Sleeping Beauty transposon

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Sleeping Beauty transposon integrates into non-TA dinucleotides

Sleeping Beauty transposon integrates into non-TA dinucleotides

Background: Sleeping Beauty transposon (SB) has become an increasingly important genetic tool for generating mutations in vertebrate cells. It is widely thought that SB exclusively integrates into TA dinucleotides. However, this strict TA-preference has not been rigorously tested in large numbers of insertion sites that now can be detected with next generation sequencing. Li et al. found 71 SB insertions in non-TA dinucleotides in 2013, suggesting that TA dinucleotides are not the only sites of SB integration, yet further studies on this topic have not been carried out. Results: In this study, we re-analyzed 600 million pairs of Illumina sequence reads from a high-throughput SB mutagenesis screen and identified 28 thousand SB insertions in non-TA sites. We recovered some of these non-TA sites using PCR and confirmed that at least a subset of the insertions at non-TA sites are real integrations. The consensus sequence of these non-TA sites shows an asymmetric pattern distinct from the symmetric pattern of the canonical TA sites. Perfect similarity between the downstream flanking sequence and SB transposon ends indicates there may be interaction between the transposon DNA binding domain of transposase and the target DNA.
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Insertional Mutagenesis by a Hybrid PiggyBac and Sleeping Beauty Transposon in the Rat

Insertional Mutagenesis by a Hybrid PiggyBac and Sleeping Beauty Transposon in the Rat

Transposon-mediated insertional mutagenesis is another approach that has been established in rodents, including the mouse and rat (Carlson et al. 2003; Horie et al. 2003; Kitada et al. 2007; Lu et al. 2007; Izsvák et al. 2010). Engineered transposons contain terminal inverted repeats (TIRs) at both ends that are recognized by their corresponding transposase (Curcio and Derbyshire 2003). These TIRs can flank cargo sequences for delivery into the genome by transposition. Most DNA transposons are mobilized through a “cut-and-paste” mechanism (Reznikoff et al. 1999). Transposon transposition into the genome or mobilization within the genome can result in insertional mutation, providing a molecular tag of the ge- netic lesion. Sleeping Beauty transposase inserts Sleeping Beauty transposons into highly abundant TA sequences in the genome (Ivics et al. 1997). PiggyBac transposase inserts piggyBac transposons in T TAA sequences and has been shown to have a higher activity for transposon mobilization than Sleeping Beauty, Tol2, and Mos1 in mammalian cells (Wu et al. 2006). However, Grabundzija et al. (2010) showed that the transpositional efficiencies in human HeLa and he- matopoietic stem cells is Sleeping Beauty . piggyBac . Tol2. Sleeping Beauty transposon excision is not precise, frequently leaving a 5-base pair (bp) footprint, whereas piggyBac leaves no molecular footprint (Ivics et al. 1997; Izsvák et al. 2004; Lu et al. 2007; Woltjen et al. 2009). Sleeping Beauty has a higher frequency of local hops (within 4 Mb), whereas piggyBac tends to mobilize and reinsert on other chromosomes (Liang et al. 2009). In the mouse and rat, transposons are typically introduced into the germline by standard pronuclear injection of purified DNA fragments that results in multicopy tandem arrays usually integrated randomly at a single locus (Dupuy et al. 2002). Transposons can be mobilized in the germline by transposase expression from a second transgene (Dupuy et al. 2002; Carlson et al. 2003; Horie et al. 2003). One disadvan- tage of mobilizing multiple copies of transposons in tandem arrays is chromosomal damage (Geurts et al. 2006). Single-
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High-performance gene expression and knockout tools using sleeping beauty transposon system

