results of this pilot study conducted in the Czech Republic confirmed that Salmonella occurrence in slaughtered pigs was dependent on the origin of the respective herd. No Salmonellae were isolated in four slaughterhouses with pigs originating from eight herds (53.34%). Salmonella prevalence in the remaining seven herds (46.66%) in slaughtered pigs in six slaughterhouses ranged from 2.0 to 12.0%. The evaluation of Salmonella prevalence in slaughtered pigs can be compared with the data from some European countries. In Denmark, 6.2% of caecal samples in slaughtered pigs were positive, caused usually by one dominant Salmonella serotype in the herd. S. typhimurium of the phage type DT12 was the most frequent serotype (69.4%). Salmonellae were isolated in slaughtered pigs coming from 22.2% of the herds examined (B������� et al. 1996). It was found in the Netherlands that 5–30% of swine herds were shedding Salmonellae via faeces at the end of the fattening period (E��� & T����� 1999). D����� et al. (1999) found in slaughtered pigs in the UK the dominant serotype S. typhimurium in 11.6% in the caecum content, and in 7.0% in carcasses. In Germany, Salmonella prevalence was found in 3.7% of caecum samples, in 3.3% in mesenteric lymph nodes, and in 4.7% of carcass swabs. No Salmonellae were found in slaughtered pigs originating from about 70% of the herds examined. In the positive herds, Salmonella prevalence ranged from 1% to 50%. Prevalence exceeding 50% was found only in 2% of the herds examined (K�������� et al. 2000). No Salmonella incidence was reported in Sweden, where 3388 samples of slaughtered pigs collected from five slaughterhouses during one year were examined (T������� & E������ 2001). In Norway, Salmonella prevalence in slaughtered pigs was very low, 0.4% in sows and 0.1% in fattening pigs (S���- ���� et al. 2002). In our study on slaughtered pigs, Salmonellae were most frequently isolated from the caecum content (2.45%). This value is significantly higher compared to those found with mesenteric lymph nodes (0.73%) and carcass swabs (0.12%). All Salmonella findings were only of one type of samples, i.e. caecum, mesenteric lymph nodes, and carcass swabs collected from different slaughtered pigs. No correlation was found between Salmonella isolates from caecum and carcass swabs, or from the environmental samples collected in dirty and clean zones of the slaughter line.
Background: Taenia solium, a zoonotic tapeworm, is responsible for about a third of all preventable epilepsy human cases in endemic regions. In Europe, adequate biosecurity of pig housing and meat inspection practices have decreased the incidence of T. solium taeniosis and cysticercosis. Pigs slaughtered at home may have been raised in suboptimal biosecurity conditions and slaughtered without meat inspection. As a result, consumption of undercooked pork from home slaughtered pigs could pose a risk for exposure to T. solium. The aim of this study was to quantify the risk of human T. solium exposure from meat of home slaughtered pigs, in comparison to controlled slaughtered pigs, in European countries. A quantitative microbial risk assessment model (QMRA) was developed and porcine cysticercosis prevalence data, the percentage of home slaughtered pigs, meat inspection sensitivity, the cyst distribution in pork and pork consumption in five European countries, Bulgaria, Germany, Poland, Romania and Spain, were included as variables in the model. This was combined with literature about cooking habits to estimate the number of infected pork portions eaten per year in a country.
