Results of the current study showed that dental professionals appear to be more crit- ical in evaluating patients smile aesthetics than the patients themselves. This could be attributed that their scientific background about principals of smile aesthetics make them capable of picking out small dental defects that is not noticeable by the patients. Another reason that may explain that difference is that dental professionals looks to the general oral health of the patients through these photographs such as observing pres- ence of plaque, calculus, inflamed gingival, which are not perceived by most of the pa- tients. In our study, a statistically significant difference existed between patients’ satis- faction about their smiles and dental professionals view in the five categories of the study (smile overall, shape, color, gum show during smiling, alignment). The finding that the dentists gave lower evaluation cores for smile aesthetics than the patients is similar with the reports of most studies did this comparison -. Our finding reveals that dental professional are more sensitive to any defect in smile esthetics than the pa- tient themselves, a finding that is not in agreement with that of the study done by Krishnan et al . (2008) . The participants gave the least scores for their teeth colors which indicate the least satisfaction of the five categories of the study. Similar finding was found in the most of the studies which compared the perception of the patients or laypeople to dental professionals’ view   .
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objective clinical examinations would have created the opportunity for similar studies in the future. The find- ings of studies of the perception of smile aesthetics re- ported to date have varied widely in terms of analytical methods and data collection instruments (web-based surveys, self-reported perception, photographs, software- altered images) and included a wide range of smile fea- tures and sociocultural parameters, so it is difficult to compare their findings. Another limitation is that we used images only with the features of smile aesthetics that we considered important and wanted to evaluate. However, there are no internationally recognised standardised pho- tographs for rating smile aesthetics or relevant studies, so we were unable to undertake an objective comparison of our findings with those of other investigators. A more comprehensive questionnaire and inclusion of clinical ex- aminations would have been helpful, but was not possible in view of limited funding resources. Another limitation was that the subjects were in different study years and had different teachers, who may have influenced their percep- tion of smile aesthetics. However, the students were from the same university and were undertaking the same programme of study.
this study was to determine the effects of buccal corridor spaces (BCS) and arch form on smile aesthetics as perceived by laypeople, general dentists, and orthodontists. Material included photographs of 20 women who were treated by 2 orthodontists were collected: 1 group had narrow tapered or tapered arch forms, and the other had normal to broad arch forms. Photographs of 10 untreated women served as a control sample. All photographs showed the subjects smiling. The photographs were digitized and evaluated for BCS. Then, photographs with BCS were altered to eliminate the dark triangular areas, and those without BCS were altered by the addition of dark triangular areas at the lateral aspects of the smile. The altered photographs were randomized into a survey with the 30 original photographs. Three groups of raters (dentists, orthodontists, and laypeople) used a visual analogue scale to rate the photographs. Results showed there was no significant difference in smile scores related to BCS for all samples and for all viewers. Dentists rated broader arch forms as more aesthetic than untreated arch forms. Orthodontists rated broader arch forms as more aesthetic than narrow tapered arch forms and untreated arch forms. Lay people showed no preference of arch form. To conclude this study demonstrates that the presence of BCS does not influence smile aesthetics. However, there are differences in how dentists, orthodontists, and laypeople evaluate smiles and in what arch form each group prefers.
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gingival show x . The social smile is repeatable photographically in comparison with the other smile. Most studies refer to the posed smile as it is reproducible and can be used as a reference position xi . During clinical examination emphasis is placed on the display zone of smile, which is determined by lip thickness, intercommissural width, interlabial gap, smile index (SI), and gingival architecture. Inclusion of smiling photographs, with the usual frontal and lateral photographs makes it possible to observe patients in a much more natural attitude. Although various scientific studies examined smile esthetics using static photographs to determine relationships and proportion. xii Few studies have been reported in the Indian population.
Dale Carnegie said, “smile is the only way to win anyone’s (Ackerman, 1998). Often, the main reason people seek orthodontic treatment is to improve dental aesthetics. The smile, along with speech, is what most visibly displays the results of orthodontic treatment; therefore, smile aesthetics becomes a major goal in orthodontic treatment. Ideal occlusion should certainly remain the primary functional goal of orthodontics but the aesthetic outcome is , 2008 and Sarver, 2000). and digital smile designing plays an important role in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning since few decades. There are vast innovations and studies being progressed for improvising the smile. It is a multifactorial process which involves study of both, patient’s soft tissues and overall outcome of the treatment considering those factors. As aim of orthodontic treatment itself explains how the smile aesthetic is important along with structural , 2008 and Sarver, The variables considered in study are Buccal Corridor Space, Smile Arc, Occlusal Cant, Smile Symmetry, Maxillary
The study was limited to two aspects of smile aesthetics in order to minimize the confounding interactions that other aspects of smile aesthetics might have on the judgement of raters. Only the lips and teeth were shown in the images in order to reduce any confounding variables that might have an effect on judgement and to focus only on the smile. Although some authors argued that overall facial attractiveness was more important than dental aesthetics in evaluating the overall aesthetics , it is worth noting that in order to achieve the overall acceptability or attractiveness of a smile, the set of variables that affect smile aesthetics have to be studied separately in order to reduce any bias in the results. In a study conducted by Springer et al.  who used a full-face view, the reliability for the buccal corridor limits was poor compared to another study using a lower face or oral views . It is important to note however that dental attractiveness is affected by the facial type of the individual. For example, some authors reported that a narrow smile is considered more attractive in individuals with short faces than in those with long faces . The relationship between the dentition on one hand and the soft tissue, the nasal width and general facial width on the other hand is also important when evaluating smile in a full-face view. Since this would introduce many confounding variables, this study was limited to evaluating two aspects of smile aesthetics in intra-oral views only.
