The average herd size was higher (18 individuals) than what has been reported in Northeast India (Ku- maresan et al., 2009a) and in most developing countries, e.g. herd size of six individuals in Vietnam (Lemke et al., 2007), three individuals in Nigeria (Ajala et al., 2007) or approximately 4 individuals per herd in west- ern Kenya (Kagira et al., 2010). This herd size can be considered as indication of market orientation. Sites in the outskirts of the metropolis of Kinshasa had a herd of swine of greater size than those in rural areas. Kasan- gulu is in Bas-Congo closest to Kinshasa. This position justified the large size of livestock and high price of live- stock products. The large average herd size in Mbanza- Ngungu is probably related to the fact that it is located far from fishing sites (as opposed to Boma) and the low cost imports of Kinshasa which forces the population to raise their own pigs to be supplied with animal protein sources. Pig production received less attention in Boma because of supply of Congo River fish. The produc- tive outputs in Kasangulu are higher than in most of the other sites, especially regarding weaning weight and the number of born and weaned piglets per litter (Table 3). Kansangulu is located quite close to Kinshasa (approx. 50 km) which with its 8 million inhabitants represents a huge market. Farms in Kansangulu still benefit from low costs of transportation for both pig products and feed and agro-industrial by-products for feeding pigs. Farm- ers are more prone to increase productivity by, among others, feeding more concentrate and agro-industrial by products and hire skilled workers. Moreover, farmers in Kansangulu do not su ﬀ er from environmental con- straints as the farms located in more densely populated periurban municipalities. Herd size is also likely to be related to availability of land (Katongole et al., 2012). This explains why bigger herds were observed in the ru- ral location close to Kinshasa (Kasangulu) than in the periurban areas of Kinshasa. In the studied system, the majority of the farmers were breeding sows for the pro- duction of piglets. They fatten their o ﬀ spring and some- times additional piglets are bought from other pig small- holders. A weakness of this system is that a large num- ber of farmers do not have their own boars which may lead to inbreeding (Kagira et al., 2010; Lemke et al., 2007). Mating fees practices, charging or by submitting a female piglet at weaning, is similar to what has been observed in other smallholdersystems (Lañada et al., 2005; Mutua et al., 2011).
In a recent study in Luwero and Kayunga districts in Uganda, farms with certified organic pineapple production were found to be diversified with various livestock and crops (Nalubwama et al. 2014). The integration of crop and live- stock production is considered to be a key pathway to im- proved productivity, efficiency, and sustainability (Powell et al. 2004). Livestock production contributes to nutrient bal- ance of the whole farming system, which is very relevant for organic agriculture where the system approach is emphasized (Henning 1998). Furthermore, potential to market organic an- imal products has recently been identified in local and regional markets (Anecho 2015). However, studies indicate that organ- ic farmers in Uganda continue to rear livestock without adher- ence to organic principals and standards (Kiggundu et al. 2014; Nalubwama et al. 2011). This has been attributed to various livestock production challenges faced in smallholder farming systems such as endemic animal diseases and pests which are still controlled using conventional methods; insuf- ficient supply of certified organic feeds; and limited land and * S. Nalubwama
having T. solium cysticercosis infection were signifi- cantly higher than local ones. Similarly, Krecek et al. in South Africa reported a significantly higher sero- prevalence among crossbred pigs . The pig breed types referred to here as ‘local’ have been reared for de- cades in the communities and are characterized by slow growth but they have adapted to the harsh conditions over time and are considered more resilient to diseases than recently introduced breeds or their crosses . Also, there are some systematic differences in the way local pigs are kept and this may have influenced expos- ure or susceptibility. Sero-prevalence of T. solium cysti- cercosis in pigs was significantly less in homes that used protected water sources. A study in Mexico found that use of stagnant water in pigs significantly increased the prevalence in pigs . Likewise, studies in Tanzania and Rwanda reported use of water from unprotected Table 4 Multivariable analysis of animal and household level risk factors for T. solium cysticercosis
