In an effort to address these issues, our research group has recently developed a social cognitive intervention that targets the 3 major domains that are impaired in schizophrenia: EP, ToM, and AS. SocialCognition and InteractionTraining (SCIT) is an empirically de- rived, multimodal, 24-week group intervention for indi- viduals with schizophrenia. Preliminary results from SCIT are promising. In our first (uncontrolled) pilot study, we showed that SCIT was associated with im- provements in ToM, AS, and symptoms and that social cognitive and symptom improvement was independent of one another. 103 In a second pilot study, an initial group of participants who received SCIT showed improvement in all 3 social cognitive domains (EP, ToM, and attri- butions) as well as social functioning (as measured by the Social Functioning Scale 104 and aggression on the ward (as measured by incident reports) and showed a reduced need for closure and better tolerance for ambi- guity (D. R. Combs, S. D. Adams, D. L. Penn, D. L. Roberts, J. Tiegreen, P. Stem, unpublished data, 2006) (as measured by the Need for Closure Scale). 105 All effect sizes were in the medium to large range. Although prom- ising, these preliminary, open-trial results require replica- tion in a controlled study before confident conclusions can be drawn.
Cognitive impairment is common in people diagnosed with schizophrenia [8, 9]. The deficits are global and impact on both neuro cognition (attention, memory, planning) and socialcognition (difficulties perceiving and processing emotions) [9, 10]. Approaches to remediation of these deficits have included integrated programs with a com- bined approach to neuro cognition and socialcognition and also stand-alone programs focussing either on neuro cognition or socialcognition [11, 12]. There is evidence from a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials for the benefit of Cognitive Remediation therapy (CR) on global cognition (Effect Size ES =0.45) with greater benefit if CR is combined with some form of rehabilitation (ES = 0.59) . The core components of CR appear to be: intensity of practice (2 – 4 times a week); the combination of drill and practice of tasks with strategy training and a context that facilitates use of new skills learnt. In the meta-analysis, 14 different CR programs were examined with no particular program having superior effect .
emotion recognition in patients with ASD. Second, we used a readymade prosocial game that originally had no inten- tion of improving sociality but was designed simply for leisure. The original online game was used as a platform to conduct the CBT protocol by professional study personnel. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first trial to compare the effectiveness of the same CBT protocol in the form of game-CBT with a readymade prosocial online game and offline-CBT in adolescents with ASD. Taken together, we cautiously suggest that CBT using an online game can increase socialinteraction in a virtual space to improve sociality in ASD adolescents.
emotional understanding is the major problem experienced by individuals with HFA (Bacon, Fein, Morris, Waterhouse, & Allen, 1998; Sigman & Ruskin, 1999). This desire, however, does not mean that these individuals are any less handicapped in their daily functioning than those with classic autism. Rather, a desire for socialinteraction creates a unique dilemma for these individuals. It appears that they use their relatively high cognitive abilities to learn social heuristics, thus compensating for their innate social deficits to some extent. This compensation is often accomplished in a rote fashion and is generally insufficient to produce smooth social interactions in naturalistic settings (Hermelin & O’Connor, 1985; Kasari, Chamberlin, & Bauminger, 2001; Sigman & Ruskin, 1999). This discrepancy between social need and social skill creates what Bauminger (2002) called a “vicious circle of social
and social information are the most notable of human creativities. Socialcognition is s, as it requires more natural socialinteraction to be On the other hand, the Theory of Mind (ToM) has demonstrated that a child’s ability to understand people's mental states develops around the age of five or six, the time when children begin o go to preschool. To the author’s knowledge, no study in Saudi Arabia has examined ToM among preschool students. Children (n=64) with normal developmental progression at preschools were requested to be evaluated by their parents. Socialcognition was evaluated by parents using the test serves as a framework for understanding and then training ToM. The Arabic adaptation version of ToM was used. A group of thirty three (33) children (31)children in a no-treatment control group. Within twelve weeks of ToM interventions, a meaningful improvement was reported in the ToM group’s performance on some false belief tasks and no improvement was noted in the control group. The mainly demonstrated on a parents’ Empathy Questionnaire : This preliminary study suggests that it is possible to skills and empathy skills through training among normal development preschool like peer tutoring or collaborative learning, ToM improvement has implications for preschool children’s skills to think critically and to build their self-
