plus exactly one supernode. Supernodes are responsible for synchronizing divergent versions of data objects within their community. Furthermore, they maintain an index of data objects provided by nodes of their community, thus improv- ing the efficiency of search requests. All smartproducts may play the role of a supernode, which is dynamically assigned based on capability metrics (e.g., storage, communication, energy). According to the hierarchical structure of the pro- posed pub/sub overlay network, supernodes that are able to communicate with each other are clustered in higher-level communities. Again, in these higher-level communities, all nodes but one represent nodes even though they played the role of supernodes in their lower-level communities. As op- posed to related work outlined in Section 2, supernodes of higher-level communities can also be played by smart prod- ucts that do not participate in any lower-level community. The hierarchical structure of the proposed pub/sub overlay network is exemplified in Figure 1. Each of the three com- munities C1, C2, and C3 consists of a set of nodes (e.g., a, b, and c in community C1) as well as exactly one supernode (e.g., A in community C1). On the next level, the three su- pernodes A, B, and C are again clustered in the community C4, whereby B is dynamically elected as the community’s supernode based on its capabilities.
M1 Supply chain management - Supply chain management involves the management of flow of materials, information, and finances as they move between different actors in the supply chain, upstream or downstream. Its aim is to efficiently integrate all the actors involved in the realisation of a smart product so that it is produced and delivered at the right quantities, to the right locations and the right time, in order to minimise system wide costs while satisfying the service level requirements. It also involves the collaboration between the supply chain actors to ensure the ‘smart’ aspects of the product are embedded in the most efficient way and the information flows related to the product manufacturing and operation are fed into the appropriate supply chain actors. Finally, it includes managing the information coming from the smart product itself in order to direct the product during its manufacturing stage to the appropriate supply chain actor to customise it and produce it in the most efficient manner. Each step of this process should add value.
With v4.1 of the specification (released in 2013), the Bluetooth SIG added capability for a single chip to support both hub and peripheral roles. For example, a smart watch can act as the hub for a wearable device, such as a heart rate monitor, and it can also act as a peripheral to a smart phone, displaying messages from the phone. To give another example, a phone can continue to play its primary role as a hub, scanning for other devices and connecting to them, but it can also act as a peripheral to other devices, such as a set-top box or home security system. The Bluetooth SIG expects more and more devices to play dual roles, giving developers more flexibility in product development.
or many women, the Jockey ® brand experience centers on two key collections; Clas- sics and Elance ® . Our brand’s heritage and our reputation for unsurpassed quality, fi t and performance have helped these collections become the foundation of Jockey’s intimates offering. Given their signifi cance to the Jockey ® brand and their prominence in the marketplace, any change made to either collection moves forward with a great deal of consideration and scrutiny. Any vendor chosen to partner with Jockey, especially when mak- ing signifi cant changes to a major program, is held in the highest level of confi dence and trust. Lenzing was a model partner in developing the Jockey ® Classics Supersoft and Jockey ® Elance ® Supersoft collections. Through Lenzing’s support, innovation and the amazing proper- ties of their MicroModal ® fi ber fabric, Lenzing partnered with Jockey to deliver products with enhanced softness and expanded appeal in an increasingly complex market. Lenzing worked with Jockey’s entire supply chain… facilitating our relationships with the fi ber producers, the yarn spinners and the fabric mill… to deliver a game-changing product that elevates our inti- mates offering and strengthens our core programs.
All fiber production sites of the Lenzing Group were fully utilized in the third quarter as well and partly achieved new records in production and shipment. The increase in raw material prices was largely, but not fully passed on to the market. In the inter- est of long-term and solid customer relationships Lenzing did not transfer the latest booming of the cotton price onto Lenz- ing’s products one-to-one. Customers appreciated this policy but it further fueled demand for Lenzing fibers.
Heppelmann and Porter provide a solid range of examples of existing companies that are either transforming themselves or new entities establishing businesses for the first time within our new smart, connected product world. Fortune 500 companies such as John Deere are transforming themselves from pure product companies developing and selling discrete products (for example, a bulldozer) to companies developing smart product systems of inter-related and interconnected smartproducts and services, and systems of product systems. Meanwhile, smaller companies without legacy product histories are jumping directly into smart, connected products. Sonos, for example, was the first mover in developing true wireless home speaker systems. But the wireless technology itself is only a part of the Sonos solution. Sonos opted to migrate its original user interface away from running on a custom-designed piece of hardware to an entirely software and cloud-based offering that works across iOS and Android mobile devices, as well as across PCs and Macs. A Sonos system of speakers (and available music services that include streamed services) is controllable in real-time from any or all available devices simultaneously, and can stream different music from different sources to different speakers at the same time. It is a true smart connected product system.