Dairy production was introduced to Ogoja, Southern Nigeria during the 1980’s when the domestic demand for dairy products increased significantly (Ahaotu, 1991). The Cross River State government has been promoting the development of dairy cattle production since 1987 (Matthewman, 2004). Dairy production started in Ogoja Local Government Area in the vicinity of Iyala and was initially at backyard level, with very few milking cows per household. Although a few large-scale, modernized dairy farms (that is, more than 100 cows per farm) have been established in the peri-urban areas, small dairy farms still dominate the dairy systems, contributing 90% of the total milk volume (Testerman, 2004). However, the smallholdersystems have a low milk output per animal and provide relatively poor quality milk (David and Anthony, 2006). To improve and increase dairy production, national breeding programs for dairy herds have been introduced. The use of new reproduction techniques has facilitated cross-breeding local breeds with breeds from the temperate countries and the Holstein Friesian (HF) breed is the dominant breed in breeding
Quarantine of new pigs and appropriate movement controls could be key for prevention and control of disease outbreaks, particularly CSF and FMD and if introduced, ASF in immunologically naïve pigs (Cleland et al., 1996). However, quarantine is not widely practiced and when practiced the median length of quarantine was 7 days. The pathogens in this study can have incubation periods longer than a week, therefore clinical signs may not be apparent until after this period. The majority of farmers managed pig diseases themselves in this study, with an es- timated 2% of rural villages in Lao PDR have a veterinary clinic (Burniston, 2016). However, around 30% of respondents in Savanna- khet and 8.9% in Luang Prabang reported calling a village veterinary worker (VVW) when their pigs were sick. VVW’s are usually small- holders with limited training that assist with animal health concerns at the village level usually without any ﬁ nancial compensation (FAO, 2014). In low resource settings such as this, community animal health workers can bridge the gap between oﬃcial veterinary systems and communities, playing an important role in disease control and o ﬃ cial surveillance systems (Allport et al., 2005). Particularly in Savannakhet, VVW’s could be useful in promoting good village- and pen-level bio- security measures such as quarantine and use of conﬁned systems. However, this may require additional support such as refresher training and mechanisms that allow them to recover costs of their services (Mravili et al., 2009). This is especially timely given that an outbreak of ASF has recently been reported in Southern China, not far from Northern Lao PDR border. As the study has demonstrated endemicity of CSF and PRRS, this may mean VVW’s would not recognise or report ASF. Therefore, it is important for VVW ’ s to be encouraged to report pig deaths and fever cases to ﬁeld animal health staﬀ. In addition to pig movement, 90% of villages in Savannakhet reported trader visits in the
Small ruminants (sheep and goats) have multipurpose roles to sustain the livelihood of farmers and need little investments which could suit both large investors and smallholder farmers. They are characterized with short reproductive cycle, may consume large feeding menu, and adaptable to wide environmental conditions (Degen, 2007; Ahmed et al., 2015; Asefa et al., 2015; Dagnew et al., 2017). They are raised to produce milk, meat, skin and fiber, and provide extra income source (Galal, 2005; Notter, 2012; Asefa et al., 2015; Dagnew et al., 2017). They are the most popular and common livestock in the United Arab Emirate (UAE) with a population exceeds 3.0 million heads in Abu-Dhabi Emirate alone and exceeds 4.3 million heads across the UAE (ADFCA, 2016; FCSA, 2016). Sheep and goat represent the main group of animals in the Emirate, with more than 50% and 37% of the total animal heads in the Emirate, respectively (ADFCA, 2016). Though, it is believed that the small ruminant population in the Abu-Dhabi Emirate belongs to several breeds of sheep and goats and their crosses. However, small ruminant production in the UAE is inefficient and not sustainable because of the overutilization of all production inputs (Sherif et al., 2014) which might be due to the fact that farmers in the UAE do not consider it a source of income rather it is a part of their heritage and a source of meat and milk for home consumption, regardless of flock size.
