Social and Community Exclusion in Indigenous Communities

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Psychological distress and community exclusion in Indigenous communities: a convergent parallel (mixed methods) study

Psychological distress and community exclusion in Indigenous communities: a convergent parallel (mixed methods) study

Chapter 2: Social and Community Exclusion in Indigenous Communities 2.1 Introduction Chapter 1 introduced social inclusion as a broad theoretical discourse. It considered scholarship on social inclusion/exclusion and related social policy development in Australia and overseas and examined how the social inclusion agenda has been applied to Indigenous policy from a perspective of being included OR excluded from mainstream society. Chapter 2 reinforces the concept of identity and the importance of developing a secure sense of identified self, and how this can relate to social inclusion/exclusion. This chapter then examines the characteristics of exclusion in the Indigenous context in more detail. It continues with an examination of Indigenous exclusion from mainstream society, an area which has attracted significant scholarship, and then considers how and why Indigenous people experience exclusion from their own community (whether locally or broadly defined). The chapter considers historical context and the role of identity construction as a vehicle for exclusion from mainstream society today and in the past, and how its legacy can be seen in the mechanisms which exclude people from their own community. It will consider how being in an excluded state from one’s Indigenous community can damage identity, health, and hope. The chapter defines and explores the notion of community exclusion as a subset of lateral violence – the latter having attracted more research in recent years. The chapter provides a brief literature review of theories that have sought to explain violent behaviour because of received oppression, and posits how these may be of use in understanding why community exclusion occurs, concluding that an ecological approach shows the most potential for further exploration. Finally, the chapter briefly explores current understandings of the mental health impact of this type of exclusion, how such behaviours are transmitted and, briefly, the evidence of protective factors, notably resilience and social capital, as these are critical to ameliorating the effects of community exclusion, as will be explored further in Chapter 3.
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Community crafts and culture : empowering indigenous communities

Community crafts and culture : empowering indigenous communities

6 CONCLUSION The CCC project took an integrated approach to crafts production, sales, and cultural sustainability to build on existing partnerships and community groups in order to at once strengthen local community traditional crafts, and engage external researchers and facilitators to empower local people - especially women and young people - in promoting and selling their native crafts. By creating an interactive website designed according to community decisions, and that can be managed locally by the community museum, the local people are enabled to promote their crafts beyond what was possible before the project began. Promoted through the Red de Museos Comunitarios de Costa Rica, the online map and documentation provides a solid platform for future projects in Costa Rica, and also in other Lower or Middle income ODA countries in Latin America and elsewhere where indigenous and ethnic traditional cultures are at risk of extinction on one hand (through a lack of investment from the next generation and the dangerous effects of climate change), and exploitation on the other (through third party traders and inappropriate tourism initiatives). The CCC project argues for the role of culture as the fourth pillar of Sustainable Development, needing its corresponding place in public policies and international cooperation efforts alongside environment, economics, and social aspects. As we have deonstrated, working with artisan communities to define and strengthen their own path through culture can reach the aims of sustainable development relating economy, social areas and environment.
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The Social Interaction Between Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Community in Malaysia

The Social Interaction Between Indigenous and Non-Indigenous Community in Malaysia

Other information states that mosques have a real role in building social reform between indigenous people and non-indigenous communities. It is because Malaysia is predominantly Muslim. Then in terms of tourism services and the absence of payments made for tourism places, so it will attract tourists to come and make social interaction with the indigenous community. This interaction is considered to be very capable of attaching the social relations of indigenous people to non-indigenous communities. This also shows that the existence of non-indigenous people towards indigenous communities is highly valued, respected and open to newcomers. Of course, this has a very positive impact, both by indigenous people and non-indigenous communities in a whole society. Interaction that exists between indigenous and non-indigenous communities in Malaysia is a relationship that mutually influences one another, even with the surrounding environment, in this case there is an advantage between the two sides and creates a harmonious and comfortable life form in social life, religion, culture, language and so on that can be realized in the form of solidarity, tolerance and respect for the surrounding community. In the view of indigenous people, non-indigenous people have a positive life, such as enthusiasm and perseverance in working and having a high creativity. They also seemed friendly and simple which is the nature of non-indigenous people such as people who come from Indonesia in order to travel.
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Digital futures in Indigenous communities: from health kiosks to community hubs

