All health professionals (physicians, nurses, dietitians and social workers), regardless of the model they are affili- ated with, are encouraged to acquire preventivemedicine skills and implement relevant activities in their clinics. For that reason training is conducted within working hours and if not, health professionals are reimbursed for their time and training costs. In addition, professionals gain training points upon completion, granting them with add- itional income. Trained health professionals are free to conduct health education group counseling in all MHS’ clinics and their income is supplemented accordingly.
Built environmental factors are unique to physical locations, cultures, and socioeconomic levels. According to the social ecological model, “environment” is operationally defined as objective factors that are physically external, or outside of an individual [23,24,25]. Sallis and Glanz  defined built environment as consisting of “neighborhoods, roads, buildings, food sources, and recreational facilities in which people live, work, are educated, eat, and play” (p. 90). Populations are subjected to the built environment around them. This is especially important when built environmental factors associated with specific populations become promoters of a sedentary lifestyles and/or barriers to physical activity [7,26]. However, Sallis and Glanz  argue people have a hand in shaping and creating their environment. They claim a reciprocal and mutual relationships exist between people's behavioral patterns and their environment. Whether people walk to school, work, parks, or recreation facilities are determined, in part, by how neighborhoods and cities are planned and built.
These programs provide you with the skills necessary to design, implement, and evaluate the relevant programs that address the major public health priorities of communities in resource-constrained settings, especially relevant to countries in Asia, the Pacific and sub-Saharan Africa. Public health issues are presented in the broader context of economic and social development, stressing cultural, political, gender, and environmental influences, and the impact of armed conflict and population migration. In addition you have the opportunity to learn about human rights, ethics, law and development. These courses are set up to articulate into the next level i.e. from Graduate Diploma (1884) to the Masters (3874) program. These courses are offered in
In Chile, the ‘Social Health Insurance’ program en- sures nearly universal health coverage for the country’s 17 million inhabitants. Since 2005, all Chileans have had access to a basic package that guarantees treatment of 80 health problems such as renal disease, retinopathy, hypertension, and so on, establishing maximum wait- ing times for treatment and discretionary spending. In Colombia, the right to health was established in its constitution in 1991; 20 years later, access to health ser- vices has improved considerably thanks to a national system of ‘subsidized health insurance’. By making the Box 1 Current trends and challenges to be faced the
Preventive health behavior (PHB), or “ activity under- taken by a person who believes himself to be healthy for the purpose of preventing disease ” , is one of the characteristics of a population which affects the fre- quency of visits to a doctor. Pender suggested that PHB and health-promoting behavior (e.g. physical activities) complement one another , and the term PHB is used in this study to refer to these two interrelated dimen- sions of a healthy lifestyle. A number of recent studies report the influence of various PHB factors on medical care utilization including smoking , obesity , influenza
The proposed scoping review has the potential to improve research and inform policy-makers, healthcare providers, clinicians and researchers on how HITs are used in preventivemedicine. This scoping review could help advance research by showing the type of evidence and strategies available and by highlighting the need for further research in the field. The completed scoping review will be disseminated via publication in a peer-re- viewed journal to categorise HITs for their use in primary prevention.
Background: There is increasing recognition that many of today ’ s diseases are due to the “ oxidative stress ” that results from an imbalance between the formation and neutralization of reactive molecules such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), which can be removed with antioxidants. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of plants routinely used in the Unani system of medicine. Several plants were screened for radical scavenging activity, and the ten that showed promising results were selected for further evaluation.
The last decade has seen growing popularity and uptake of self-monitoring technology including wireless sensor devices and mobile apps for tracking physical activity, sedentary behavior, sleep patterns, diet, and stress. However, their application as a means of monitoring and motivating out patients in health service settings remains to be developed and the application and interaction between the care provider and the patient using innovative ICT tools for health behavior change is limited, and there is currently no system that enables involvement of both parties in the process of preventivemedicine. Furthermore, the system will be developed for use by both adolescents and adults with input of physicians regarding the different requirements of both population groups. DAPHNE is a collaborative European research project. The objective of the project is to develop an innovative ICT platform toward a holistic approach for weight management through
According to modern texts, all disorders of vitiated digestion, absorbtion and assimilation can be considered under Pandu. So, we can say that Pandu is a very broad term comprising seveal disorders of digestion, absorbtion and assimilation, anemia is one of them. While working during BAMS, MD and PhD, I found the patients of Pandu in abundance. They were used to be treated by Ayurvedic and allopathic drugs. No doubt these drugs have encouraging results in the treatment of Pandu but they can’t cure all the signs and symptoms of the disease mentioned by Ayurvedic Acharyas. In order to cure all the signs and symptoms of Pandu (Anemia) in various economic strata, social and preventive aspect of Ayurveda like Dincharya, Rhitucharya, Aharvidhi, Achar Rasayan etc. have tremendous impact.