The main aim of this study was to analyse and document the value of smallholder farmers’ use of Draught Animal Power (DAP) systems in the Eastern Caprivi Region and to test the economic viability of DAP usage versus using tractors. This study applied Rapid Rural Appraisal techniques (RRA), including a survey. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 312 farmers at their farms and data was gathered on the use of and economics related to the draught animal system. Crop enterprise budgets, project reports, expert opinions and group discussions were analysed. The research found that the use of animal power performs better in terms of physical productivity per ha compared to tractor usage. Furthermore, Sibinda production guided by the oxen farming technique outperformed the other systems when it was evaluated with parametric analysis. From a financial perspective, Sibinda and Linyanti oxen farmers ranked above their counterparts using tractors. Further, the exercise indicated that farmers are facing a multitude of challenges such as damage incurred from wild animals and high input costs. It is difficult for a young generation to take up farming in Caprivi within the current cost-price squeeze environment. Therefore, it is crucial to increase the level of potential new farmers’ production and management proficiencies through training and skills development programmes.
Evidence suggests that farmers are increasingly con- strained from making economic culling decisions due to increased disease-related reasons such as lameness or in- jury . For the purposes of this study biological culling was assigned to those cows that required urgent removal from the herd to avoid welfare implications or death. This provided a more conservative estimate of forced re- movals than would have been given by broadly defining biological culls as those animals without a productive fu- ture . This limited the impact of biological culling on the overall assessment of the disease burden to those in- stances with distinctly aligned health problems. Even so, the total DLR outweighed the DLI and DLD for the ag- gregate 11 diseases of interest on all three dairies. An ar- gument could be made for a less conservative approach acknowledging that most removals, including miscellan- eous biological and economic culls, have underlying bio- logical associations that could be accounted for in a disease-adjusted summary measure of health. The limi- tation to such an approach is that dairy record systems tend to focus on specific, treatable diseases with limited and inconsistent information regarding culling and death [9, 25]. This project focused on biological culls with doc- umented underlying disease or injury at the time of removal. Given better health records, future derivatives of a dairy summary measure of health might more thoroughly explore the impact of subclinical and cumu- lative disease processes on removals as a whole.
Despite the extensive characterisation of pastoralism, pastoral operations have intensified as a result of agricultural restructuring (Meuret, 2010; Nori, 2017), and livestock owners have developed managerial skills in order to comply with a growing administrative, bureaucratic and technical demands and tasks. Shepherds’ living and working conditions have hardly improved; most of the time is spent in harsh settings, with limited access to public services, scarce connectivity and few opportunities for leisure and alternative activities. The growing presence of predators and climatic vagaries add further hardening factors. The prices of small ruminants’ milk and meat have fluctuated, while production costs have increased constantly (ISMEA, 2010); dependence of Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) schemes and subsidies have grown accordingly, and represent today about 40% of the sector revenue (data from ongoing research projects). Such restructuring has thus contributed to creating unattractive conditions for the new generations, who have often decided not to follow their fathers’ footsteps, and to avoid engaging in a profession with uncertain prospects. Through this lens one can understand the crisis of pastoral ‘vocation’ and the relative problems of generational renewal which is affecting this sector. Another big constraint for agro-pastoral farmers in Mediterranean rural regions is compliance with regulatory requirements. Numerous policies at various levels (EU/International (CAP), national, regional) affect the operation of these systems. Scientific debate has analysed the governance practices related to local and rural development policies (Barca, 2009; Meloni and Farinella, 2016; OECD, 2006; Ray, 2000, 2006; Shortall, 2008; Storti and Zumparo, 2009), introducing more recently the rural welfare dimension (Bertolini et al., 2008; Di Iacovo and Scarpellini, 2012; Farmer et al., 2010; Fazzi, 2011; Halloran and Calderón, 2005; Tulla et al., 2014; WHO Regional Office for Europe 2010a,b).
around urban areas. The success of dairying as a form of business depends on profitable milk production which is influenced by various input variables and their judicious use. Though dairy is being effectively practiced, the information on cost and incomes from milk production and productivity of different factors is scanty, which is most important from producer point of view who under takes dairying as a new enterprise.