In summary, deficits in socialcognition may lead to the development of externalizing behavior disorders (EB) in children, causing them to be perceived as ―hard to manage‖ (Crick et al., 1994; Runions & Keating, 2007). With a view to preventing EB and improving social skills, studies have been conducted to test the efficiency of training in ToM or social problem-solving in pre-schoolers (Melot & Angeard, 2003) and children with intellectual disabilities (Swettenham, 1996) or with autism (Begeer, Gevers, Clifford, Verhoeve, Kat, Hoddenbach & Boer, 2011; Feng, Lo, & Tsai, 2008; Gevers, Clifford, Mager & Boer, 2006; Hadwin, Baron-Cohen, Howlin, & Hill, 1996; Ozonoff & Miller, 1995; Parsons & Mitchell, 1999; Silver & Oakes, 2001). Some studies have reported positive effects from this socio-cognitive training. Children‘s performance in ToM tasks improved after training in understanding emotions (Walker, 2005) and after training in understanding false beliefs in diverse conditions, such as conversations about false beliefs, explanations of correct response, differentiated immediate feedback on their performance or discussion about events in false belief scenarios (Amsterlaw & Wellman, 2006; Appleton & Reddy, 1996; Clements, Rustin & McCallum, 2000; Howlin, Baron-Cohen & Hadwin, 2011; Kloo & Perner, 2003).Furthermore, an improvement in SIP was obtained after training in which children talked about concepts arising from stories of peer interaction and did related activities (Bhavnagri & Samuels, 1996), and after training that included role-playing games, group interaction and puppets (Shure & Spivack, 1982). SIP training primarily takes the form of medium-term training (e.g., Webster-Stratton, 2000).
when we controlled for comorbid psychotic symptoms (i.e. hallucinations, and suspiciousness). Horan and colleagues (2006) have also reported significant correlations between thought disturbance, in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, and smaller social network size (along with other network-related variables). Badcock and colleagues (2015) reported a significant association between subjective ratings of TD in psychotic patients and loneliness and suggested that isolation might contribute to the maintenance of TD by taxing already depleted cognitive and executive resources in psychotic patients. We interpreted these findings as suggesting that social isolation may play an important role in both the maintenance and development of TD. In this context, it is important to note that several studies have reported significant relationships between isolation and poorer executive processes, socialcognition, and more general cognitive processes in non-psychotic patients (Cacioppo and Hawkley, 2009). We hypothesized that lack of socialinteraction (social feedback; Hammer et al., 1978) and conversational opportunities in patients could have an impact on their ability to successfully keep to the „external‟ conversational context with others.
Scholarship of Discovery (L, E, A, D): We subscribe to the centrality of the need to advance inquiry that produces the disciplinary and professional know- ledge that frames our candidate preparation and training (Boyer, 1990). We en- sure that our candidates are prepared to foster an environment that supports in- clusive excellence with the commitment and understanding necessary to be res- ponsive to all learners (D). Candidates acquire the ability to collaborate success- fully (E) with parents, families, school districts, community members, faculty and staff in order to gain and maintain this disposition.
This paper describes a new approach to automatic learning of strategies for social multi-user human-robot interaction. Us- ing the example of a robot bartender that tracks multiple customers, takes their or- ders, and serves drinks, we propose a model consisting of a Social State Recog- niser (SSR) which processes audio-visual input and maintains a model of the social state, together with a Social Skills Execu- tor (SSE) which takes social state updates from the SSR as input and generates robot responses as output. The SSE is modelled as two connected Markov Decision Pro- cesses (MDPs) with action selection poli- cies that are jointly optimised in interaction with a Multi-User Simulation Environment (MUSE). The SSR and SSE have been in- tegrated in the robot bartender system and evaluated with human users in hand-coded and trained SSE policy variants. The re- sults indicate that the trained policy out- performed the hand-coded policy in terms of both subjective (+18%) and objective (+10.5%) task success.