High-performance gene expression and knockout tools using sleeping beauty transposon system

live cells. FBW7 is an F-box protein that recruits sub- strates for the SCF FBW7 E3 ubiquitin ligase. SCF FBW7 de- grades several well-known oncoproteins, including Cyclin E [18], Notch [19], c-Jun [20] and c-Myc [21]. FBW7 has been demonstrated to play important roles in various physiological and pathological processes, such as tumorigenesis, cell proliferation, stemness and differenti- ation [22]. After FBW7 coding region subcloned into pSB vectors, GFP signal can be easily detected by fluor- escence microscope (Fig. 2c). Furthermore, as shown in Fig. 2b, the expression of FBW7 increased up to 3–5 folds compared with the control groups, whereas the tar- get gene Cyclin E was declined significantly, demonstrat- ing that the Sleeping Beauty transposon system has high efficiency for intergrating genes into host genome. We next evaluated a system developed for tandem affinity purification which expresses N-terminally triple-tagged (S-protein, Flag, and streptavidin-binding peptide) pro- teins to see if it has good advantages in purifying protein (Fig. 2a). HeLa cells was stably transfected and expressed SFB-FBW7 (Fig. 2d). After a tandem affinity purification (TAP) scheme, proteins associated with FBW7 were identified by silver staining following by mass spectrom- etry analysis (Fig. 2e and f ). Besides the known FBW7-binding proteins, such as Cul1, SKP1 [22], we also identified NFATc1 (nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1) as a novel binding partner for FBW7 (Fig. 2f ).
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Stable gene transfer of CCR5 and CXCR4 siRNAs by sleeping beauty transposon system to confer HIV-1 resistance

Stable gene transfer of CCR5 and CXCR4 siRNAs by sleeping beauty transposon system to confer HIV-1 resistance

HIV/AIDS continues to be major public health threat with new infections on the rise. Current therapies do not com- pletely cure the disease and there is no effective vaccine available [1,2]. A potentially rewarding approach is intra- cellular immunization using gene therapy strategies that protect viral susceptible cells from the infecting virus [3]. Thus far, a number of promising intracellular immuniza- tion strategies have been employed using different anti- HIV molecules that act by a variety of mechanisms. Among these, nucleic acid-based approaches using ribozymes, antisense constructs, and siRNAs have received considerable attention due to their ease of expres- sion and their non-immunological nature [3,4]. Some of these have entered clinical trials and safety testing with encouraging results [3,4]. In these studies either conven- tional retroviral vectors or lentiviral vectors were used for gene transfer. Although highly efficient for stable gene transfer, use of retroviral derived vectors poses a degree of risk in terms of viral mediated oncogenesis [5]. Because of this potential risk, non-retroviral mediated gene delivery systems are being currently investigated. In this regard, Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system shows considera- ble promise [6]. This system consists of a synthetic trans- poson and an associated transposase which functions by a cut and paste mechanism. Gene transposition is medi- ated by the transposase in a two step process in which the enzyme first recognizes the short inverted/direct (IR/DR) sequences in the transposon followed by the excision of the transposon and later integration of the transposon sequences into a target DNA region with a TA-dinucle- otide sequence. The SB system can be deployed either as trans-delivery system in which the transposon and trans- posase are delivered by independent plasmids or a cis- delivery system in which both the components are incor- porated into the same plasmid [7]. Continued progress in this area has resulted in the derivation of more efficient transposases and more efficient gene delivery [8]. Many mammalian cell types have been shown to be substrates for efficient SB mediated gene transfer including mouse embryonic stem cells [9]. Thus, SB system offers a novel way of gene delivery for HIV gene therapy purposes. With regard to effective anti-HIV genes for gene therapy, siRNAs constitute highly effective gene silencing mole- cules due to their target specificity and improved potency [10]. The siRNAs trigger an innate endogenous RNAi path- way for target recognition and gene silencing. Thus far, siRNAs targeted to a number of HIV genes have shown impressive gene down regulation and consequent viral inhibition both in vitro and in vivo [11-14]. Due to their high target specificity however, a high possibility exists for siRNA viral escape mutants to arise during prolonged treatment. Indeed, such generation of viral escape mutants against specific siRNAs has already been docu-
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Reliable transgene-independent method for determining Sleeping Beauty transposon copy numbers