. From the outset, potential medical applications were highlighted as motivations for investment in this area of technology development. From its first paragraph, the VPH White Paper published in 2005 presents itself as an initiative targeting healthcare, aiming to understand physiology not just for itself, but for ‘its dysfunctions (diseases)’, with impacts to be felt on diagnosis, treatment, drug and device development. Personalising medicine was identified as a potential area for development from the outset. Under the remit of the VPH Network of Excellence, the Discipulus project produced the Digital Patient Roadmap 2 , setting out, step-by-step, what the VPH vision of personalised medicine would actually entail. ‘4P medicine’, that is predictive, preventive, personalised and participatory medicine, is the centrepiece of the 2012 vision and strategy (Hunter et al. 2013), which culminated with the establishment of the VPH Institute. Developing the ‘ICT and computational science framework’ is seen as the main enabler of 4P medicine, while the main disablers – apart from scientific and technical challenges, are seen as existing ethical, legal, economic and regulatory frameworks. For example data sharing and integration face potential breaches of privacy and confidentiality; the economic framework in which drug development occurs does not easily make space for radically new methodologies that may disrupt ownership and patenting structures; and the regulations on drug and device safety testing will not easily make way for tests conducted in silico rather than on animals. 3
A specific extract of duck liver and heart has been au- thorized since 1944 and is sold in over 80 countries around the world. It is used for the prevention and treat- ment of influenza and of viruses that cause influenza-like syndromes. A patented preparation of this homeopathic medicine is commercially available as a Korsakovian dilu- tion (200 K) manufactured from wild duck heart and liver. One dose of this patented preparation contains Anas Bar- bariae, hepatis and Cordis extractum, as well as the su- crose and lactose as excipients. The ultra-molecular dilutions of this remedy have raised some concerns about its effectiveness, but recently published evidence from in vitro biological models has shown that this kind of homeopathic dilution can elicit significant physiological effects [15, 16]. Thanks to its composition, which may be a reservoir of infective agents responsible of respiratory tract infections (RTIs), this homeopathic medicine is regu- larly used by many people over the winter months for seasonal colds and airway inflammatory affections . It is well known that RTIs-which comprise any infection of the sinuses, throat, airways or lungs-usually present a viral aetiology. However, RTIs can also be caused by bacteria, and are among the top two causes of morbidity and mor- tality worldwide .
Historically, the use of CAM therapies arose concurrent with the rise of modern medicine. In the 1800s the use of homeopathy began to increase as a direct response to the perceived inadequacies of modern medical techniques and practices until its use dwindled in the 1930s and then subsequently experienced a semi-revitalization in the 1990s (Haller 2005). The use of other forms of alternative and unconventional types of medical treatments also appeared to show an increase in the 1990s. Whether this was a response created by public perception about the limits of conventional modern medicine or was due to some other reason is unknown, although some scholars have tied it to the concurrent rise of the “New Age” movement (Baer 2003). Beginning in the late 1980s to early 1990s, both health professionals and policy makers began to seriously investigate CAM and gather statistical information on costs and use. Unfortunately, there is no systematic gathering of information on CAM expenditures other than the CDC’s National Health Survey Alternate Health Supplement. Beginning in 2002, the supplement is
preventive measures all over the globe now the concept of disease development risk factors stands out. The success of this concept application which is the framework of “the second antiepidemic revolution” (screening – examination with risk groups revelation) is definite. In many economically developed countries the morbidity and death rates because of cardiovascular diseases have decreased. However, the appearance of risk factors themselves inaugurates the developed pathologic process which so far has not taken the form of a specific nosologic disease. This complicates carrying out primary preventive measures of chronic somatic diseases. It should be also taken into account that the correction of high risk of chronic somatic disease development more often than not calls for the necessity of pharmacologic preparations use. First, it is unlikely to be efficient in the population level, and second, from the carried out research of such countries as Sweden and the USA it is seen that present-day therapeutic agents have no affects on chronic non-infectious disease death rate [1,2].
Abstract: In this study the effect of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) on pulmonary fibrosis caused in rats on ex- posure to radiations was demonstrated. The radiation source for inducing pulmonary fibrosis in rats was Cobalt-60 irradiator emitting radiations at a dose of 22 Gy. TCM or dexamethasone was administered to the rats at a dose of 12 and 5 mg/kg, respectively. The treatment was continued for a period of 21 days followed by measurement of rate of mortality and lung index values. Results showed that the rate of mortality in the animals treated with TCM was reduced to a marked level compared to the DEX treated group. TCM also led to inhibitory effect on the tissue damage in the pulmonary tissues compared to the untreated rats. In addition the level of MDA was decreased, ac- tivity of SOD increased and the alveolar epithelial type II (AE2) cells protected on treatment of rats with TCM. It also improved the expression of transformation factor β1 (TGF-β1), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) along with the activation of Nrf-2. Therefore, TCM exhibits preventive effect on the pulmonary fibrosis in rats caused on exposure to radiations.
precarious living conditions (eg, income, shelter, employ- ment, nutrition). All reported that, once back home, they were more aware of social and economic factors in their medical questionnaires and in their treatment plans for their Quebec patients. Repeatedly, residents reported that they were more selective in ordering additional tests for their low-income patients, a point that their supervisors confirmed. A few residents reported that they engaged more with their underprivileged patients, and became more involved in their medical follow-up and helped them to find their way around the health care system. For example, they made telephone calls to schedule appointments and fol- lowed up on the medical files of at-risk patients.
The primacy of the visual is reflected in English language idioms such as ‘seeing is believing’ and ‘a picture is worth a thousand words’ neither of which can be easily represented as a visual image. If the primacy of the visual renders it believable the lack of specific, nuanced meaning renders it much more open to interpretation than either speech or writing. Berger (1972, p.10) described different epistemological frameworks for interpretation of visual images as ‘ways of seeing’ and suggests ‘although every image embodies a way of seeing, our perception or appreciation of an image depends also upon our own way of seeing’. Susan Sontag (2003, p.35), a social thinker, adds to this by suggesting ‘the photographer’s intentions do not determine the meaning of the photograph, which will have its own career, blown by the whims and loyalties of the diverse communities that have use for it’. Berger’s seminal works include the re- interpretation of some of Europe’s best loved historical artworks as socio-political constructions - seeing the poverty of the painter reflected in the faces of his wealthy sitters and the assumption in each painting of a woman that ‘the ‘ideal’ spectator is always…male’ (Berger 1972, p.11-15, 64).