Stroke patients and their caregivers require informa- tion if they are to seek help appropriately particularly with regards to cognitive and memory impairment. Patients themselves report either dissatisfaction with or a lack of information provision following a stroke . Amongst health professionals this may well be because individuals are unaware which professional is providing the information . Even when provided, recall of in- formation for those with memory difficulties post-stroke poses a significant challenge for the patient and their carer . Although it is assumed that stroke clinicians provide the required information post-stroke, the GP takes over this role in the community. However, evi- dence has shown that patients often receive the majority of their information from stroke services rather than pri- mary care . The highest risk of post-stroke dementia seems to occur in the first months post-stroke, although this may be partially due to pre-stroke cognitive impair- ment . However a population based study with 25 year follow-up found that the cumulative incidence of post-stroke dementia was 7% at 1 year, 23% at 10 years and 48% at year 25 . A further study found looked at cognition post-stroke over time. They found that al- though 41% were stable and 50% improved in cognition after 15 months, a significant proportion of post-stroke survivors succumbed to delayed post-stroke dementia [29, 30]. This suggests that stroke-survivors need to have adequate follow-up in the community and continual ac- cess to information and support to ensure prompt and timely diagnosis of post-stroke dementia. Stronger links between specialist and community teams could help identify those at-risk and assist in targeted cognitive assessment and follow-up.
A key factor related to daily social function is the per- ception of emotions in other people. We communicate emotions by the way we move and talk; and therefore also perceive emotions in different modalities. Visual emo- tion signals can be conveyed in facial expressions (facial emotion perception) or body movement (body language), whereas auditory signals are expressed through pro- sodic information in vocal expressions (auditory emo- tion perception). Most studies have used pictures of faces expressing one of the six basic emotions to assess emo- tion perception. Persons with BD have a moderate deficit in facial emotion perception (Kohler et al. 2011). Find- ings for auditory emotion perception have been mixed. Some studies have found intact auditory emotion per- ception for BD I (Vaskinn et al. 2007; Hoertnagel et al. 2015), whereas others have found limited impairments for some emotions for either females (Bozikas et al. 2007) or males (van Reenen and Rossell 2013) with the disor- der. To the best of our knowledge, there are no studies of emotion perception from body movement in individu- als with BD. This can be assessed with so-called point- light displays (PLD). In PLD tasks (Johansson 1973) a light is connected to different parts of the human body, or the face, while the person is filmed when moving in a dark room. Perceivers are able to infer sex (Kozlowski and Cutting 1977), personality traits (Gunns et al. 2001), and emotions (Heberlein et al. 2004) from PLDs. We have previously shown that individuals with schizophrenia, regardless of sex, have a global deficit in the perception of emotions from body movement (Vaskinn et al. 2016), in line with other studies (Couture et al. 2010; Kern et al. 2013; Okruszek et al. 2015).
In this paper, we elaborate on this idea and we conduct simulation studies in which we vary systematically the key components of the model. Results allow us to explore the dynamic implications of social inﬂuence over time, and provide us with new insights into the attainability of higher-level mentalistic phenomena in complexly diﬀerentiated communities [30,34]. In particular, we run a set of virtual experiments to investigate the role of social inﬂuence in the negotiation process un- derpinning the sale of a privately held company through the public oﬀering of shares and, possibly, through the involvement of an active investor. We use this domain in our study because of its suitability to a formal modelling approach. Building on mainstream literature in behavioural ﬁnance [47,60], we developa model of negoti- ation by deriving its main assumptions from extant theory and established empirical studies of going public processes. Using this model, we examine to what extent the performance of the sale of a ﬁrm is aﬀected by the actorsÕ negotiation protocols and cognitive structures as well as by the selling strategies which, in turn, reﬂect structural patterns of social relationships in which social inﬂuence unfolds. By ex- ploring the relative eﬀects of these factors on the performance of negotiation, an at- tempt is made here to determine, on theoretic grounds, the role that social inﬂuence processes play in the attainability of higher-order mentalistic phenomena such as in- terpersonal agreements.