Reliable transgene-independent method for determining Sleeping Beauty transposon copy numbers

Background: The transposon-based gene delivery technique is emerging as a method of choice for gene therapy. The Sleeping Beauty (SB) system has become one of the most favored methods, because of its efficiency and its random integration profile. Copy-number determination of the delivered transgene is a crucial task, but a universal method for measuring this is lacking. In this paper, we show that a real-time quantitative PCR-based, transgene- independent (qPCR-TI) method is able to determine SB transposon copy numbers regardless of the genetic cargo. Results: We designed a specific PCR assay to amplify the left inverted repeat-direct repeat region of SB, and used it together with the single-copy control gene RPPH1 and a reference genomic DNA of known copy number. The qPCR-TI method allowed rapid and accurate determination of SB transposon copy numbers in various cell types, including human embryonic stem cells. We also found that this sensitive, rapid, highly reproducible and non- radioactive method is just as accurate and reliable as the widely used blotting techniques or the transposon display method. Because the assay is specific for the inverted repeat region of the transposon, it could be used in any system where the SB transposon is the genetic vehicle.
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Case-oriented pathways analysis in pancreatic adenocarcinoma using data from a sleeping beauty transposon mutagenesis screen

Case-oriented pathways analysis in pancreatic adenocarcinoma using data from a sleeping beauty transposon mutagenesis screen

Background: Mutation studies of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) have revealed complicated heterogeneous genomic landscapes of the disease. These studies cataloged a number of genes mutated at high frequencies, but also report a very large number of genes mutated in lower percentages of tumors. Taking advantage of a well-established forward genetic screening technique, with the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon, several studies produced PDA and discovered a number of common insertion sites (CIS) and associated genes that are recurrently mutated at high frequencies. As with human mutation studies, a very large number of genes were found to be altered by transposon insertion at low frequencies. These low frequency CIS associated genes may be very valuable to consider for their roles in cancer, since collectively they might emerge from a core group of genetic pathways. Result: In this paper, we determined whether the genetic mutations in SB-accelerated PDA occur within a collated group of biological processes defined as gene sets. The approach considered both genes mutated in high and lower frequencies. We implemented a case-oriented, gene set enrichment analysis (CO-GSEA) on SB altered genes in PDA. Compared to traditional GSEA, CO-GSEA enables us to consider individual characteristics of mutation profiles of each PDA tumor. We identified genetic pathways with higher numbers of genetic mutations than expected by chance. We also present the correlations between these significant enriched genetic pathways, and their associations with CIS genes.
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A functional genomics approach to identify pathways of drug resistance in medulloblastoma

A functional genomics approach to identify pathways of drug resistance in medulloblastoma

Historically, metastatic disease has been assumed to be highly similar to primary tumors, and therefore presum- ably equally responsive to treatments designed to target primary lesions. Using the Sleeping Beauty Transposon system, we show that primary and metastatic medullo- blastoma exhibit distinct patterns of genetic alterations (Fig. 3a, Additional file 1: Table S1-S4). gCISs identified in primary medulloblastoma included transcriptional regulators such as Crebbp, and Ep300, and in metastatic medulloblastoma immune response-related genes such as C6, A2m, and Pkp2 (Additional file 1: Table S5-S8). These data support that the primary and metastatic compartments of medulloblastoma are driven by distinct molecular mechanisms [12]. We next asked whether metastatic medulloblastoma might evolve different or convergent pathways of resistance, as compared to the primary-treated tumors. We found that metastatic medulloblastoma receiving Foretinib therapy exhibited distinct patterns of genomic insertions compared to the metastatic compartment of vehicle treated mice (Fig. 3b). Furthermore, metastatic gCISs were highly divergent from the primary compartment in mice, which had also received Foretinib therapy (Fig. 3c). Foretinib-resistant metastatic medulloblastoma insertions included Basp1, Flt4, Mllt10, and Asxl2 (Fig. 3d,e) and pathways involved in cellular
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DNA transposon-based gene vehicles - scenes from an evolutionary drive