Mycotoxins are metabolites produced by fungi of various genera while they grow on agricultural products before or after harvest or during transport or storage. Mycotoxin contamination of forages and cereals often occurs in the field following infection of plants with particular pathogenic fungi or with symbiotic endophytes. Contamination may also occur during processing and storage of harvested products and feed whenever environmental conditions are appropriate for spoilage fungi [88,89] . Mycotoxins are regularly found in animal feed
The importance of animal welfare for consumers has been growing in the last two decades. Consumers perceive both an ethical and a nutritional result from animal welfare (Harper & Makatouni, 2002), using it as an indicator of food quality and food safety, in addition to humane treatment of livestock (Hughner, et al., 2007). Consumers are negative towards what they consider excessive manipulation and lack of naturalness in the production and processing of meat products (Verbeke, Pérez-Cueto, de Barcellos, Krystallis, & Grunert, 2010). Hence, criteria related to animal well-being are used to discriminate between “good” and “bad” meat production practices (Krystallis, de Barcellos, Kügler, Verbeke, & Grunert, 2009). On behalf of the consumers, retailers have been demanding more and more transparency and in-depth auditing of production and processing facilities (Troy & Kerry, 2010) to ensure that the products comply with both legal standards and consumers’ animal welfare demands. As public pressure regarding environmental and welfare standards increases, more and more meat producers engage in practices that extend beyond those formally required by environmental and welfare regulations (Siegford, Powers, & Grimes-Casey, 2008). Improving animal welfare standards is not an easy process for producers, who are faced with many barriers such as system lock-ins, insufficient willingness to pay and competition with other social pressures (Immink, Reinders, Tulder, & van Trijp, 2013).
The science and practice of livestock production is changing towards sustainable systems with emphasis on animal health and welfare as well as food safety and quality. Organic systems of livestock production have developed to meet the concerns of society for good health and welfare required by farm animals that yield milk and meat as well as the need for safer and healthier products (Surdrum, 2001; Lund and Rocklinsberg, 2001). Since the commencement of organic practices in livestock production, a large volume of information has been published on husbandry practices, health and welfare of animals and the economic viability of such systems of production. The numbers of articles that appear in scientific journals and are related to organic livestock production increase rapidly every year (Wilson, 2002, Lund and Algers, 2003). Moreover, the scientific community is devoting an increasing proportion of activities associated with themes regarding organic production. However, organic production involves many disciplines that must be integrated and there are major differences, particularly in the way that the organic livestock sector is run between different countries (Meeker, 1999, Hermansen, 2003). Although the idea of organic production has existed from the begging of the last century and has been applied with great success in other European countries, for at least two decades, in Greece it has only recently become the focus of significant attention from governmental and private organisations, consumers and farmers. Regardless of the absence of a long-established consumer market for organic products in Greece, the idea of conversion of existing productionsystems to organic ones has proven useful and financially rewarding. In 2000, there were a relatively small number of organic farms in Greece. The country has 24,800 hectares of organic farmland representing 0.71 percent of total farmland, one of the lowest percentages in Europe. In contrast, its southern European neighbours, Spain and Italy, have combined 1.38 million hectares of organic farmland, accounting for 38 percent of all organic farmland in Europe. (Duchateau, 2003).
The key to minimizing animal morbidity and mortality is the employment of good production practices. Best practices will vary according to the production system, but land-based agriculture will typically include provision of uncontaminated feed and water, adequate ventilation and air quality, biosecurity, robust surveillance of animal health, and the judicious use of antimicrobial agents and parasiticides for disease prevention and treatment, when warranted. Prominent in the animal health toolbox are antibiotics. It can be reasonable to assume that the avail- ability of antibiotics will become increasingly constrained as legitimate public alarm over the looming spectre of catastrophic antibiotic resistance in human medicine is translated into action at the farm level. Furthermore, the development of antibiotic resistance will progressively re- duce antibiotic therapy options available to veterinarians. More restricted use of veterinary antibiotics will result from market-driven forces, as consumers increasingly demand antibiotic-free food, and through the policies of governments and codes of practice of veterinary practi- tioners that promote judicious use . Within this evolving environment, newly developed vaccines and immunotherapeutic agents offer the potential to lessen the need for antibiotics for disease control, and offer veterinary practitioners much needed tools .