I dati sono stati analizzati utilizzando il program- ma SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Scien- ces) ed è stata effettuata un’analisi statistica non- parametrica. L’analisi dei dati è stata effettuata considerando la differenza tra i gruppi (Gruppo di Controllo m età = 36,33 vs. Gruppo Sperimenta- le m età = 36,16): la differenza nella proporzio- ne delle risposte esatte date ai test di Teoria del- la Mente (ToM1) e Teoria della Mente I-II Ordine (ToM2) risulta significativo in quanto la mediana in ToM1 è 0,90 nel gruppo di controllo vs. 0,60 nel gruppo sperimentale; in ToM2 la mediana risulta 1 nel gruppo di controllo vs. 0,50 nel gruppo speri- mentale (Tab. III), ciò dimostra che tra i due gruppi è presente significatività statistica nel punteggio ot- tenuto nei test, ed il Gruppo Sperimentale ha avuto punteggi più bassi rispetto al Gruppo di Control- lo. In ToM1 risulta significativa la variabilità tra i gruppi, ciò descrive e conferma quanto il Gruppo di Controllo differisce dal Gruppo Sperimentale. Il Gruppo di Controllo ha risposto positivamente alla totalità delle domande del test al contrario del Gruppo Sperimentale, convalidando l’ipotesi che nella schizofrenia è assente l’abilità di ToM. Per quanto riguarda la seconda area presa in con- siderazione nel presente studio, ossia quella relati- va all’emotività, risulta evidente la netta differenza tra i due gruppi (Fig. 1).
Case A illustrates a key but under explored feature of integration processes: that inte- gration in one domain can proceed to a far greater extent than in another. It also illus- trates the entanglement of integration processes within family relationships, and the key role played by life course events: in this case marriage and having children. Case A is a British Pakistani woman whose family withdrew her from school at the age of 12 to look after her ill mother. She had an early transnational marriage and has never been in paid employment. In many ways, then, her early life reflected stereotypes of ‘uninte- grated ’ Muslim women. Her husband is a semi-skilled manual worker, with limited social networks. Making do on his income alone, the couple and their children live rent-free in a house owned by her brother. Her marriage, however, has released her from her gendered responsibility to care for her mother and once the couple had chil- dren she began to extend her social networks across ethnic groups through participa- tion at parents ’ activities at the school and is now an active contributor to its fundraising activities. Whilst she remains inactive in the labour market, she has actively developed wider participation in the social and civic domains. One consequence of her transnational marriage is that her in-laws are in Pakistan. This, combined with her migrant husband ’ s dependence on his wife ’ s family (for accommodation), reduce the potential role of affinal (in-law) family responsibilities and their influence as effectors on her opportunities, in contrast to the conventional Pakistani expectations of the role of a daughter-in-law. Indeed, we find some evidence among our British Pakistani sam- ple in support of the Lievens’ hypothesis – that women may seek transnational mar- riage for ‘ modern ’ reasons such as avoiding in-control (Lievens, 1999).
‘investor’ that send some money to a social partner, the ‘trustee’. The sum sent arrives automatically tripled to the ‘trustee’ that has the possibility to choose the sum to re- pay the ‘investor’. Trust can be therefore quantified as the amount of money one person sends to the other one. If both players in this game share and act upon a com- mon social norm, for example they share the winnings of a game equally, an optimal shared strategy is used: e.g. the ‘investor’ sends its entire endowment to the social partner and this ‘trustee’ sends back half of the tripled investment. If so, a shared norm and cooperative strat- egy mutually benefit both players. If the investor instead considers the payment from the trustee too poor, he can refuse it and both the players don’t receive nothing. Again, as in ‘one shot’ game, the ‘investor’ should ac- cept all non-zero offers, giving instead the ‘trustee’ the minimum possible. Differently from this basic theory, the modal observed behaviours show a rejection of less than 20% of the total amount, showing a tendency to altruistic punishment that con modulate the subsequent responses to fairer exchanges. The game therefore is really based on trust: if the ‘investor’ and the ‘trustee’ respect trust reciprocating money, both players end up with higher payoff.
Most patients diagnosed with schizophrenia are never violent. However there is a small but significant associ- ation between schizophrenia and violence and with homicide in particular [1–3]. The relationship between violence and schizophrenia is thought to arise primarily from active symptoms such as delusions and co-morbid problems particularly substance misuse [1, 4]. But there is a link between schizophrenia and vulnerability to sub- stance misuse and an increased risk of violence remains even when substance misuse is taken into account [4, 5]. Also violent acts carried out by people with schizophre- nia are complex and cannot always be explained by psychotic symptoms alone. Some people with schizo- phrenia can become violent at a young age prior to the onset of psychosis, whereas others become chronically violent after the first psychotic episode even when re- ceiving medication, and there are those who commit only a single act of violence during their lifetime [1, 3, 6]. Furthermore the violent acts carried out by people with schizophrenia appear to be driven by some of the same risk factors as violence in general [6–9]. Violence risk prediction schemes such as the Historical-Clinical- Risk-20 (HCR-20) [10, 11] take advantage of this and as- sess violence proneness by including a large number of equally weighted items  that are not specific to schizophrenia or mental disorder but are associated with suboptimal functioning. For example, substance misuse, homelessness, employment problems, relationship prob- lems, lack of social support, history of victimisation and criminal history, are all risk factors for violence [13–15]. Many of these difficulties are likely to be underpinned by the cognitive decline experienced by patients with schizophrenia [16–20]. Neurocognitive impairments may therefore represent a common or distal risk factor whose influence on violence is mediated by a range of more proximal risk factors.