Digital futures in Indigenous communities: from health kiosks to community hubs

4.6 Limitations of digital technology and health information in indigenous contexts A significant limitation of improving the health of populations through digital health promotion is that there can be major gaps between what is required or recommended for better health outcomes and the lived realities and condi- tions of different populations. Digital health promotion strategies have drawn criticism for their emphasis on individual responsibility for health through behavioural risk management. This standpoint often neglects the complex dynamics that determine the health of individuals, communities and societies at large. Factors beyond the reach of an individual include broader social, cul- tural, economic and political factors, which often have a far more significant impact on population health. For example, poor health outcomes have been found to be closely associated to socioeconomic disadvantage, which is expe- rienced by many indigenous Australians, particularly those located in remote areas (Allard, Wilkins, & Berthelot, 2004; Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2007; Trewin & Madden, 2005). Low socioeconomic status has been linked to exposure to higher levels of risky behaviour and high-risk environ- ments. These factors are further exacerbated by lack of access to appropriate services due to cost or distance, poor access to healthy food, water and other basic essentials required for healthy lifestyles. A clinician in the health care clinic in Kununurra explained some of the contextual conditions experienced by many indigenous people living in the area:
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Can Museums Promote Community Healing? A Healing Museum Model for Indigenous Communities

Can Museums Promote Community Healing? A Healing Museum Model for Indigenous Communities

Abstract Since colonization, Indigenous peoples and various ethnic groups have endured exploitation, marginalization, and extreme oppression, often culminating in physical and cultural genocide. Crimes of cultural destruction disrupt the fabric of communities; they create a loss of control, sever ties with the past and future, and create feelings of a loss of identity and connection with the value and meaning of culture. This dismissive and destructive behavior by and attitudes of western society towards Indigenous peoples is also reflected in the history of museums. Traditional western museums have misrepresented, objectified, and acted as the authority over Indigenous culture, and so the relationship between museums and Indigenous peoples has historically been one of tension, mistrust, and conflict. However this is changing as museums evolve into agents of social change. Indigenous communities are creating museums and cultural centers to promote cultural connectedness and reaffirm cultural identity, especially after genocide. This thesis will explore how Indigenous
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Indigenous Communities and Community Development Principles in South-East Nigeria: Challenges and Prospects

Indigenous Communities and Community Development Principles in South-East Nigeria: Challenges and Prospects

Conclusion Community development has been identified as a progressive intervention which enables indigenous communities to identify their felt-needs and collectively work together towards addressing their common concerns that will improve their living standards (Seebohm and Gilchrist, 2008). Many indigenous communities have not been able to maximize their various resources in their environment to achieve or fulfill their enumerated concerns. This study focused on the maximum use of principles of community development to address socio- economic needs of the indigenous communities in the south eastern geo-political zone of Nigeria, subsequently making these communities less reliant on external agencies and more reliant on themselves and their environmental resources towards achieving meaningful socio-economic development. To achieve these, there should be planned programme; members of the community should be encouraged for self-help, availability of relevant technical assistance, and integration of various specialties. Also, previous studies (i.e. Omoruji, 2001) have identified that it is economically beneficial and advantageous to work within a group instead of individuals in community development programmes. Although considering the nature of the programme which may be alien to the people’s life style, they may resist change (Batten, 1957) yet initial conscientisation, information and involvement may serve as tools to bridge the gap between the proposing project and members of the indigenous community. Imhabekhai asserted that for community development to succeed, “…the social, physical, political and technological environment must be conducive. The change agent must make effort to identify all the environmental factors that can facilitate or hinder the attainment of ...development objectives to the fullest in the community
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Community Energy on the Road to Reconciliation: Understanding the key components of Community Energy Planning Tools for Indigenous communities

Community Energy on the Road to Reconciliation: Understanding the key components of Community Energy Planning Tools for Indigenous communities

