This project was aimed at optimizing soapproduction profit using Neural Network programming. In this project a Neural Network was trained using a data set of solved linear programming problems. The objective function used in this training had two (2) variables and three (3) constraints equations. This trained Neural Network was used to optimize soapproduction profit for two different kinds of soap; bathing and laundry soaps. The Neural Network structure consisted of eleven (11) inputs and 3 outputs with a neural structure of 2 hidden layers and 50 neurons. The training algorithm used was feed-forward back propagation with a Bayesian Regularization error. The Neural Network results when compared with traditional simplex method of optimization, proved to be 98% accurate. The maximum projected profit was up to a 91% increase from ₦30,625 to ₦58,500 in a month. This research will increase the current rate of soapproduction in Patrich Global Enterprise and increase the profit of production while maintaining the same quantity of raw materials for monthly soapproduction.
Scientifically, soap is a blend of sodium or potassium salts with various naturally occurring fatty acids. Soap are chiefly utilized as surfactants for washing, showering and cleaning. They are additionally utilized as a part of textile spinning and also are important components of lubricants. There are many types of soaps like opaque soap (example brand Lux and May), transparent soap, liquid soap and others. Premium transparent toilet soap is a clear soap with a high glycerine content hence it also referred as glycerine soap. It is recognizably different from other soaps because it is transparent. The clarity is due to the arrangement of the soap molecules, which can be excited through the expansion of alcohol and sugar . The making of premium transparent toilet soap involved lots of processes and techniques. Correct techniques will yield beautiful premium transparent toilet soap and vice versa. One of the problems facing soapproduction is the cracking phenomenon in premium transparent toilet soap. A cracking phenomenon in the premium transparent toilet soap will give bad expectation to customers. Example of cracking phenomenon in the premium transparent toilet soap is shown in Figure 1.
This is a process that produces soap, usually from fats and lye. In technical terms, saponification involves base (usually caustic soda NaOH) hydrolysis of triglycerides, which are esters of fatty acids, to form the sodium salt of a carboxylate. In addition to soap, such traditional saponification processes produce glycerol. "Saponifiable substances" are those that can be converted into soap . Knowledge of saponification is relevant to many technologies and many aspects of everyday life.
and also capable of dissolving lye. The selection of alkali material depends on the final product solubility and hardness. Two common alkali materials used are sodium and potassium where sodium is used to produce a hard soap while the potassium is used in liquid soap due to its greater solubility. The characteristics of triglycerides and fatty acids also play an important role not only in the features and performance of the final product, but also in its production cost. Commercial triglyceride used in soapproduction consists of plant source (palm kernel, oils of coconut, olive, etc) and of animal origin (fats of tallow, lard, etc) .
The basic processes for making soap have re- mained unchanged for the past 200 years. How- ever a major change observed was the initiation of pre-treatment of fats and oils. This lead Procter and Gamble to install an automatic high pres- sure hydrolysis for continuous neutralisation pro- cess of these fatty acids in 1937. However, the supply of vegetable oil used for soapproduction from Africa and the Eastern territories of Nige- ria increased the availability of the palm material (palm and coconut) which eventually replaced tallow and other animal fats.
Seed oils are important source of bioactive natural compounds, applicable in food and cosmetic industries. Certain oils with specific physicochemical properties are consumed without much processing. Obviously, physicochemical parameters of seed oils are important in the determination of edibility and other industrial applications. For instance, seed oil with high acid value is usually not edible, because the high acidity is attributed to extensive hydrolysis of the oil by lipolytic and oxidizing enzymes . High acid value is also attributed to the induction of the toxicity of oils . Physicochemical characteristics that favours the use of an oil for cooking and other culinary uses include low acid value, low peroxide value, presence of anti- oxidant compounds and low free fatty acids . These properties determine the overall quality of the oil such as the shell life, wholeness and extent of adulteration. Physicochemical characteristics which makes an oil suitable for industrial applications as in soapproduction and other cosmetic applications are high acid value and high saponification value. Oils with such physicochemical parameters are usually of low nutritional and food relevance to man.