DNA transposon-based gene vehicles - scenes from an evolutionary drive

features). In addition to the Sleeping Beauty transposon which is derived from the genome of white cloud mountain minnow (Tanichthys albonubes) [4], the piggyBac element, isolated from the cabbage looper moth Trichoplusia ni [26,27], has shown high levels of DNA transposition in human cells [28,29]. In addition, Frog Prince derived from the genome of the leopard frog Rana pipiens [30], Himar1 derived from the horn- fly Haematobia irritans [31], Tol2 isolated from the genome of the Japanese medaka fish Oryzias latipes [32], and Passport derived from the flatfish Pleuro- nectes platessa [33] transpose in mammalian cells. Also, the ancient human Hsmar1 transposon is effi- ciently mobilized in human cells by a reconstructed ancestral Hsmar transposase [34]. Recently described elements with robust mobilization in human cells in- clude piggyBat isolated from the bat Myotis lucifungus [35] and TcBuster from the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum [36,37]. Common to this growing collection of mobile elements is that transposition appears not to rely on species-specific host factors. Still, host factors like DNA-bending proteins may support the transpos- ition process, as shown for Sleeping Beauty and Frog Prince [38]. As a result, some cell types are easier sta- bly transfected with DNA transposon vectors than others [39]. Accordingly, vector systems based on the distinct elements may be favoured in different cell types making a strong argument that parallel efforts to investigate and develop distinct, but potent, systems will benefit the broad applications of transposon-based gene transfer. However, we do not seek here to review the entire package of biological properties that make transposons like Sleeping Beauty and piggyBac ideal for nonviral gene integration purposes in mammalian cells. Numerous excellent reviews already tell that story [40-49]. Instead, with examples from the distinct families of DNA transposable elements we try here to make direct connections between the mechanisms that drive transposon evolution and some of the challenges in transposon-based gene transfer. Experience with Sleeping Beauty in particular tells us that transposon vehicles are travelling with evolution as a rear- seat passenger. By understanding in detail the evolu- tionary journey of transposons, from host coloni- zation to element multiplication and inactivation, we may be better prepared for utilizing and optimizing transposon-based gene transfer. We argue here that early generations of DNA transposon-derived vectors may suffer from inherent traits of their mother ele- ments, but that new carefully engineered vector gener- ations will address - and in some cases have address ed - key issues rendering transposon gene vehicles safer, more efficient, and less prone for suppression and inactivation.
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Nanocapsule delivered Sleeping Beauty mediates therapeutic Factor VIII expression in liver sinusoidal endothelial cells of hemophilia A mice

Nanocapsule delivered Sleeping Beauty mediates therapeutic Factor VIII expression in liver sinusoidal endothelial cells of hemophilia A mice

Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells are a major endogenous source of Factor VIII (FVIII), lack of which causes the human congenital bleeding disorder hemophilia A. Despite extensive efforts, gene therapy using viral vectors has shown little success in clinical hemophilia trials. Here we achieved cell type–specific gene targeting using hyaluronan- and asialoorosomucoid-coated nanocapsules, generated using dispersion atomization, to direct genes to liver sinusoidal endothelial cells and hepatocytes, respectively. To highlight the therapeutic poten- tial of this approach, we encapsulated Sleeping Beauty transposon expressing the B domain–deleted canine FVIII in cis with Sleeping Beauty transposase in hyaluronan nanocapsules and injected them intravenously into hemophilia A mice. The treated mice exhibited activated partial thromboplastin times that were comparable to those of wild-type mice at 5 and 50 weeks and substantially shorter than those of untreated controls at the same time points. Further, plasma FVIII activity in the treated hemophilia A mice was nearly identical to that in wild-type mice through 50 weeks, while untreated hemophilia A mice exhibited no detectable FVIII activity. Thus, Sleeping Beauty transposon targeted to liver sinusoidal endothelial cells provided long-term expression of FVIII, without apparent antibody formation, and improved the phenotype of hemophilia A mice.
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The Sleeping Beauty Transposable Element:  Evolution, Regulation and Genetic Applications