3.1.1. Document review A document review was conducted to assist in fulfilling both Objectives 1 and 2. Document reviews offer an organized method to identify the core elements of written communication by categorizing and classifying a wide cross-section of data through content analysis (Curry et al., 2009). A literature review helped to collect the necessary documents for the document review. The document review looks at grey literature and publicly available documents while the literature review focused on scholarly literature. The literature review conducted for this thesis helped to frame and guide the overall research purpose and objectives. The document review was conducted to review existing CEPs for relevant communities with similar characteristics to many Indigenous communities and understand the criteria being used to create the CEPs. The purpose of the document review for the first objective is to understand the social, economic, and political context in Indigenous communities as it relates to community renewable energy and energy planning. The document review provided a lens to understand the various challenges and opportunities for Indigenous communities carrying out a community energy planning process and related renewable energy projects. The document review assisted with developing the set of criteria used to assess the community energy planning literature, tools, and policies to understand their effectiveness specific to Indigenous communities. The literature reviewed in Chapter 2 was used to identify community case studies that would later be analyzed to better understand the key elements of success in the development of the CEP and related community renewable energy projects.
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The cultural, family and community factors for resilience in Southeast Asian indigenous communities: a systematic review

The cultural, family and community factors for resilience in Southeast Asian indigenous communities: a systematic review

The transference of knowledge may have also assisted in connecting people and creating solidarity amongst the members of the communities. It also served as a guide and wisdom from the ancestors in overcoming challenges; thus, creating a lived sense of togetherness that they are never alone in facing challenges. Furthermore, it is clear that community and social cohesion were highly valued by the indigenous communities in Southeast Asia. Each member of the community believed they had an important role to play in the lives of others, and tried to assist and support members who are struggling (e.g., Barney, 2004; Cohen & Lyttleton, 2002;
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Social exclusion, social capital, and Indigenous Australians: measuring the social costs of unemployment

Social exclusion, social capital, and Indigenous Australians: measuring the social costs of unemployment

Indigenous people pioneered the first practical expression of mutual obligation in Australia with the Indigenous work-for-the-dole scheme, the CDEP scheme. Ulrich Beck argues for ‘citizenship work’, not unlike the CDEP schemes, which covers a broad range of voluntary and community work, from working with homeless people or refugees, to environmental projects. 27 Beck argues that recognising work like this as a valuable contribution to society, and as an expression of people’s citizenship, can include them in ways that low-wage and low-status paid work cannot. Of course, in disadvantaged areas where there is no work available, there may be no alternative to such citizenship work. While CDEP scheme work might extend some Indigenous people’s sense of citizenship at the margin, discrimination and a lack of reconciliation are major impediments to Indigenous participation in mainstream society. Focusing solely on Indigenous attitudes and social networks leads to obviously inadequate and one-sided policy- making. Given that Indigenous people want to work as much as other Australians, policy should not focus solely on either job search or other labour supply decisions of the Indigenous unemployed.
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Gender and social exclusion/inclusion: a study of indigenous women in Bangladesh

Gender and social exclusion/inclusion: a study of indigenous women in Bangladesh

34 they can even terminate their marital relationship by sending their wives back to their family of origin or having the marriage annulled. Millett (1977) argues that in all known societies the relationship between the sexes is based upon power relationships and is therefore a political relationship. It can be argued that women's position at the domestic and public levels, especially in rural areas, is lower than that of men. From early childhood, a female child is likely to have domestic responsibilities, and she often plays a very submissive role at the domestic and public levels. The political dimension of patriarchy suggests that the gender relationship is not only controlled by socio-cultural perspectives but also controlled by the state. In this context, I would like to argue that gender differences are made by man and they are legitimised in a patriarchal society in order to protect unequal political rights and hierarchies. Thus, this thesis looks at gender roles and gender relationships in both the domestic and the public spheres and how these are reflected in the political aspects of the social exclusion and inclusion of indigenous women in Bangladesh.
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Social services and social exclusion. Report of the European Community Observatory on National Policies to Combat Social Exclusion

Social services and social exclusion. Report of the European Community Observatory on National Policies to Combat Social Exclusion

In many countries, services remain fragmented and organised under the responsibility of different public authorities: different in terms of function (health, social [r]

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SOCIAL EXCLUSION

SOCIAL EXCLUSION

independently in the community. From 1990 there have been more studies using different research designs. These include outcome studies, surveys, cohort studies, policy research, as well as programme evaluations. These studies have complemented ongoing qualitative work through more quantitative and evaluative outcome research, including comparative work using normative data from primary or secondary samples of young people (Stein 2004).This paper will draw upon this empirical portfolio to review the research evidence in relation to the social exclusion of care leavers, their transition from care, the services they receive and the outcomes of leaving care interventions.
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Faith communities, social exclusion, homelessness and disability: Transforming the margins in the City of Tshwane

Faith communities, social exclusion, homelessness and disability: Transforming the margins in the City of Tshwane