But, in view of technical advantages and enhancements to operation capability, integration of the smart grid stands as a valuable solution in managing the existing grid. However, the design, deployment and maintenance of the smart meter system involve many issues and challenges. Implementation of smart meter system in the distribution system involves several billion dollars of investment for deployment and maintenance of the network. Indeed justifying the investment is difficult. So, this investment has to be realized as a function proportional to the projected increase in the energy demand and portion of the distributed generation. Initially, the process of replacing the existing energy meters with a smart meter system will be a challenge for utility companies. Lack of proper infrastructure for synchronizing this new technology with the existing ones might interrupt the introduction of smart meters. Though several devices are integrated with the smart meter system, they can be used to their fullest extent only when all the appliances and devices in the distribution and metering network are included in the communication network. Integration of the devices becomes even more complicated with an increasing number of customers. Collection and transmission of energy consumption data is a continuous process that is done automatically, but it is a tedious and expense job. In this context, a common notion might arise in several customers is that, smart meters they
Mobile devices are becoming essential tools in modern life, which seamlessly connect human beings to each other and outer world. A mobile phone (also known as a cellular phone, cell phone, and a hand phone) may be a device that may build and receive phone calls over a link whereas on the road a large geographical area It will therefore by connecting to a cellular network provided by a itinerant operator, permitting access to the general public phone network, additionally to telephone, fashionable mobile phones additionally support a large form of different services like text electronic communication, MMS, email, net access, short-range wireless communications(infrared, Bluetooth), business applications, vice and photography. A Smartphone, or smart phone, is a mobile phone with more advanced computing capability and connectivity than basic feature phones. Early Smartphones typically combined the features of a mobile phone with those of other popular consumer device, such as a personal digital assistant (PDA), a media player a camera, and/or a GPS navigation unit. Trendy Smartphones embrace all of these options and the options of a touchscreen laptop, together with internet browsing, Wi-Fi, and 3rd-party apps and accessories. In the third quarter of 2012, one billion smartphones were in use worldwide. International smartphone sales surpassed the sales figures for options phones in early 2013. As of 2013, sixty five % U.S. mobile shoppers own Smartphones. Consumers own
Integration of smart library resources into online courses would enable stu- dents to conduct research online anywhere in the world using the library’s re- sources, provided there is Internet connection. Students can have access to the campus’ smart library that will find, collect, and synthesize relevant research in- formation like a colleague. That, and uses of IOT-based programs that edits one’s grammar, spelling, tone, and word choices (e.g. Grammarly) can improve student’s writing proficiency. Use of the smart library can be customized such that background readings are based on their student’s level, which can be as- sessed through a diagnostic test that captures the student’s current level of edu- cation (Tang & McCalla, 2003) . Furthermore, IoT technology can link stu- dents in the same online courses together, enabling collaborative research projects and pooling of research resources.
demand with smart metering, grid companies should substantially substitute CAPEX for OPEX, while they are incentivized to do the opposite (see section 3.1.: cutting OPEX is often stronger incentivized than cutting CAPEX) 19 .
Second issue, the distributed benefits. The existence of network externalities implies that system- wide costs and benefits do not always coincide. Specifically for grid companies the benefits from grid technology innovation are often distributed among several grid users. For instance, active grid management allows DG developers to connect more timely and efficiently, and the same applies to off-shore grids for large scale RES developers. Another example is smart meters which can bring benefits to grid users (e.g., consumers, generators, etc) as well as to grid companies.
The interest in Smart Cities has generated several theoretical discussions, but there is not sufficient progress in the implementation and evaluation of related initiatives. A city that want to implement a Smart initiative should evaluate their needs and establish an integrated approach covering environmental, social and economic aspects (Abella y Ruiz, 2015). Besides, there are rankings based on different attributes related to cities, such as quality of life or environment. So, comparative studies based on the Smart City concept are beginning to emerge ( Berrone et al., 2015; Giffinger et al., 2007; Manville et al., 2015; Neirotti, 2012; Moreno, 2016)
Contemporary researches on the impact of globalization and the development of Information, Communication and Technology (ICT) towards the roles of principal had shown that school principals are experiencing dramatic changes in their work. The Malaysian Ministry of Education is planning to transform all schools into smart schools. Principals simply cannot avoid this. They have to be sophisticated users of management information system. They have to become proficient users of a variety of software, hardware, both Intra and Inter Networks, integrating technology into teaching and learning processes, attending professional development programs for enhancing their level of competencies in handling ICT equipment, and experiencing the impact of ICT on their work. Specifically, this paper will focus on the roles of principals in transforming their respective schools into smart schools.