The Sleeping Beauty Transposable Element: Evolution, Regulation and Genetic Applications

Members of the Tc1/mariner superfamily of transposable elements isolated from vertebrate species are inactive due to the accumulation of mutations. A representative of a subfamily of fish elements estimated to be last active >10 million years ago has been reconstructed, and named Sleeping Beauty (SB). This element opened up new avenues for studies on DNA transposition in vertebrates, and for the development of transposon tools for genetic manipulation in important model species and in humans. Multiple transposase binding sites within the terminal inverted repeats, a transpositional enhancer sequence, unequal affinity of the transposase to the binding sites and the activity of the cellular HMGB1 protein all contribute to a highly regulated assembly of SB synaptic complexes, which is likely a requirement for the subsequent catalytic steps. Host proteins involved in double-strand DNA break repair are limiting factors of SB transposition in mammalian cells, underscoring evolutionary, structural and functional links between DNA transposition, retroviral integration and V(D)J recombination. SB catalyzes efficient cut-and-paste transposition in a wide range of vertebrate cells in tissue culture, and in somatic tissues as well as the germline of the mouse and zebrafish in vivo, indicating its usefulness as a vector for transgenesis and insertional mutagenesis. The Evolutionary Life-Cycle of DNA Transposons Large fractions of genomes can be composed of transposable element sequences. The Human Genome Project revealed that approximately 45% of the human genome is transposon-derived (I. H. G. S. C. 2001); nevertheless, most of these elements are inactive. Three evolutionary processes were proposed to describe the “life- cycle” of a DNA transposon in a genome (Lohe et al., 1995; Hartl et al., 1997). In the absence of selection pressure, “vertical inactivation” leads to accumulation of mutations in the transposon sequence. DNA transposons consist of
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The effect of music on the cardiac activity of a fetus in a cardiotocographic examination

The effect of music on the cardiac activity of a fetus in a cardiotocographic examination

A decrease in the number of accelerations is not a good indicator of a fetus’s well-being. The number of accelera- tions of >10 BPM lasting 15 s in cardiotocographic recording performed without the use of music was significantly higher in comparison to the values recorded during cardiotoco- graphic examination with the music of Pyotr Tchaikovsky. Only during the music therapy with “Sleeping Beauty” no significant difference was observed in cardiotocographic recording in the number of accelerations of >15 BPM, lasting 15 s. However, the number of accelerations did not change to an extent which could endanger the health of the exam- ined fetuses. The cause for the decreased number of accel- erations might be the type of music played (lullaby), with fetuses becoming pacified during the music therapy ses- sion and falling asleep. According to the Recommendations of the Polish Gynecological Society, a lack of accelerations in cardiotocographic recording may indicate a period of fetal sleep or it may pose an alarming risk of in-utero hypox- ia. 31 An increase in the number of accelerations was noted
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Remobilization of Sleeping Beauty transposons in the germline of Xenopus tropicalis

