Edith Wharton’s The House of Mirth (1905) and The Age of Innocence (1920), portray the idealized female in a similar fashion. The House of Mirth (1905) focuses on Lily Bart, a well-bred however impoverished, romantic beauty who tries to get married to an upper-class male before she turns 30. Wharton depicts the turn of the century “Gibson Girl” via Lily Bart who wants to break free of her destiny yet unable to succeed because of social pressures and conventions upon her. A dream girl whom everyone admires, Lily Bart exists as the idealized fragile female who is eventually drowned to suicide for not fulfilling what society forces upon her. Wharton portrays Lily “as the victim of the civilization which had produced her, that the links of her bracelet seemed like manacles chaining her to her fate” (Wharton, 1905, Book I Chp I). I argue that Lily represents the victimization of woman, confined by the items of exquisite luxury she inherits from her family of the leisure class, which also contributes to her status as an object of desire in American society. From the bracelet that shines on her arm to the corset and long skirt she wears, Lily exits as an adorable but useless ornament, unable to express herself freely. Similarly, Wharton in her other novel The Age of Innocence (1920), portrays Victorian society in the 1870s through individuals, married and unmarried; old and new. The novel focuses on Mr Archer’s inability to decide between his pure love interest May and the passionate, free-spirited Mrs Ellen Olenska. Wharton portrays Mr Archer’s inner dilemma through two contradictory female characters who are represented via their obedience to society norms, such as proper dress, proper marriage, proper attitude:
This volume, a collection of essays written by academics based in North America, Britain and Europe, is a good example of how far leisurehistory has travelled since this historical sub-discipline first gathered momentum in the 1970s. Where once leisurehistory was invariably approached through the framework of ‘social control’, seen for example in Peter Bailey’s seminal monograph, Leisure and Class in Victorian England: Rational Recreation and the Contest for Control 1830-1885 (1), leisurehistory is now less likely to be welded to such ideological moorings and floats more freely, approached through frameworks such as the ‘body’, ‘gender’, ‘masculinity’ and ‘femininity’ or perhaps the ways leisure reflects aspects of national or regional identity. Whilst this shift is partly due to a newer generation of historians working in the field, it is also certainly due to the shift in the attitudes of the British middle class to leisure by the 1920s and 1930s. In the 19th century they had had concerns that leisure was not often a blessing to the working class. By the 20th, they too were also enjoying the leisure boom, both as producers and consumers of commercial leisure, and were perhaps less condemnatory of the use of spare time. As the leisure historian Stephen Jones once noted, in the realm of arts, music and dancing, during the inter-war years, ‘all social groups came together in their leisure’. This is not to suggest that social control is an irrelevant concept in the context of the 20th century, for while leisure was provided by the voluntary and commercial sectors, it was increasingly directed and facilitated by national government in its guise as both policeman and provider. The policing of popular culture continued in the shape of the 1906 Street Betting Act, for example, and popular leisure time pursuits (such as drinking) were also curtailed by the state in the Great War. In the inter-war years the state attempted to halt the encroachment of American popular culture, seen in the context of the Royal Commission and the subsequent Cinematograph Films Act (1927), which insisted on a percentage of British films being shown in the cinemas of the Empire. The emergence of the BBC under state control was also a feature of the inter-war era. The tendency for the state to intervene in order to ‘prevent’ did not disappear after 1945 either,
HIS 480 Regional Studies in Latin America (3). Historical studies in political, economic, social, and cultural evolution of Latin America and Spanish Borderlands. May be repeated for credit, 9 hours maximum. Prerequisite: Junior or senior standing or consent of instructor. HIS 482 Mexico Yesterday and Today (3). Surveys the history of Mexico from pre-Columbian era through the Conquest, colonial period, independence, and national period to the present. Prerequisite: Junior or senior standing or consent of instructor.
When Jim gets to the city he is robbed and beaten by three black men –who appear to be urbanised from their style of dress– pretending to want to help him find a place to stay. He is found some time later by a kind watchman who looks after him for the night and promises to help him find a job next day. While they sit around a fire trying to get warm, they are approached by a guitarist who is in fact General Duze, a legendary jazz musician first known for his sets on the South African Broadcasting Company’s (SABC) “This is African Jazz” programme. During the 1950s and 60s he worked with some of the top South African artistes including the Jazz Dazzlers, Miriam Makeba and the Manhattan Brothers, and Hugh Masekela as part of the all-black jazz opera, King Kong. He is therefore an identifiable figure and a symbol of the film’s claim to authenticity. He encourages Jim to sing a song. Jim, who was earlier introduced as a “singer of African tribal songs” declares that “where I come from we sing all the time”. The attempt here is to invoke the stereotype that music forms a central and inherent part of black identities. However, Jim’s song is not reflective of Nguni musical conventions and complicates, if not completely belies, his supposedly pure tribal origins. The use of Western melodic structures –which would potentially appeal to Afrikaner as well as Western audiences thereby making the film more marketable– and Zulu lyrics attests to cultural cross-pollination that can be traced back to the missionisation initiative in rural areas.