The task "Keen Configuration of Smart Environments" was composed with the end goal that any gadget of electrical home machines at homes can be worked through Android cell phone. The controlling of electrical apparatuses is done remotely through Android advanced mobile phone utilizing the Bluetooth highlight exhibit in it. Here in this venture the Android advanced mobile phone is utilized as a remote control for working the electrical machines. CONCLUSION:
Strain gauges will be used to monitor the strain in all of the bridge elements. Because these sensors have been used extensively for many years, they will serve as a basis for comparison in order to monitor and evaluate the performance of the smart sensors. Although strain gauges are not as sensitive, nor as accurate as piezoelectric sensors, the expected strains will be large and the strain gauges will be sufficient .
Traditionally, electromechanical meters or basic electronic meters have been used to measure energy consumption . These types of meters require sending the suppliers to the energy meter location for meter readings and other manage- ment tasks such as meter disconnection. This is exercabating considering the high number of customers . Smart meters have become increasingly popular for calculating, controlling and measuring power consumption, gas and water (Figure 1). A smart meter is an electronic device which used to record and transmit the information of electricity, water or gas consumption. The data is then normally stored on a server which will be used for further operations like calculating the consumption fees, showing consumption statistics or showing other information to the customer , . It is expected that based on smart meter information, significant energy and financial savings can be achieved . The large-scale installations of smart meters will generate a massive amount of data which can offer the company a unique insight of the power consumption of different consumers. This information can be used to help consumers to shift their consumption from peak hours, which can result in significant savings of the energy . Also, it can help electricity scheduling to facilitate safe and efficient operation of the power system. Smart cities adopt smart grid and smart meters.
The simulation results shows that the proposed mechanism have better performance in preventing wireless attacks. And it is suitable for smart grid communication. The use of simple cryptographic operations, ECC (Elliptic Curve Cryptography),zero knowledge protocol, ALOHA protocol are made it secure and simple. It should be applicable in high security needed areas. Real time implementation of this work is our future plan.
In order to meet the high service expectations of new-style hotel consumers, hotel establishments move towards development and implementation of a new smart hotel concept. Their major business challenges include an increase of occupancy rates, return visits, and new business opportunities led by the reduced complexity and improved operational cost efficiency. The smart hotels take the best the technology has to offer in order to provide the guests a highly personalized experience. Hence, hotels create a smart environment which enables integration of voice, mobility, high-speed Internet access, and TV entertainment services, which on the other hand result in new experiences and improved services for guests. Moreover, the smart room technology is often combined with super-efficient service since this kind of room is customizable to individual preferences, learning guest habits and anticipation throughout their stay.
Historically, the canal with its roads alongside, worked as a segregating device in the city- dividing the French town (then, White town) and the Tamil town (then, Black town). The canal seems to be the divider, so the sites were appropriately chosen to mitigate the divider. The project site is located on the canal. The project is meant to be a ‘bridge’, a connector between the two distinct settlements: programmatically, architecturally, and socially. The project is about changing the history of the city by changing the nature of the canal area, to be contextual to contemporary times. It is meant to be a catalyst that will connect the two sides of the city of Pondicherry. The project- Bridging ‘Smart’ is meant to be a place that will belong to all the people in Pondicherry- the local residents (French, Tamil and others), the French property holders, the tourists and the ashramites. The place is to enable greater interaction between various stakeholders through more approachable spaces for intellectual and leisure activity and venues for cultural assimilation. The idea is to create a place that is equitable in characteristics between the Tamil and the French Town. Integrating local food, local crafts, knowledge, health and spiritual awareness into the program became crucial. Hence, the program of the project includes flexible markets, food outlets and café, hall for cultural activities, wellness/ yoga pavilion, play/learning area, workshops for crafts, parking and services. Responding to context was key to formulate an appropriate approach and articulate design strategies.