Disability, dependency and self-development It is apparent that when the ordinary readers engaged with the text, they were able to differentiate between being disabled and living with disability. According to them, the disability of the crippled beggar was not a reason for him to sit at the gate and beg. It became clear that cultivating a dependency mentality never crossed the minds of ordinary readers of the text as one of the solutions to the issue of social exclusion and the role that the church can play. When asked what is it that the lame man could have done differently to help himself, Groups 2 and 3 said that ‘he should have asked people to take him inside the church to be prayed for instead of waiting at the gate and begging for money’. Group 4 put it in context when they answered by saying, ‘He did this by asking for money. In our modern days he could have applied for disability grant. He could have identified his other God- given talents; maybe singing’. These comments raise issues of self-development and self-reliance as opposed to self-pity and dependency. These are critical issues that can contribute positively in resolving the problem of social exclusion and homelessness.
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Denial, modernity and exclusion: Indigenous placelessness in Australia

Denial, modernity and exclusion: Indigenous placelessness in Australia

tsunami is a force of nature. We can do little to alter the latter – though the collective global altruism of the response to the tsunami of 26 December 2004 might signify hope for humanity’s humanity after all? 39 Since the 1980s a few historians such as Henry Reynolds 40 have chronicled disposal of the Indigenous populations as genocidal violence. A classic illustration of denial at work is that this history has been decried as ‘black armband’ history because it does not stress the pluses of modernisation. 41 Genocide first took the form of unnumbered massacres. 42 Few have been publicly acknowledged, nor the names of Indigenous people who died recorded. Hence, unlike at Auschwitz, where there were a few survivors, denial in Australia is aided by missing testimony, as there was no one left to bear witness to the massacres. 43 Many Indigenous people still bear witness to the traumatic consequences of the forcible removal of Indigenous children – an act of the state whose genocidal character is actively denied by Australian courts and governments. 44 This genocidal legacy now flourishes in the social, economic and political conditions in which Australia’s Indigenous people live. These conditions explain their suicide and self-harm rates and truncated life expectancy. 45
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Proposed methodology for estimating the index of social exclusion: the case of indigenous population in the State of Veracruz Mexico

Proposed methodology for estimating the index of social exclusion: the case of indigenous population in the State of Veracruz Mexico

access to services health, access to social security, quality and living spaces, basic services in housing and access to food." In the fight against poverty in Mexico multidimensional, federal public federal public resources are allocated by targeting criteria for the attention of the target population. The strategy of social policy that the State has implemented in social spending, in order to eliminate social inequality and poverty effects generated in the population, through mechanisms of transfer of public resources, called targeted subsidies. The following Chart 1 shows the evolution of the approach and methodology applied by the Mexican State for measuring poverty from a multidimensional one-dimensional approach. It is emphasized that from the year 2008, the CONEVAL establishes the methodology for measuring poverty based on a multidimensional approach in Mexico, based on contributions (Gordon, 2007), (Boltvinik, 2007) and (Alkire-Foster, 2007), and in 2010 published the Guidelines for measuring multidimensional poverty (CONEVAL, 2010). One of the main lines of action in the National Development Plan (NDP) 2007-2012 in the field of social policy was to ensure equal opportunities, for which the following strategies were proposed: i) Reduce extreme poverty, ensure equal opportunities and ii) Achieve expanded capabilities for all Mexicans to improve the quality of life and ensure food, health, education, decent housing and a suitable environment for development.
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Proposed methodology for estimating the index of social exclusion: the case of indigenous population in the State of Veracruz Mexico

Proposed methodology for estimating the index of social exclusion: the case of indigenous population in the State of Veracruz Mexico

access to services health, access to social security, quality and living spaces, basic services in housing and access to food." In the fight against poverty in Mexico multidimensional, federal public federal public resources are allocated by targeting criteria for the attention of the target population. The strategy of social policy that the State has implemented in social spending, in order to eliminate social inequality and poverty effects generated in the population, through mechanisms of transfer of public resources, called targeted subsidies. The following Chart 1 shows the evolution of the approach and methodology applied by the Mexican State for measuring poverty from a multidimensional one-dimensional approach. It is emphasized that from the year 2008, the CONEVAL establishes the methodology for measuring poverty based on a multidimensional approach in Mexico, based on contributions (Gordon, 2007), (Boltvinik, 2007) and (Alkire-Foster, 2007), and in 2010 published the Guidelines for measuring multidimensional poverty (CONEVAL, 2010). One of the main lines of action in the National Development Plan (NDP) 2007-2012 in the field of social policy was to ensure equal opportunities, for which the following strategies were proposed: i) Reduce extreme poverty, ensure equal opportunities and ii) Achieve expanded capabilities for all Mexicans to improve the quality of life and ensure food, health, education, decent housing and a suitable environment for development.
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Mental Health and Social Exclusion. Social Exclusion Unit Report Summary