Facing growth in demand, dairy production in peri-urban areas of developing countries is changing rapidly. To char- acterise this development around Bamako (Mali), this study establishes a typology of dairy productionsystems with a special focus on animal genetic resources. The survey included 52 dairy cattle farms from six peri-urban sites. It was conducted in 2011 through two visits, in the dry and harvest seasons. The median cattle number per farm was 17 (range 5–118) and 42 % of farmers owned cropland (8.3 ± 7.3 ha, minimum 1 ha, maximum 25 ha). Feeding strat- egy was a crucial variable in farm characterisation, accounting for about 85 % of total expenses. The use of artificial insemination and a regular veterinary follow-up were other important parameters. According to breeders’ answers, thirty genetic profiles were identified, from local purebreds to di ﬀ erent levels of crossbreds. Purebred animals raised were Fulani Zebu (45.8 %), Maure Zebu (9.2 %), Holstein (3.0 %), Azawak Zebu (1.3 %), Mere Zebu (0.5 %) and Kuri taurine (0.1 %). Holstein crossbred represented 30.5 % of the total number of animals (19.0 % Fulani-Holstein, 11.2 % Maure-Holstein and 0.3 % Kuri-Holstein). Montbéliarde, Normande and Limousin crossbreds were also found (6.6 %, 0.7 % and 0.3 %, respectively). A multivariate analysis helped disaggregate the diversity of management prac- tices. The high diversity of situations shows the need for consideration of typological characteristics for an appropriate intervention. Although strongly anchored on local breeds, the peri-urban dairy systems included a diversity of exotic cattle, showing an uncoordinated quest of breeders for innovation. Without a public intervention, this dynamic will result in an irremediable erosion of indigenous animal genetic resources.
As far as livestock management practices are concerned, feeding, health care, housing and manure management were inadequate across animal species. Rice bran, often mixed with rise husks, is an acceptable supplement feed for cattle but its comparatively high fibre content may pose a challenge to pigs and poultry (Heuzé & Tran, 2015). Rice and maize grains were fed as well, but most of the times animals were observed scavenging on sun-drying grain rather than receiv- ing a substantial amount of cereal grains every day. As far as the feeding with cassava is concerned, it was unclear if the respondents referred to leaves (which was the case for cattle, but not specified in case of pigs), full tubers or cassava peels – the latter also being a rather poor feed for monogastric ani- mals due to a high content of fibre and free cyanide (Akinola et al., 2013). The poor housing conditions were not only pro- voking accidents (strangulation) of tethered cattle and pigs and theft of poultry but were also preventing appropriate manure collection and recycling to crop land, which mir- rors the situation in other parts of Madagascar where dung is also hardly applied to vegetable, cereal and tuber crops (Hanisch, 2015). The combination of inadequate feeding and scavenging, respectively, with poor housing also fosters pre- valence and spread of diseases, in particular as health care is apparently neglected by the animal keepers. Pig-keepers and veterinarians pointed to African swine fever (ASF) as a major problem; despite Madagascar’s insular situation, ASF
out in one unbroken piece made of 1 mm polyethylene sections approved for storage purposes and pre-welded by the manufacturer. On top of the membrane there is a 10 cm layer of sand covered by a Fibertex canvas. On top of the Fibertex canvas there is a drainpipe connected to a suction well. At the same time the suction well may be used as a measure for control of the density of the membrane. The Fibertex canvas is covered with a 50-90 cm layer of whole common seashells, thus serving as drain layer for the deep bedding. The mast is made of undressed larch and placed in a well consisting of five well rings. In order to support the mast and for rainwater to be drained into the basin to obtain a dry lying area, the well is filled up with sea shells. The tent is stretched out between 4 undressed larch masts, which have been drilled into the ground outside the square membrane. The grating is surrounded by ∅15 cm rafts and filled with sea shells. In the initial production phase, straw is placed alongside the tent to absorb rainwater, thereby reducing the quantity of liquid in the basin. At the outer side, the bank slopes slightly to facilitate the access of vehicles and to permit the occurrence of low vegetation or permanent grass and the access of cultivation.