18 Read more
We calculated detailed feed composition of two types (see Tab. I) with soya bean extract meal (SBM) and pea or faba bean. All composition was based on experiences from previous experiments. The actual costs related to consumed feeds was calculated according to actual feed intake of animals (see Tab. III) and price of feedstuﬀ s on 1st January 2008. The limited price of SBM was determined to ensure good economical eﬃ ciency for usage of pea or faba bean in pig production. The second aim of work was to determine the minimal product price ensuring the economical eﬀ ect in case of pur cha sing of all feed compounds for market prices. The feed intake of pigs comes from feed mixture evidence from years 2005–2007 and is mentioned in Tab. III. You can see the feed intake of diﬀ erent types of mixture in ac- cordance with pig body weight. The optimal ratio of pea is 44.07 kg per pig and of faba bean it is 31.13 kg per pig; the total amount of mixture consumed per pig is 370 kg. The substitution of SBM (crude protein content 480 g / kg) by pea is economical when the price of SBM is 7.70 CZK / kg. Faba bean could be use- ful when the SBM costs 11.4 CZK / kg. As the current SBM price is 7.50 CZK / kg the costs per kg of body weight of slaughtered pig 38.5 CZK (SBM mixtures), 37.30 CZK (pea mixtures) or 38.03 CZK (faba bean mixtures). The market price of slaughtered pigs was 34.00 CZK / kg of body weight on 31 st December
Our detection of different sizes of tuberculous lesions in various lymph nodes of slaughtered pigs is consistent with previous publications (58). Tuberculous lesions in head lymph nodes tended to be ⬍ 5 mm in diameter, while larger tubercu- lous lesions ranging from 5 to 10 mm in diameter were found in mesenteric lymph nodes. In the advanced process of patho- genesis, progressive calcification and devitalization of myco- bacteria within the lesions occur (58); thus, isolation and sub- sequent identification of mycobacteria by culture examination is difficult. The causes of granuloma formation may also be other species of bacteria, e.g., Rhodococcus equi (15, 24, 48, 56). FIG. 3. (a) IS901 RFLP types of M. avium subsp. avium isolates after using RE PvuII. RFLP type F was detected in five pig isolates and one peat isolate. RFLP type designation was performed according to the method of Dvorska et al. (14). (b) IS901 RFLP types of M. avium subsp. avium isolates after using RE PstI. Shown are RFLP type A1 of one of five identical pig isolates and RFLP type C3 of one peat isolate. RFLP type designation was performed according to the method of Dvorska et al. (14). (c) IS1245 RFLP types of M. avium subsp. avium isolates. Bird RFLP types were detected in five isolates from pigs and one isolate from peat (line 1). RFLP type designation was performed according to the method of Ritacco et al. (52).
Individual interviews were carried out with pig traders and farmers present at the abattoir using a structured questionnaire, to obtain information regarding the source (including county of origin) of the sampled pigs. Observations were made by the sam- pling team as to whether carcasses or organs were condemned due to the presence of cysticercosis or other causes. In addition, the government meat inspector positioned at the facility provided a weekly update on the detection of cysticercosis amongst slaughtered pigs during routine meat inspection. Copies of the movement permits and certi ﬁ cates of transport were obtained from the meat inspector at the abattoir to determine the sources of pigs and destinations of pork respectively.
Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is consid- ered to be the main cause of granulomatous lym- phadenitis observed in slaughtered pigs during post mortem examination (Pavlik et al. 2003; Domingos et al. 2009; Miranda et al. 2011). Swine infections caused by MAC result in severe economic losses for producers and the agro-industry. Lesions usu- ally develop in the lymph nodes of the head and/ or the mesentery (Wilson 2005). The presence of these lesions and the isolation of the agent has been described by several authors (Cleveland-Nielsen et al. 2002;Domingos et al. 2009) The importance of granulomatous lymphadenitis control and its de- tection during meat inspection is a public health concern mainly for immunocompromised patients (Ristola et al. 1999).
Lymph nodes of 232 slaughtered camels at the slaughterhouses of Isfahan Province were examined for L. serrata nymphs from April to October 2010. After determining the sex, camels were divided into four age groups (under 6 months, 6-24 months, 2-4 years and more than 4 years) using the eruption of permanent incisor teeth criteria as already described. 45 At least, three MLNs for
Cull sows having severe teeth wear when compared to cull sows without teeth wear tended to have fewer pigs born alive in the litter prior to culling and had fewer pigs per sow per year. These results support the findings from Sekiguchi and Koketsu  who reported females with a high frequency of vacuum chewing during gestation produced fewer total number born (11.7 vs. 12.6) and tended to have fewer pigs born alive (10.6 vs. 11.3) when compared to those that did not vacuum chew. Perhaps the present results indicate severe teeth wear, when corrected for parity, is an indication of stress due its association with poor reproductive performance. Other studies have reported that stressors reduce reproductive performance [36,37]. High ambient temperatures have been reported to decrease embryonic survival after fertilization . Hemsworth et al.  reported farms with timid sows were associated with lower total pigs per sow per year when compared to those farms without timid sows. In that study, the authors defined timid as the time sows took to resume feeding after hand contact from the ex- perimenter.
