how these houses depend on passive design to control solar gains, and decrease heating and cooling loads keeping a good level of thermal comfort inside. The study compares these vernacular houses with the traditional contemporary house in Umm Qais. The selected samples from each type of houses were taken to evaluate the impact of the vernacular principles of design, building construction and materials on the thermal performance and the thermal comfort inside the houses. Computer simulation, accompanied with measuring tools and thermal cameras, was used for thermal analysis in the selected houses. Revit software was also used for this purpose to validate the results and compare it with the real field results. The results show that the passive design strategy in the vernacular houses is substantial and more effective than the techniques used in the modern houses.