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A charming smile can open doors and knock down barriers that stand between us and a fuller, richer life. The concepts of smile esthetics are not new, but are too often overlooked in orthodontic treatment planning. The components of the smile should be considered not as rigid boundaries but as artistic guidelines to help orthodontists treat individual patients who are today, more than ever, highly aware of smile Aesthetics. It is important for orthodontists to make every effort to develop a harmonious balance that will produce the most attractive smile possible for each patient being treated.
Living conditions or housing also constitutes life aesthetics. Elder people are fragile and should live in geographical areas free of health hazards. Architectural designs should also be considerate of the fact that most of the elderly individuals are physically less mobile or may not be able to move at all. Housing plans should be formulated in a manner that favors easy mobility of old persons (Shimamura & Palmer, 2011). Transport is also another area of concern in the discussion of life aesthetics in relation to old adults. When commuting, elder people should consider their physical health and use favorable modes of transport. And, when moving over short distances, walking would be desirable because it would make them physically fit and maintain the functionality of their locomotion structures.
The subjects were photographed in the natural head position with the posed smile (Fig. 6A and B). Pictures were taken in the same environment with the same light- ing conditions by using Nikon Digital SLR camera D5100 with DX format in JPEG image format. A tripod was used to fix the camera to one position for the standardization of the photographs and the pictures were taken in color. All the pictures were transferred to the computer software Microsoft Office Picture Manager version 7 for cropping. The pictures were cropped with the vertical limit from the nose tip to the soft tissue pogonion and transverse limit between perpendicular lines drawn down from the zygomatic prominence on each side (Fig. 6C).
In this report we start by broadly dividing the pricing process into four cases, presented in Figure 7.1. The various cases broadly differ on inclusion of two properties: smile of the underlying and tail dependence between them. Case A - “GBM + Gaussian” is the simplest way of pricing where Geometric Brownian Motion (GBM) is assumed for the marginals (no smile) and the joint distribution is assumed to be “Gaussian”, which has zero tail dependence. In Case B - “UVDD + Gaussian” smiles are included by using the UVDD model but still no tail dependence . Case C - “GBM + non-Gaussian” includes the tail dependence between the underlying, but skips the smile in their marginal distributions . Case D - “UVDD + non-Gaussian” incorporates both smile through UVDD model and tail dependence by use of non-Gaussian copula, in our case Clayton and Gumbel. We will price mostly under the last case settings and wherever necessary will compare them with other cases.
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Results: The two groups of evaluators showed no rating difference (analysis of variance, P = 0.64), thus they were placed into a single group. No significant correlation was found between esthetic judgment and six smile attributes (incisor exposure, interlabial gap, width 3 to 3, smile index, right buccal corridor, and buccal corridor ratio). The control group showed more correlations with the unpleasant judgment type than the other groups.
effects on the smiles of older patients. Estimates of method errors using double determinations show mean differences and standard deviations consistent with expectations. Towards this, they performed a comparative study to examine the nature of the gingival smile (GSL), a specific dento-labial configuration characterized by the exposure of maxillary anterior gingiva during a full smile. The results indicated that the capacity to project a gingival smile was related to: anterior vertical maxillary excess and the muscular ability to raise the upper lip significantly higher than average when smiling. Other variables significantly associated with GSL were greater overjet, greater interlabial gap at rest and greater overbite. Factors that did not appear associated with GSL phenomenon were upper lip length, incisor clinical crown height, mandibular plane angle and palatal plane angle.
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I am convinced that the DMV is modern man’s solution to the rack, except instead of stretching limbs it stretches time. Every second feels like a century, each customer either on their phones or admiring the curve of their cuticles. Mom’s chatting with an older gentleman, something about a Celtic festival, while I break out my go-to nervous smile and wait for the instructor. The room smells of wasted time, that musty aroma encompassing moldy exhales and erupting brain cells. For over twenty minutes we wait, which is funny consider- ing we were running late. Twenty-six minutes and at least eight sighs later the instructor walks over to shake my hand. He’s in his latter years, mid-sixties or so, with no-nonsense eyes and equal shares enthusiasm and hair, that is to say none. We meander through the standard procedures as I introduce myself and give him my insurance information. In a matter of minutes the two of us enter the car.