152 | P a g e known that there are more than 100 oils that are used in soapproduction which occur in most varieties . But unfortunately, most of the soaps form non – saponifiable fatty acids and cannot be suitablefor soapproduction. In soapproduction, mixtures of oils are usuallyused to produce a high – quality product. Some components of these combinations may not undergo hydrolysis saponification and may be left out in the soap as unreacted fattyacids . Skin irritation can be caused with the short chain fatty acids in soaps. As there occurs a tendency to bleach the skin with the soapproduction, it is necessary to wash out the unreacted use of alkali. Unfortunately, for profit, most soap producers sacrifice quality and retain unreacted soap alkali .Sometimes, in order to produce a soap that bleaches, the alkali is left in the soap. Soap is a mixture of Na + or K + ions with fatty acids chemically. It is possible to classify fatty acids into saturated andunsaturated fatty acids. The most abundant saturated fatty acids are palmitic and stearic acids, whereas the most abundant unsaturated fatty acids are oleic and linoleic acids. Production of quality soap consists largely of choosing the right proportions of the right oils with their different fatty acids.
This article was conducted to establish the involvement of vulnerable women and youths in innovative livestock by- products value addition to create alternative employment opportunities and diversify wealth creation livelihood activi- ties through DFID UKaid Sustainable Employment and Economic Development (SEED) funded programme and im- plemented by FAO Somalia in the security fragile state of Somaliland that has few options of formal employment op- portunities. The study focused on the processes and achievements of the SEED programme towards deriving maximum benefits from livestock by-products instead of concentrating on meat production and consumption only. During the programme intervention, an initial forty (40) beneficiaries of various trade skills and academic levels were selected through SOMDA for capacity development with competency based training (CBT) skills. One of the primary advan- tages of CBT was that it focused on the success of each participant. The training focused on each trainee attaining a small number of specific and job-related competencies in bone-craft trinkets and laundry soapproduction. By the end of SEED phase I, the intervention created a total of 120 direct jobs which were involved in soap and bone-crafts produc- tion giving the impetus of making full use of the meat value chain and creating a viable source of employment and in- come for women and youths in Somaliland contributing to increased Somali economy from the main lifeline of Somalia population that is anchored on livestock production and trade.
In the current study, we compared the efficacy of alcohol, antiseptic soap, and non- medicated soap in microbial elimination using the standard pre-operative hand preparation practice. The antimicrobial soap was far more efficient than the non-medicated soap and alcohol was the most efficient compared to both. This agrees with the work of Guilhermetti et al. , Girou et al. , Cimiotti et al. , Kampf & Ostermeyer , Kac et al. , Abaza et al. , and Turner et al 2010  . Nthumba et al. showed no statistically or clinically
The surface tension of flowing soap films is measured with respect to the film thickness and the concentration of soap solution. We perform this measurement by measuring the curvature of the nylon wires that bound the soap film channel and use the measured curvature to parametrize the relation between the surface tension and the tension of the wire. We find the surface tension of our soap films increases when the film is relatively thin or made of soap solution of low concentration, otherwise it approaches an asymptotic value 30 mN/m. A simple adsorption model with only two parameters describes our observations reasonably well. With our measurements, we are also able to estimate Gibbs elasticity for our soap film.
The size of a SOAP message affects the amount of time needed to process the message. In oversized payloads attack, an attacker sends an excessively large payload to deplete the victim's system resources. A SOAP message contains references to external entities (e.g. an XML file residing on a different server). These references are substituted with the actual contents when the SOAP message is processed. An attacker can send a SOAP message containing a large amount of references to external entities to force the service provider to (a) open a large number of TCP connections to download the actual contents of the entities and (b) use a large amount of CPU cycles to process the downloaded contents.
In previous studies, white honey had better antibacterial activity against MRSA and PaMR when compared to amber honey . This study reports antiseptic white honey liquid soap formulation and its effectiveness against nosocomial infections. Based on the shape of the soap is divided into two types, namely solid form soap, and liquid form. This study chose liquid bath soap. After all, it has advantages when compared with other forms of soap, because it is easy to use, carry and store, is not easily damaged and dirty, and has exclusive packaging [11-12].
The substrate can facilitate federation between competing specifications in the same target area. Examples of such scenarios include WS-ReliableMessaging (WSRM)  and WS-Reliability  in the reliable delivery area and WS-Eventing and WS-Notification in the area of notifications. Such a federation would enable service endpoints from competing specifications to interoperate with each other. This capability requires the substrate to map not only the structural elements of the SOAP messages but do so while ensuring that the semantics encapsulated within the original message are also mapped accordingly. It is entirely possible that in some cases it might not be possible to find a semantically equivalent operation in a target specification; here we may either throw faults or provide for custom extensions.