14 Read more
represent 45% of all slaughters. The breed repre- sented in the study was Portuguese large sized breed and about 80% of these carcasses fell into class 2 (U) of the EU carcass classification scheme EUROP (Silva, 1996). In another study realised in Portugal, Simoes and Mira (2002) found that the car- cass weight for small and large breeds ranged from 112 kg to 350 kg and from 155 kg to 508 kg, respec- tively. Male ca�le slaughtered (n = 17 389) between January 1995 and April 1996 in the Netherlands had carcass weight of 343 kg, conformation and fatness scores (1–15) were 5.60 (–U) and 7.34 (+3), respectively (Van de Werf et al., 1998). An experi- ment carried out at an aba�oir line with an output of 800 carcasses in Pfarrkirchen (Germany) showed that mean carcass weight was 367.2 kg, conforma- tion and fatness scores (1–15) were 9 (+R) and 7 (+3), respectively (Bohuslávek, 2002). This researcher reported that carcass weight ranged from 190.6 kg to 497.4 kg, conformation score ranged from 5 (O) to 14 (E), fatness score ranged from 2 (1) to 12 (–4). In Hungary, 168 head of male ca�le belonging to 15 breeds and genotypes were evaluated according to the SEUROP system. Average carcass weight was 303.1 kg. Distributions of conformation classes for E,U,R,O were 13%, 29%, 37% and 21%, respectively (Bozó et al., 2000). In Ireland, Allen et al. (2001) clas- sified 7 247 beef carcasses. According to the distri- bution of carcasses within the national slaughter (1999), carcasses of E conformation accounted for 0.05%, percentage of U conformation carcasses in the trial was 4.5%. A majority of the carcasses belonged to R (32%) and O (48.4%) conformation. P conformation was 15.2%. The researcher reported that a majority of the carcasses fell into 3 (17.1) and Table 4. Carcass fatness class according to breeds
To check bacteria shedding, fresh faecal samples were collected from all pigs on days 1, 4, 7, 9 and 12. Genomic DNA was extracted from 200 mg of faeces using a QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany) according to the manufacturer’s instruc- tions. Quantitative PCR was performed in ABI 7500 (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA). Each reac- tion mixture (20 μL) contained 1 μL of DNA template, 0.5 μM each primer, and 10 µL of GoTaq qPCR Master Mix (Promega, Madison, WI, USA). The sequences of primers for Escherichia used were as follows: 5 ′ -GAGT AAAGTTAATACCTTTGCTCATTG-3 ′ and 5 ′ -GAGAC TCAAGCTKRCCAGTATCAG-3 ′ . Bacterial DNA standards consisted of serial tenfold dilutions (rang- ing from 10 0 to 10 10 gene copies/μL) of known amounts
15 Read more
elucidated. To our knowledge, the current study is the first report on the occurrence of Campylobacter spp., Enterococcus spp. and S. aureus from camels in our country. In the present study, twenty per- cent of the examined camel faecal samples were found to be contaminated with Campylobacter spp. particularly C. coli 90% (18/20). In the con- text, comparatively low detection rates (11.3% and 4.0%) were previously reported in Iran (Salihu et al. 2009a; Rahimi et al. 2017), respectively. The au- thors reported that C. jejuni was the most preva- lent spp. in their studies. On the other hand, some authors identified C. sputorum in 2% of camel faecal samples (3 out of 145) (Baserisalehi et al. 2007). Nevertheless, isolation of Campylobacter spp. from animal faeces have been described from different countries at varying rates. For instance, a variable occurrence range of 5–49% has been reported in sheep and goats (Maridor et al. 2008; Salihu et al. 2009b), 0–80% in cattle, and 50–100% in pigs (Viola and DeVincent 2006; Silva et al. 2011).
10 Read more
The present study was carried out to detect and genetically characterize T. gondii DNA in the native slaughtered cattle of Tehran Province, Iran. In our study, 38 out of 180 samples (21.1%) were positive based on the GRA6 gene detection, therefore the prevalence of T. gondii in these regions is relatively high. In Iran, various studies have been conducted on different human and animal groups regarding the prevalence of toxoplasmosis. The prevalence rate has been estimated at 39% in the general population (Daryani et al., 2014), 50% in immu- nodeficiency patients (Ahmadpour et al., 2014), 41% in pregnant women (Foroutan-Rad et al., 2016a), and 33% in blood donors (Foroutan-Rad et al., 2016b). Also, the prevalence rates have been estimated at 34% in felids (Rahimi et al., 2015), 27% in goats, and 31% in sheep (Sharif et al., 2015). The rate of toxoplasmosis in Iranian cattle was 18.1% (9.2-28.5%) during a 30-year period from 1983 to 2012 (Sarvi et al., 2015). The contamina- tion level of T. gondii varies in different regions of Iran. In a study by Anvari et al. (2018), 16.0% of different muscles collected from the slaughtered cattle in Zahedan (South-East of Iran) were contaminated with T. gondii. In another study from Lorestan Province, Western Iran, the seroprevalence of T. gondii in cattle was reported to be 28.73% (Hashemi, 2014). The mentioned findings, in line
This of course depends on the breed; in relatively improved animals found in Sardinia it can reach as much as 300 kg. The maximum W gures for the traditional breed range between 80 and 150 kg in Sardinia and 70 and 120 kg in Corsica. The Corsican pigs owned by one of the Levie breeders (Fondansaes) were said to be able to reach 150 kg if kept enclosed and well fed. The purity of this herd must, however, be questioned as this breeder claims to borrow a boar for reproduction from a colleague (Ricci), whom we also interviewed, and who has English pigs. The pigs kept by the Orone breeder in the Bavella Mountains are slaughtered at 80 kg, and apparently they cannot grow beyond 90 kg even if fed in the best possible conditions (cf. Quittet & Zert 1971). It therefore seems that the weight of the animals is determined by a combination of nutritional rates, environmental conditions, and genetics. The e V ect of the environment should not be underestimated, as dwarf pigs living in the Aegean island of Tilos were proved to be able to grow to a much greater weight when kept under controlled diet and conditions in an experimental agricultural station in Italy (Masseti 2002: 251).