My reading of A CulturalHistory of Climate leaves me with one final question that needs further scrutiny. It is a question equally relevant to our creation of future climates as to our reading of past climates. How do different climatic indices gain their moral polarity? Throughout Behringer’s book – and indeed more broadly in most historical accounts of the interactions between climates and societies – the notation ‘warm + wet = optimum’ and ‘cold + dry = pessimum’ applies. Thus paleoclimatologists talk of the optimum Neolithic climates of 6 to 8 kyr BP, while Behringer labels his section on Roman climates as the ‘Roman Optimum’: ‘It should be noted that climate historians consider [climatic] conditions to have been favourable at this time’ (p. 64). Favourable for what and for whom – for the Roman elites or for the Roman’s slaves? And did the Romans themselves believe their climate was worsening?
The Activity Card Sort (ACS) [37,38] evaluates past and current participation in instrumental, leisure and so- cial activities. It was designed originally for people with Alzheimer’s disease  and is used today to evaluate how older adults cope with various diseases or life events. The ACS has been studied in numerous countries and was found reliable and valid [40-43]. The ACS involves sorting pictures of leisure, social-cultural, and IADL ac- tivities into categories. The visual representation method is less threatening than completing a form and achieves better client cooperation . Although it provides valu- able information on past and present activities, the ACS does not provide information regarding the activities in which a person plans to participate in future. A future planned activity suggests that the client plans to adopt continuity and/or innovation strategies. The knowledge is required in order to create a full client activity profile in an OT intervention and to identify meaningful future occupations.
What then is at stake in At the Limits of History? Nothing less than history’s validity. That history could be an ‘authentic science, … the primary epistemological basis of human knowledge’, that it had replaced philosophy as the queen of the sciences, the Neo-Kantian thinker Karl Leonhard Reinhold proposed in 1790. This move was already a sophistical trick, since history still needed philosophy for its coherence, even if that first had to recover from the trauma Kant had inflicted on it.(11) In the meantime, history was a stand-in for certainty, what Jenkins aptly calls an ‘infinite fix’, such as ‘Human Nature’, ‘Market Forces’, Reason’, ‘imaginaries all bearing down upon us with the insignia of Truth’ (p.37). As Jenkins demonstrates, postmodernist strategies expose their factitiousness, – much as Kant’s critical philosophy shattered the surreptitious axioms of rationalist metaphysics: a deep-seated instinct in human cognition seems periodically to require its complete overhaul and re-orientation to pre-empt self-delusion, to ensure its vital, ‘novelty of functioning’.(12) Whether history can thereafter mutate into some postmodernist variant, as Jenkins occasionally maintains, does seem dubious (cf. pp. 15, 166). If the postmodern condition is ineluctable, it has already re-functioned history: its proliferating sub-disciplines and sub-, sub-disciplinary variants, the concomitant generation of micro-spheres of fact and value, both irreducible to a common denominator and unassimilable to a grand narrative, produce precisely the postmodernist relativism historians oppose. In fact, endorsed by, and endorsing, prevailing political and economic regimes, history flourishes in the same old way, except that, in these postmodern circumstances, its persuasive force grows in inverse proportion to its cognitive potential. Hence, as Jenkins confirms (p. 236), it persists not as an epistemologically-based discipline. Instead, it functions as a socialized management-technology, an integral part of the
Authority Hong Kong to present a range of thematic exhibitions under the “Glimpses of Hong Kong” series at the Hong Kong International Airport featuring the art and culture in Hong Kong. To promote cultural exchanges, the Department collaborated with overseas and Mainland cultural institutions to organise outbound exhibitions including “Guangzhou-Hong Kong-Macao Collection on Sun Wan and Tai Ensai” in Guangdong, “2014 Hong Kong and Macao Visual Arts Biennial: 300 Families” in Beijing and “Historical Imprints of Lingnan: Major Archaeological Discoveries of Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macao” in Macao.
Note: a single course may count to fulfill more than one of the requirements. For example, a course in medieval European history would count as both a course in history before 1800 and as a course outside of American History. A list of courses designated as “pre-1800” and “outside U.S. History” is posted at the History office (450 McGraw Hall) and on our website.