Replica Manager. Its purpose is to manage all replica management related functions. For the implementation of replica manager we purposes SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) based system that replicate the required information gained from knowledgebase. SOAP is a lightweight protocol for exchange of information in a decentralized, distributed environment. It is an XML based protocol that consists of three parts: an envelop that defines a framework for describing what is in a message and how to process it, a set of encoding rules for expressing instances of application-defined data types, and a convention for representing Remote Procedure Calls and responses.
enjoyment of watching occurs, then, in spite of the obvious flaws of the genre. This perception of the absurdities and conventions of the soap opera creates a certain distance from the text which enables the viewer to enter into reflection and criticism. The person who engages regularly with a particular soap is able to draw on a detailed knowledge of the personalities who appear and may bring years of watching to this dialogue. They can then try to guess how the scriptwriters will resolve a particular conflict or compare the reactions to a crisis on screen with their own experiences.
neutralization or deacidification . Chemical neutralization involves treating the raw oil with caustic KOH or NaOH. Soap produced during this process is removed, and the residual oil is ready for the base catalysis. However, some oil is vanished during this process. Physical deacidification, also removes the FFA. This total process is performed under vacuum. Fats and oils with high FFA content can be converted to biodiesel fuel using acid catalysis process, which is the other approach to treating high FFA content feedstock [29,30]. Soap formation is not a major problem since there are no alkali metal particles present in the reaction medium. Acid catalysts can apply for transesterification of the triglycerides, but the reaction may take a number of days to complete. Acid catalysis method is also used for direct esterification of raw oils with high FFA content, or for the production of esters from soap, which is a by-product of the edible oil refining process. The esterification of FFA to alcohol esters is comparatively fast; it would take about 1-2 hours at 60ºC to complete the reaction. Water is produced during this esterification. To get better reaction rates, water present in the oil needs to be removed by phase separation . Phosphoric acid and sulfuric acid are the most common acids used in acid catalysis. The raw oil is sometimes dried to 0.5 % water and filtered previous to the reaction. Then, acid and methanol mixture is added to the raw oil. The conversion of the fatty acids to methyl esters has attained equilibrium, the methanol and acid mixture was removed by settling . Methanol and base catalyst (NaOH or KOH) are added into the residual oil for transesterification process. The rest of the conversion process is the same as the base catalysis. Transesterification process can be operated either as a batch or continuous process. A batch process is suitable for smaller plants. The continuous process allows the use of high-volume separation system, and therefore enhance the output volume [33,34].
oil is the main base to manufacture toilet soap. The factory shifted its operation to Rajajinagar industrial area, Bangalore in July 1957, where the present plant is located. The plant occupies an area of 39 acres (covering soaps, detergents and fatty acid divisions). Factory expanded in two stages. The first stage during 1950 expansion was done to increase the output to 700 tons per year in the old premises. To meet the growing demand for Mysore Sandal Soap, second stage of expansion was taken place in 1954 Government of India sanctioned license to manufacture 1500 tons of soaps and 75 tons glycerin per year. In 1980, KS & DL was incorporated as a company by merging the government soap factory with sandal oil factories at Shimoga and Mysore. Mysore Sandal Soap in the world made from 100% pure sandal wood oil.
. As a result, more of the reactants decomposed at temperatures > 300 o C take place with little or no hydroxide in them. Such a phenomenon will certainly produce many fractions of olefins rather than paraffins. After knowing the triggers for the formation of olefin fractions, two important things related to soap need to be studied further, namely first, determine the level of hydroxide by calculating the alkaline content. Alkaline content is the number of alkaline bases that combine as soap along with fatty acids . Alkaline content analysis is intended to quantitatively determine the basic level of soap and be the initial guide to the liquid biohydrocarbons produced. If soap is produced based on oleic acid, then the maximum value of alkaline content of basic soap reaches 50% by weight. When the soap produced has a maximum alkaline content, the soap is very good to be used as a decarboxylation reactant to produce liquid biohydrocarbons with a dominant paraffin fraction. Second, mixing other metals (other than Mg) for soap making, so that
In 2006 almost all treatments thinned significantly compared with the control (F = 2,81; p = 0,03; Fig 1). Although no significant differences were detected in accumulated production (F = 0,82; p = 0,56), three of them (calcium polysulfide at 3% and potassic soap at 4% with or without olive oil) produced an increment compared to the control. Treatments also had a positive influence on fruit-size and tree growth.