87 Read more
Pelleting a corn-soybean meal diet increased digestibil- ities of DM, N, and GE by 5 to 8% compared with feed- ing the same diet in a meal form . This concurs with observations by Rojas et al.  who reported that pel- leting different types of diets regardless of the level of fiber [i.e., 7, 11, or 20% neutral detergent fiber (NDF)] improved the apparent ileal digestibility of GE, DM, and most indispensable AA and the ATTD of GE compared with un-pelleted diets. Likewise, Lahaye et al.  re- ported that pelleting a wheat-canola meal diet improved ileal digestibility of CP and AA and this is also the case if field peas are pelleted , and similar results for diets containing wheat and SBM were reported . Diets fed to growing and finishing pigs based on corn and wheat middlings that were pelleted increased the digestibility of GE and G:F . It is possible that the reason for the increase in GE is that under certain circumstances, the ATTD of ether extract is increased if diets are pelleted . However, due to significant microbial synthesis of fat in the hindgut of pigs, data for the ATTD of fat are not representative of lipid absorption and these results should, therefore, be viewed with caution . In addition, due to formation of Ca-lipid soaps in the intes- tinal tract of pigs, determination of ATTD values for ether extract without prior acid hydrolysis is likely to yield inaccurate results, which further makes published data for effects of pelleting on the ATTD of fat difficult
13 Read more
Hydatidosis is a one of the zoonotic disease between humans and animals that has a significant position among parasite infections. Hydatid disease is caused by the larvae stage of tape worm Echinococcus granulosus. It’s also called echinococcosis. Hydatid is not directly transmitted from person to person. It has two mammalian hosts in the lifecycle. Sheep and dogs acts as intermediate and definitive hosts of the cystic stages of these ta- peworms, respectively. Dogs defecate outside, and further spread may be via streams, effluent or flies. Tiny eggs are excreted into the environment. Sheep have a highly resistant against new cysts but this has little effect on existing cysts. The cycle is perpetuated as dogs eaten carcasses of infected sheep. Small hydatid cysts are dif- ferent with large hydatid cysts, so that large hydatid cysts are very resilient but small cysts are susceptible to de- siccation. Grows of cysts are slowly (5 - 10 cm) in the internal organs, especially livers and lungs (occasionally the brain, heart, spleen, kidney or bones). The disease may take many years to develop or decades without symp- toms and often are detected incidentally. Local pressure effects in a confined space may lead to symptoms. Rarely, cysts rupture into the biliary tree or a bronchus causing obstruction, secondary bacterial infection, an al- lergic reaction or secondary spread. The most favourable for survival are moist conditions and cool. Freezing is not suitable to kill a significant number of cysts -. Humans do not play a role in the biological cycle al- though they are intermediate hosts and may act as agents in perpetuating the infection by feeding dogs with in- fected meat and viscera. Infections in humans’ occur by ingesting eggs through hand to mouth transfer of eggs after contact with the faeces or contaminated fur of infected dogs. In humans diagnosis are by serological and molecular techniques, imaging, and clinical. But in animals hydatidosis no specific signs in farm . In humans, the disease is so serious that it requires aspiration and surgical removal of the cyst followed by complementary chemotherapy with mebendazole or albendazole. Control programs for hydatid disease have been on public edu- cation, restrictions on livestock slaughtering and control measures in dogs  . Also vaccination of livestock with effective vaccine could be one of the control methods for hydatid cyst. This disease is domestic in various parts of the world, like the Middle East and Arabic North Africa -. So that hydatidosis is one of the dy- namic programs of World Health Organization in the field of zoonotic disorders . According to the past study that carried out in Iran, hydatidosis is domestic  -. As regards diagnosis in livestock detected at slaughter or at post mortem examination, therefore this study was to determine the prevalence of hydatid cyst in slaughtered livestock in Kermanshah (west Iran) (2012).