Mental Health and Social Exclusion. Social Exclusion Unit Report Summary

Nowhere is this more likely than in our most deprived neighbourhoods where mental health conditions are more common and their potential impact greatest. There are also particular barriers and problems faced by those from ethnic minorities. None of this is something any Government committed to building a fairer and more inclusive society can ignore. We have already put in place far-reaching measures to improve NHS mental health services, strengthened civil rights and increased support to help people back into work. Community initiatives, often led by an expert and innovative voluntary sector, have been encouraged. But we need to do more if we are to ensure all can share in our rising prosperity and increasing opportunity.
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SOCIAL EXCLUSION SPATIALITY

SOCIAL EXCLUSION SPATIALITY

SOCIAL EXCLUSION SPATIALITY Valentina VASILE 1 , Mihaela MIHAI 2 , Daniela-Ioana MANEA 1,2 , Ţiţan EMILIA 1,2 , Cristina BOBOC 1 , 2 Abstract. Social exclusion may manifest through spatial concentration of deprived population in communities located in certain areas. The globalization has reshaped the social and spatial geography of cities which led to major implications for research on social exclusion. Thus, in any practical formulation of social inclusion policies, it is necessary to consider the idea that social exclusion is inherently spatial. By addressing the territorial dimension of social exclusion, some important theoretical issues about the interaction of the two concepts ("social" and "space") are analyzed. Based on theoretical-conceptual contributions developed recently, this paper analyzes this dimension of social exclusion.
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Bridging the digital divide: the role of community online access centres in Indigenous Communities

Bridging the digital divide: the role of community online access centres in Indigenous Communities

Several authors have argued that a way of making these centres fi nancially viable is for them to establish contracts with government departments for the supply of services to remote communities. This idea is currently being explored in some detail. However, there are signifi cant problems that must be overcome before community online access centres could be used to deliver many services. For example, to use a centre for a legal or health consultation via video-conferencing would require a secure network connection and the privacy of a separate room to ensure the confi dentiality of the consultation. Most of the centres do not have these facilities. The CTC@NSW policy has been to undertake negotiations on behalf of all the CTCs in New South Wales with Commonwealth and State government departments. The agencies have been supportive of the proposals but are concerned about possible customer resistance to video-conferencing and the need to protect the privacy and security of the service. The potential for using income from these sources to cross-subsidise community activities remains a long-term objective.
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Exploring the Determinants of Community Engagement in Social Q & A Communities

Exploring the Determinants of Community Engagement in Social Q & A Communities

community engagement behaviors to better understand users’ needs and im- prove service level in social Q & A communities. The essay attempts to develop and test a model exploring the determinants of community engagement in the context of social Q & A communities. First, drawing on the social psychological study, we propose a research model to study and explain community engagement. Specifically, our model predicts that two mechanisms, identification and commitment, are the main drivers of communi- ty engagement. Through literature search, reading and analysis, this study combs users’ community interaction behavior, group identity theory and interpersonal bonds theory. The socialized Q & A community users are taken as the research object, and the sample data are obtained through the network questionnaire survey, and the theoretical model is tested. This research applies SPSS19.0 and AMOS17.0 statistical software to analyze the collected data. Descriptive statistic- al analysis, reliability test, validity test and structural equation model are used to verify the correctness of the theoretical model and hypothesis. The innovation points of this paper are as follows: firstly, cross disciplinary research is carried out. Based on the theory of group identity and interpersonal bonds, this study attempts to explore the determinants of social Q & A community engagement, and make an important attempt for cross research in social psychology and rela- tionship marketing. Secondly, based on the theory of group identity and inter- personal bonds, this paper explores the influencing factors of community en- gagement in social Q & A communities. Finally, it expands the existing research on the socialized Q & A communities and the user’s engagement behavior.
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