Remobilization of Sleeping Beauty transposons in the germline of Xenopus tropicalis

transposon have been generated (7M and ♀622E) that each harbor more than seven copies of the pT2bGFP transposon [6]. The total number of transposon sub- strates in each hopper line can be further increased by incrossing the hopper lines with other pT2bGFP foun- ders that contain multiple copies of the SB transposon. In addition to donor site transposon copy number, the transgenic transposase enzyme may also influence the remobilization activity in the frog. The transgenic SB enzyme frog described here was generated using the first generation SB transposase (SB10; [24]). In recent years, several hyperactive mutant forms of the SB enzyme have been developed, including SB11 that has approximately three-fold higher activity [48] and SB100X that has a 100-fold increase in enzymatic activ- ity when compared to SB10 [49]. In addition to the choice of modified enzyme, different promoters with varying transcriptional activity could be used to drive expression of the SB transgene to enhance the rate of germline remobilization. This may not be as simple as finding the most powerful promoter and/or enhancer available, as SB is sensitive to overproduction inhibition, where increasing levels of enzyme impair the overall transposition efficiency [48].
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Sustainable development education in Scottish schools: the sleeping beauty syndrome

Sustainable development education in Scottish schools: the sleeping beauty syndrome

Summary The emergence of Learning for life, then, provided a clear, forward thinking and pedagogically appropriate curriculum proposal for the field in the 1990s, which might have placed[r]

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Nicosia Concerted Retailing and Tourism Strategies to Awaken a Neglekted and Sleeping Beauty

Nicosia Concerted Retailing and Tourism Strategies to Awaken a Neglekted and Sleeping Beauty

It investigates the satisfaction levels of tourists to Nicosia regarding various elements of the tourism value chain embracing a range of retail services as shopping especially souvenirs[r]

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Transposon Mutagenesis of the Mouse Germline

Transposon Mutagenesis of the Mouse Germline

this particular transcription unit actually results in re- duction of the amount of wild-type transcript produced, real-time quantitative RT-PCR was performed on liver and spleen RNA from heterozygous carrier and wild- type mice. Primers specific for exons immediately flank- ing the intron into which the transposon inserted were used to amplify a wild-type cDNA. These primers are incapable of amplifying a product from the mutant tran- script cDNA due to its premature truncation. Transcript levels of the gene in question were compared to Gapdh as a reference and revealed that wild-type transcript levels were reduced by half within the liver of carrier mice relative to wild type (Figure 8E). Levels were also decreased in the spleen to a lesser extent. These results prove that transposon gene traps can decrease the amount of wild-type transcript produced when inserted into an intron.
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“Sleeping Beauty” Unleashed: Harmonizing a Consolidated European Security and Defense Union  ZEI Discussion Paper C 248/2018

“Sleeping Beauty” Unleashed: Harmonizing a Consolidated European Security and Defense Union ZEI Discussion Paper C 248/2018

It also urges autonomy for member states to act in accordance with their state sovereignty, a more credible defense industry with greater effectiveness, efficiency and trust between memb[r]

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Phase I trials using Sleeping Beauty to generate CD19 specific CAR T cells

Phase I trials using Sleeping Beauty to generate CD19 specific CAR T cells

We report on 2 phase I clinical trials of a potentially new nonvi- ral approach to the genetic modification of T cells to express a second-generation CAR. First, we describe what is to our knowl- edge a first-in-human application of genetic engineering based on SB nonviral gene transfer. When combined with γ-irradiated AaPCs and exogenous cytokines, the clinical data meet the trials’ primary objectives regarding the safety and feasibility of employ- ing this transposon/transposase system to generate CD19-spe- cific CAR T cells for human therapy. Second, we combined the planned administration of CD19-specific CAR T cells after con- ventional autologous and allogeneic HSCT in efforts to improve the GVT effects and thus decrease the relapse rate of patients with advanced disease. Clinical observations suggest that infused T cells sustain proliferation in lymphopenic recipients through homeostatic mechanisms, apparently mediated by the removal of regulatory/suppressor cells as well as increased availability of prosurvival cytokines and by attenuation of deleterious immune responses that might otherwise develop against the CAR (7, 46, 47). We note that 10 8 /m 2 of CAR allogeneic T cells could be safely
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Manipulating the sleeping beauty mutase operon for the production of 1-propanol in engineered Escherichia coli

Manipulating the sleeping beauty mutase operon for the production of 1-propanol in engineered Escherichia coli