Globally, democracy is at the heart of social justice. This is because it represents a vehicle for the actualization of the principles of fairness, equality of opportunity, liberty, and social rights and the absence of social and class barriers. In the Third World, social justice is largely constrained by the failed attempts to deepen and consolidate their budding and fledgling democracy, due to poor governance, economic mismanagement, political instability, social dislocation and cultural decay. In Nigeria, the problem of social injustice is accentuated by the crisis of the democratization process. This paper therefore examines the factors that inhibit the democratic experimentation and consolidation process in Nigeria and explores the feasibility of social justice through democratic re‐engineering and cultural change. This paper, which also derived its data from valuable secondary sources, concluded with useful recommendations including the creation of a genial democratic climate that will facilitate the reconstruction of cultural values and enhance the enthronement of social justice in Nigeria.
This is a customized course about the world’s cultures. The course is specifically created for the US Army, Marine Corps, Navy, and Air Force Junior ROTC programs. It introduces students to the world’s cultures through the study of world affairs, regional studies, and cultural awareness. The course delves into history, geography, religions, languages, culture, political systems, economics, social issues, environmental concerns, and human rights. It looks at major events and significant figures that have shaped each region. Throughout the course, there are readings, video segments, hands-on activities, other optional activities, technology enrichment, and assessments to guide in the reinforcement of the materials. Twenty First Century Skills as defined by the Partnership for 21st Century Skills are integrated into the course. These include learning and innovation (thinking) skills—critical thinking and problem solving, creativity and innovation, and communication and collaboration; information, media and technology skills—information literacy, media literacy, and ICT (information, communications and technology) literacy; and life and career skills—flexibility and adaptability, initiative and self-direction, social and cross-cultural skills, productivity and accountability, and
proletariat, alter a class struggle between the capitalist class and the workers ( lao-tung e h e ) as the true Torrn of democracy, but also repudiated Revisionist S o c ialism - that which seeks to bring about socialism through the ballot box and parliamentary means. To him, the state, politics and the law were but tools now in the hands of the capitalists. He felt that revolutionary methods were required to get these tools from the hands of the capitalists in order to build the p r o l etarian state. The same issue also has three articles introducing different aspects of life in Soviet Russia, and three reports of social surveys on various provinces as well as a report on Hong Kong Strikes.
Foucault argues that social reality is created in various ways through the activities of people. The resulting social reality provides a discourse, which is a way of conceptualizing an issue and provides a way of conceptualizing an issue and provides a framework for discussion and action. Mental illness is no longer considered an illness but a reversible disease, this does not mean that disorder is not severe enough to require that sufferer receive government assistance, more resources and more help in general. This assistance, however, must be geared toward improvement, not perpetual inadequacy and exclusion. In fact, the idea that mental disorders are reversible would tend to call for more financial and structural interventions, such as psychotherapy, better work opportunities, adequate leisure and all the features of a healthy society. An important thing to consider is that the narrative of mental illness has not been successful in helping sufferers and, indeed, research and evidence show that cases of mental illness are increasing annually, adding substantially to society’s burden, which indicates that mental illness is largely constructed by dominant Western ideology. Concept of madness is a social construction that is regulated, reproduced, maintained and elaborated on by social structures that perpetuate the myths and ideology of mental illness. The paradigm of mental illness as disease as endured over centuries. Rationality is the opposite of madness which is based on scientific method has reduced over emotional and spiritual drives (Foucault: 1973) .
I begin the class with a theoretical unit on the social construction of sexuality. While some students have been exposed to the tenets of social construction theory, the majority of students habitually view gender and sexuality as something biological, innate and unchanging. This first unit is crucial to introducing the fundamentals of thinking historically about sexuality. Students learn to challenge the assumptions that the past is just like the present and that present day values apply to the past. They wrestle with the idea that sexual acts that appear to be identical have varying meanings within a culture, different meanings in different cultures, and have meanings that change over time. Finally, students struggle with the concept that the relationship between sexual acts and sexual identities is not fixed. These basic insights about the need to attend to social context and to variance across time and cultures prepare students for further intellectual leaps: that modern sexual categories and identities such as heterosexuality and homosexuality were invented in the late nineteenth century and became politicized by the middle of the twentieth century; that the relationship between gender and anatomy has been dynamic, unstable and the subject of fierce debates; that “traditional marriage” in the early 20 th century was radically different than at mid-century and in the present; and so forth. Students come to learn that sexual acts, identities, relationships, communities and politics were enmeshed in power relationships, imbued with dynamic and contested meanings, and located in specific cultural contexts.