Abstract— Narrative games may offer reasoning on players’ behaviour or make-believe on players’ personation as a pursuit to achieve specific goals. One of the goals is probably the intention to instil learning, which subconsciously provides information on the content of the game. However, there is a lack of studies on the contribution of game aesthetics towards player’s perceived learning. By means of expert review, this article reports on a conceptual model of game aesthetics towards perceived learning and the degree of importance of each attribute in perceived learning. Findings reveal that all experts agreed on the contribution of game aesthetics towards perceived learning. In addition, the expert recommends three other factors that may contribute to learning: player’s motivation, learning content, and gameplay. Future work will continue to design and develop the game prototype and to investigate the relationship between game aesthetics and perceived learning.
Along with these basic characters, other important criteria which should be considered while doing esthetic treatment planning are midline  (most important factor in an esthetic smile), occlusal plane, symmetry, lip length, thickness and buccal corridor  interdental papilla , negative space , buccal corridor [5, 15], incisal edge position, smile width, incisal curve , proportion of the teeth exposed  in the smile and gingival esthetics.
Methods: A total of 218 eyes of 109 patients who underwent FS-LASIK or SMILE for myopic correction were retrospectively studied. Ninety-eight eyes of 49 patients who underwent FS-LASIK were compared to 120 eyes of 60 patients treated with SMILE. A DRS analyzer was used for preoperative and 6-month postoperative anterior segment analyses. Measured variables included the central corneal thickness (CCT), anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior and posterior keratometry (K), anterior and posterior best-fit sphere radius, and maximum posterior elevation (MPE). Results: After the procedure, the amount of CCT decrease was higher in the SMILE group than in the FS-LASIK group, but it was not statistically significant. The MPE was significantly increased after both procedures ( p < 0.001 and p = 0.001 in the FS-LASIK and SMILE groups, respectively), with the amount of elevation being higher after FS- LASIK than after SMILE even though it was not statistically significant. And there was a significant change in the steep and average posterior K in the FS-LASIK group ( p = 0.006 and 0.001, respectively), but not in the SMILE group. Conclusions: Regarding changes in the MPE and posterior K, changes in the posterior corneal surface were greater after FS-LASIK than after SMILE.
The cognitive turn (Steen 1994) in humanities involves several principles that reject the Cartesian dualities of mind and body, reason and emotion, poetics and aesthetics. These are replaced by continuities such as the embodied mind, the inter-animation of meaning and feeling, and the assertion that our processes and experiences of life and art are not separate. In essence, real emotion and literary emotion, real people and literary characters, remembered experiences and recounted experiences are processed very similarly, with the only difference being one of mere existence. One consequence here is that science fictional aesthetics cannot be treated separately from a literary or artistic aesthetics, because literary feeling is still fundamentally the same as feeling in general (Stockwell 2009a). We can identify – drawing on cognitive science – the common aesthetic patterns that sf shares with other art and experience in general; and we can also identify the particular patterns of science fictional singularity.
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As mentioned, there is a need to know the threshold value to do the refinement. We have a real-time case in to show the correlation value changes with smile expression and off-line case on FGNET face database to decide the proper threshold Fig 4 shows a sequence of images and their correlation value corresponding to the initial mouth pattern. These images give us some level of confidence that using correlation to identify the neutral or smile expression is possible. To show stronger evidence, we run a real-time case by doing seven smile activities with 244 frames and record their correlation value. Table 3. shows the image index and their correlation values. If we set 0.7 as our threshold, we would have mean correlation value 0.868 and standard deviation 0.0563 for neutral face and mean value 0.570 and standard deviation 0.0676 for smile face.
during orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning (6) . Ackerman and Ackerman developed a ratio called the smile index used to visualize and quantify the frontal smile .(7) This ratio is used for comparing smiles among patients. The lower the smile index the less youthful the smile appears. Orthodontists have to make every effort to develop a harmonious balance between the various soft and hard tissue structures that will produce an attractive smile. This will be possible only when they are aware of the principles that manage the balance between the teeth and soft tissues during a person’s smiles.
Being told to “smile more” is something that people who aren’t smiling hear a lot. Not only is it terrible advice to give someone with depression, or even someone just having a bad day, but it also brings about the idea that their job is to just smile, be pleasant, and set aside their actual feelings. This isn’t a film about having depression, it’s about feeling like who you are is less than what you should be. It’s about feeling like you’re at 15% when everyone else is at 95. It’s about feeling like your best isn’t good enough, for yourself or anybody else. These are concepts that are familiar to a lot of people, for a lot of reasons, and one of my goals for the film is to capture these feelings in such a way so that it can be relatable to anybody who can relate, even if for completely different reasons than my own. The film ends on a small moment of personal satisfaction. June’s life isn’t suddenly perfect, she isn’t suddenly a happy person.
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