8 For complete understanding of developmental pathways of internalizing and externalizing behaviour problems, causes (e.g. biological, environmental or neuropsychological) of psychopathological behaviours should be uncovered. Causes/correlates of psychopathology are different for different kinds of trajectories and subsequent ages of development (Loeber & Hay, 1997; Maughan, 2005). The existence of multiple risk factors constitutes an important risk factor for more severe and more varied problems in children. Zahn-Waxler and colleagues (2000) name several adverse environmental factors which often contribute to the development of both internalizing and externalizing behaviours: parental marital discord, maltreatment, psychosocial stress, poverty, parental psychopathology and parental emotional unavailability. With regard to aggression Loeber and Hay (1997) indicate that less advantaged neighborhoods and repeated exposure to violence on television facilitates aggression and violence in children. Child factors that are possible predictors of poor behavioural and emotional outcomes include poor regulation of emotions (especially with regard to externalizing behaviours; Eisenberg, Spinrad & Eggum, 2010), inaccurate, biased or incomplete processing of social information (Izard, Fine, Mostow, Trentacosta & Campbell, 2002; Wenar & Kerig, 2006) and temperament (for example withdrawn or inhibited behaviour are predictors for fearfulness and anxieties; Zahn- Waxler et al. 2000). In recent years, literature on clarifying neuropsychological profiles of different internalizing and externalizing trajectories has been growing (Wenar & Kerig, 2006).
Neurodegenerative diseases are char- acterized by impairments in several cognitive domains. Only in recent years investigators attempted to as- sess impairment in socialcognition processes, which are deemed to be at the basis of human interpersonal and social behaviour. Examples of these processes are face recognition, emo- tion recognition, eye gaze detection, perspective taking, Theory of Mind and moral judgements. Among neuro- degenerative diseases, frontotemporal dementia, especially its frontal variant, is characterized by marked impair- ment of social interpersonal conduct and regulation of personal conduct. This strong decline could be related to an impairment of socialcognition processing. This hypothesis is assessed by reviewing studies evaluating socialcognition processes in patients with frontotemporal dementia. These find- ings are then compared to those of studies that assessed socialcognition processes in other clinical popula- tions, i.e., psychopathic subjects and subjects with antisocial personality dis- order, characterized by impairments of interpersonal behaviour and social conduct.
The prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) is a socially mono- gamous rodent, and is the premier rodent model for pair bonding. 18 Monogamous relationships are expressed as pair bonding, and belong to the category of socialcognition. Monogamous animals usually form and maintain partner pre- ference, which is considered one index of pair bonding. 19 The mandarin vole is another monogamous rodent, 20 and is also chosen as a primary animal model for pair-bonding studies. This kind of pair bonding usually refers to a relationship between opposite-sex pairs. To study the effect of OT on same-sex partner preference, the meadow vole is the preferred choice. The meadow vole is socially promiscuous, and its gonadal hormones are less secreted during winter, which is appropriate for nonreproductive social behavior research. In a winter day – length laboratory, female meadow voles have smaller uteri than those in summer day – length environments. The females can form partner preference for either same- or opposite-sex cage mates. 21–23 Laboratory rats usually include the Wistar rat, Long – Evans rat, Sprague Dawley rat, biobreed- ing rat, Brattleboro rat, hairless rat, Lewis rat, Royal College of Surgeons rat, shaking rat Kawasaki, Zucker rat, and knock- out rat. This review includes studies using Wistar and Sprague Dawley rats as animal models, since they are used in OT- related memory-modulation tests. Other included animal models that are less used in studies, such as marmosets and macaques, are also listed in Table 1(OT) and Table 2(VP).