Herein, we present an alternative novel biosynthesis of 1-propanol by manipulating the sleeping beauty mutase (Sbm) operon in E. coli. This four-gene operon (sbm- ygfD-ygfG-ygfH) encodes various enzymes involved in a cobalamin-dependent metabolic pathway for decarboxyl- ation of succinate into propionate [10]. The metabolic context of the Sbm-pathway remains ambiguous, but is suspected to be involved in the assimilation of unusual carbon sources, such as succinate and propionate. More- over, eponymous to its name, the operon genes are hardly expressed possibly due to an inactive or weak promoter- operator system [11,12]. Three of the encoded proteins from this operon are identified to be members of the cro- tonase superfamily, namely (1) sbm encoding a cobalamin- dependent methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (or Sbm; sleeping beauty mutase), which catalyzes the isomerization of succinyl-CoA to L-methylmalonyl-CoA; (2) ygfG encoding a methylmalonyl-CoA decarboxylase (YgfG), which catalyzes the decarboxylation of methylmalonyl-CoA to propionyl- CoA; and (3) ygfH encoding a propionyl-CoA::succinate transferase (YgfH) [13]. The ygfD gene encodes a putative protein kinase (YgfD/ArgK) whose function remains un- clear. However, YgfD could potentially interact with Sbm to form a multi-subunit complex [14]. Although the struc- ture, function, and relationship of these enzymes have been characterized, hardly any work has been performed for their practical application.
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CHILDREN IN FRENCH LITERATURE DURING THE LAST CENTURIES AND THEIR UZBEK TRANSLATIONS

CHILDREN IN FRENCH LITERATURE DURING THE LAST CENTURIES AND THEIR UZBEK TRANSLATIONS

By the translation of the tales of Ch.Perrault after the proclamation of independence took care of Ch. Minovarov (French in Uzbek), T. Alimov and Ilhom Zoer (Russian). A few tales by Ch.Perrault were translated into Uzbek several times, some of which are translated from French and Russian. We can cite some examples, such as “The Sleeping Beauty” and “Cinderella” (translations by M.Kholbekov and Ch.Minovarov - French, T.Alimov - Russian) and “Little Red Riding Hood” (Ch. Minovarov - French, I.Zorov - Russian) while some tales are translated from French by two translators like M.Kholbekov and Ch.Minovarov. Those are “The Sleeping Beauty”, “Cinderella”, “The Little Thumb”, “The Booted Shat”, “The Fairies”, “Blue Beard”, and “Riquet à la Houppe”. It is very interesting and useful because the multitude of translations of the best copies of world literature or the retranslation of the same world works in one language is one of the factors used to improve the quality of translations and to create adequate translations.
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Within Day Energy Balance and the Relationship to Injury Rates in Pre Professional Ballet Dancers

Within Day Energy Balance and the Relationship to Injury Rates in Pre Professional Ballet Dancers

Margaret Early wrote the second Sleeping Beauty tale in 1993, and is an adapter, author and illustrator of hundreds of children’s books (Early). Her tale is similar to an adaptation of Charles Perrault’s, The Sleeping Beauty in the Wood. Walt Disney, who is considered a legend, born in Chicago in 1901 and died in 1966, adapted the third story. During his 43 year Hollywood career, he established his product as a genuine part of America. He was the creator of Mickey Mouse, and founder of Disneyland and Walt Disney World. His passion was to perfect animation, making Sleeping Beauty one of the 81 full-length animated musical features. His work brought joy, happiness and a universal way to communicate with people of every nation. He was an original hero, who was a multiple Academy Award-winning American film producer, director, screenwriter, voice actor, animator, entrepreneur and philanthropist. A discussion of the stories will follow the details of the tales listed in the chart below. The stories are not written in their entirety where there are similarities, but mostly showing the differences, however the opening lines and the conclusions are transcribed word for word (Disney).
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