The Austrian organic production is a standard in Central Europe for several reasons, such as history, economical history, and geographical location. We can mention the co-operation with Romanian organic production units: cattle breeding (import of calves, building of animal farms, breeding systems, other equipments), as well as the insemination and import of bulls performed by Austrabull, an Austrian and Romanian common company, founded in 2004 in Miercurea Ciuc. The Austrian organic production is co-ordinated and supported by Nögenetik (Cattle Breeders Federation from South Austria, Wieselburg). Austria’s organic territories are as high as 13% (361.81 hectares, in 2006) of the entire farming. The organic territories are housing 20 162 companies, which means the 11,6% of the total Austrian companies. The 14% of eco products are marketed in bio-shops, 5% by direct marketing and 10% are exported. The organic breeding data are also very talkative; sharp increasing is observed from 2002. Example of some data from 2006: 840 000 laying hen, 111 million eggs, 45 000 cattle, 44 000 pigs and 398 million kg of butter. There are curiosity-products too, such as the chocolate with organic-goat milk (first in the world market). The prices are very convenient for the bio farmers. The union of organic farmers is very strong; they are in connection with the most important units on international level; professional trainings are regularly performed (13.).
Constraints to the small holder dairy farming in high potential areas of Kenya are related to high human population and subsequent pressure on the land. As a result, dairy cattle are reared under zero or semi zero grazing. Dairy farming involves the rearing of cows and goats, camels and sheep for milk production. Small holder dairy farmers rely on dairy products for domestic and commercial purposes. Based on a definition from Porter (2008), “profitability in this study is defined as the ability of a milk producer to achieve sustainable business growth while earning at least the opportunity cost of management.” Thus a producer is considered competitive if positive returns to land are earned. The Kenya Dairy Board (KDB) was established in 1958 under the Dairy Act Cap 336 with the mandate to efficiently and sustainably promote, regulate and develop the dairy industry in Kenya. It was also established to provide control and regulate milk sale to ensure hygiene and cleanliness and quality for consumers. The dairy sector contributes 3.5% of the national GDP, and 14% of the agricultural GDP (GOK, 2008). This makes it a significant sector whose growth and development is of national importance. According to Kenya Dairy Board report (2006) demand for milk was projected to rise by 15% to 5.8 billion litres and supply at 5 billion litres, per year leaving a deficit of 800 million litres and efforts need to be made to increase production.
Smallholder dairy farming promotes access to regular income for rural households who usually access money once a year after the sale of harvested crops (Ngongoni, Mapiye, Mwale, & Mupeta, 2007; Pandey & Voskuil, 2011). Furthermore, the milk produced by smallholder farmers contributes significantly to the nutrition and health of the people in rural areas (Marius et al., 2011; Pandey & Voskuil, 2011). The dairy animals also provide social security for the rural dwellers by acting as a source of financing unexpected or periodic expenditures (Afzal, 2010). Moreover, smallholder dairy farming can also serve as a form of economic empowerment for vulnerable groups such as women and youth by encouraging them to participate in income generation ventures (Ngongoni et al., 2007; Afzal, 2010). In 2017, the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) of the United Nations reported a significant increase in the demand for milk and other dairy products in Africa over the past few years thereby creating a unique opportunity for smallholder milk producers who constitute the bulk of dairy farmers in this region (FAO, 2017b). Several reasons including the rapid population growth, increasing urbanisation, and changes in diets are responsible for the increasing demand for dairy products in Africa (Delgado, Rosegrant, Steinfeld, Ehui, & Cour, 1999). However, despite the growing demand for milk and other dairy products, smallholder milk producers in Africa are failing to realise the opportunities offered by this demand due to several limitations (Kandjou, 2011).