There have been some reports about the amount of Salmonella required to establish within-herd transmission. A previous study had shown that 5.0 × 10 2 cfu of S. Typhimurium/g feces was sufficient to induce within-herd transmission . Moreover, Boughton et al. reported that exposure of pigs to a contaminated environment containing 4 × 10 2 cfu of S. Typhimurium/100 cm 2 resulted in infection . Additionally, pigs can become in- fected with S. Typhimurium when they are exposed to the organism at a concentration of 10 3 cfu/g feces . These findings suggest that diarrheal and loose stools induced by S. Typhimurium contain significant amounts of the organism and are significant sources of S. Typhimurium infection at pig farms. Furthermore, in this study, some of the normal feces contained S. Typhimurium in excess of 1 × 10 6 cfu/g feces, so that even normal feces could be a source of within-herd infection.
The study was conducted as descriptive and cross-sectional study with a statistic society of all livestock slaughtered in the industrial slaughterhouse of the city between 2007 and 2010. Sampling was conducted randomly by attending the site. According to the data, about 450 heads were slaughtered per day during a 4-year period, which comes of 648994 heads of livestock (54.11% sheep, 12.48% cow, 42.4% goat). Thus, 292797 heads of sheep, 81012 heads of cow, and 275185 heads of goats were adopted.
In 1997, a novel virus closely related to human HEV was discovered in pigs, characterized, and designated swine HEV (23). Subsequently, two strains of human HEV (US-1 and US-2) isolated from U.S. patients with acute hepatitis were characterized (7, 8, 31). The two U.S. strains of HEV share ⱖ97% amino acid identity with swine HEV in open reading frames 1 and 2 (ORF1 and ORF2, respectively) but are genet- ically distinct from other known strains of HEV worldwide. In Taiwan, Hsieh et al. (12) isolated another new strain of swine HEV from a pig. This Taiwanese strain of swine HEV shares 97.3% nucleotide sequence identity with a human strain of HEV isolated from a retired farmer in Taiwan but is distinct from the U.S. strain of swine HEV. More recently, Wang et al. (40) found that a Chinese strain (T1) of HEV recovered from a patient in mainland China is related to the Taiwanese swine HEV and human HEV strains reported by Hsieh et al. (12) and that they form a distinct genotype. Also in Taiwan, Wu et al. (41) identified yet another strain of swine HEV isolated from Taiwanese pigs. This strain of swine HEV shares 84 to 95% nucleotide sequence identity with Taiwanese human * Corresponding author. Mailing address: Department of Veteri-
lesions, generally in the apical lobe (group B). Three died without pneumonic lesions (group C). Twenty calves were sacrificed, after having been experimen- tally infected intranasally with P. haemolytica A1 and then developing acute pneumonia (30) (group D). Ten calves were slaughtered normally. They were clinically healthy but were found to have small chronic lobular pneumonic le- sions, mainly in the apical lobe (group E). Twenty-two calves were slaughtered normally and were clinically healthy and without pneumonic lesions (group F). Of the sheep, six succumbed from acute pneumonia (group G). Five died with small chronic lobular pneumonic lesions (group H). Three succumbed without pneumonic lesions (group I). Sixty-four sheep were slaughtered normally. They were clinically healthy but were found to have small chronic lobular pneumonic lesions in the apical lobe (group J).
Furthermore, the study shows that Cd levels in the entrails of slaughtered pig samples was detected only in the kidney (0.020±0.012 mg/kg) and liver (0.007±0.004 mg/kg) with no significant difference at (p<0.05) level. The amount of Cr in the same samples ranges from 0.25±0.018 mg/kg in the liver to 0.11±0.027 mg/kg in the blood and were significantly different at p<0.05. In all the studied samples, the levels of cadmium detected were below the FAO/WHO permissible limit of 0.5 mg/kg for meat of livestock. However, the Cr content of all entrails samples fell short of the 0.1 mg/kg permissible limit except for native goat which had its Cr content below the FAO/WHO permissible limit .