Divakaruni’s women experience love, loss and longing through bitter tastes of the world they struggle for. Scriptures are so powerfully established in our cultural paradigms that one cannot challenge and overcome them easily. Myth and history gives new voice to Panchali which subverts her positioning under the present socio-cultural paradigms. Chitra has noticed an emotional upheaval through the character of Panchali when she enacts her feelings:
Situating magic in the context of modernity, however, requires more explanation, since modern rationalism and secularism denies it has a place in it. Elsewhere I argued that the concept of magic should be primarily understood as modernity’s antithesis, as a way of telling our- selves that this is not who we are. Many modern people like to think they do not believe in or practice magic or can be bewitched, if that is understood as expecting or experiencing efficacious action at a dis- tance by mimesis, psychic powers, or the animation of dead matter. However, this raises a paradox: modern people also often deplore the extent to which their own society produces precisely such expecta- tions, so that modernity can be seen to produce its own magic, in diverse forms of paranoia, fetishism, charisma, or the mimetic mana of “representation” (see Pels 2003: 17–29). The paradox is perfectly con- veyed by James Frazer’s work: Frazer not only portrayed magic as modernity’s antithesis in terms of the twin (and, according to him, fallacious) ideas of magic working through homeopathic and conta- gious connections, his work also inspired some of the more influential reinventions of magic in modernity (such as the Order of the Golden Dawn; or Gerald Gardner’s Wicca: Pels 2003: 308n8). Frazer both took up and disseminated a newly psychologized sense of magic (even using metaphors, such as “ether” that were cultivated by the rising tide of theosophy, occultism, and psychic research), but whereas he regarded it as essentially a malfunctioning subjectivity, the cultural movements that his modern magic inspired—among occultists as well as artists— rather saw it as a kind of super-functional subjectivity (Pels 2003: 31; Wilson 2013).
History is a bloody, violent, and—at many times—an unpleasant affair. While when studying history it is important to understand these unpleasantries, they are never condoned. Often, however, the study of one thing and the condoning of the same are mistaken for one another. In this age, film is more-so the common language than the written word. It is, in a very real sense, the common tongue or vernacular. In order to maximize understanding, short clips and occasional films will be viewed in class, images which may contain violence and murder. This is done not so that such actions might be condoned but rather that the gravity of the actions and their consequences might be best understood by this generation of young people. By signing the attached permission slip, you have read, understood, and have consented to the viewing of said content per the teachers discretion.
This may explain why the book has a slightly musty quality. We’re told that the there were concerns about conformity with the American Dream in the 1950s; that the American Dream was in upheaval in the 1960s; and that it was beset by economic uncertainty in the 1970s. When we rely on journalists alone for our understanding of reality, that reality is almost inevitably going to reflect the tenor, if not the clichés, of the moment. Samuel does little more than reinforce attitudes rather than question or reframe our understanding of events. To many of us, that’s the opposite of what history – or at any rate, historical scholarship – is supposed to do. The most likely reader of this book is going to be an undergraduate who plucks it off a well- resourced library’s shelves (less well-resourced libraries are unlikely to buy it). While that student may gain a better grasp of the arc of American culturalhistory in a very general sense, it may also serve to obscure, rather than truly clarify, the contours of the past. The student essay on the American Dream that relies on Samuel is likely to be described as a complicated idea that has meant different things to different people at different times – a deadening notion that makes so many of us rightly dread grading papers.
months their lives revolve around non-profit support agencies providing health, education, employment and social services, as well a semblance of community. For the new arrivals, divested of all social capital by their forced emigration, the early fostering of community is vital (Stewart et al 2008). The fostering of community allows not only integration but the accumulation of social capital. This social capital in turn promotes and accelerates the creation of community, as opposed to individualism, allowing for a strengthening of social networks (Ferragina 2010, Bourdieu 1986). Accessibility to the services provided by refugee support agencies is vital, as has been determined in studies conducted by Beveridge, in New York, and Cuba, in Worchester, Massachusetts (2000, 2010). Newly arrived refugees to the United States are expected to have a job by the end of their first ninety days in the country and to be self- sufficient, which translates to being able to pay for their apartment by the 120 day mark. Six months after their arrival, at the 180 day mark, refugees are expected to begin paying back the travel loan that allowed them to immigrate and that paid for their apartment and groceries during their initial few months in the country (Ben Interview). For these first months, their days and lives revolve around the non-profit agencies assisting with the acquisition of health, education, employment, and social services. The next chapter illustrates the felt experiences of the volunteers and professionals who actively volun- teer with and work under the auspices of the resettlement agencies to help refugees find their way in their new community, although it does bear repeating here that the community is not a monolithic whole but an agglomeration of multiple communities networked at various scales.
We all know how quickly the world changes: the impact of social media, fluctuations in the economy, awareness of climate change, and the way we engage and approach the workplace is vastly different to our parents’ day. With these changes in mind, employers are looking for graduates who are flexible and analytical, with adaptable skills that can be applied in a multitude of ways. They want people who can think critically and creatively, who can reason and who have informed opinions. That is the foundation of humanities and international studies at UOW, putting you in high demand in the workplace. In fact, for seven years in a row, employers have ranked UOW graduates in the in the top 100 universities in the world*.