A series of interactive text messages and images were designed (by DWF) using messaging theory [46 – 48], socialcognitionmodels , systematic reviews of inter- ventions to tackle alcohol problems [7 – 9] and systematic reviews of text message intervention studies [26,27,29]. The intervention adopted a motivational interviewing approach of helping individuals to decide for themselves that they wish to change, rather than advising them to change . It also highlighted the discrepancy between what the individual wants from a behaviour (e.g. fun and socialising) and the adverse outcomes that sometimes occur to the drinker and to his family and close friends. The Theory of Planned Behaviour was chosen because it is the most widely used model that identi ﬁ es the cognitive antecedents of health behaviours . Thus, text messages sought to increase motivation to change by addressing attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control. They incorporated behaviour change techniques identi ﬁ ed by Michie and colleagues [52 – 54]. Text messages were tailored by using language, alcohol-related experiences and attitudes to cutting down that were familiar to disadvantaged men. The style was informal, using many colloquial expres- sions that were obtained from focus groups conducted prior to intervention development. The text messages were also tailored to take advantage of the predominant pattern of alcohol consumption, binge drinking at weekends.
According to van Meter (2014), the second axis of social organizational is dis- tinguished as emotional and non-emotional. There is no doubt that some indi- viduals experience negative emotions, even to the point of despair and the col- lapse of the right hemisphere, and with it, of the self (Weinberg, 2000; TenHou- ten, 2017a), whereas individuals with a left-hemisphere orientation have more positive affect. This distinction, as van Meter (2014) observes, has been estab- lished by Davidson (1998) and other neuroscientists. Yet, it is not the radi- cal—conservative, openness—closedness dimension that Agoramétrie-Type classification see as affective, but rather the second, satisfaction–frustration, non-emotional–emotional dimension that is affective. The alternative interpre- tation of the two axes is helpful at this point. Affect-spectrum theory (TenHou- ten, 2007, 2013, 2017b) holds that the existential problems of temporality, iden- tity, hierarchy, and territoriality have given rise to CS, EM, AR, and MP, respec- tively. Since all emotions are adaptive reactions to sociorelational circumstances as shown in Plutchik’s ( 1991) model of the primary emotions (Figure 2), we expect that negative and positive experiences of these four social relations will have prototypical, basic emotional reactions, and indeed CS+ → joy/happiness, CS– → sadness, EM+ → acceptance, EM– → rejection/disgust, AR+ → anger, AR– → fear, MP+ → anticipation/exploration, and MP– → sur- prise. We expect to find secondary-level emotions in the four quadrants, that emotions can be found both at the top and the bottom of the second factor, and that all four quadrants contain both positively-, mixed-, and negatively-valenced emotions concentrated in all four quadrants, as shown in Figure 3.
socialcognition. In addition the groups seemed to differ on the relationship between friendships and social activities, so that in the TD group, it was more possible to have friends but not go out much, and vice versa whereas for those with a history of SLI, these outcomes were linked. This may also suggest other mediating factors in clinical populations. Secondly, the findings provide some evidence for qualitatively different pathways to outcomes in the two groups. Thus, this may suggest a developmental ‘point’ at which different interactions between variables exist between the two groups. Evidence from the present study suggests that socialcognition may play a larger role on the social outcomes of young people with a history of SLI than those without. Thirdly, there is the question of the role of language. In the absence of a strong direct relationship between language and social skills but clear associations between
Animals living in groups combine personal and social information when deciding upon their next action (Rieucau and Giraldeau, 2011). In eusocial insects, the social component of information collection is especially important (Wilson and Hölldobler, 1988). Correspondingly, the modalities of communication and richness of cues and signals is greatly enhanced. Social insects use a variety of olfactory (Martin and Drijfhout, 2009; Morgan, 2009), tactile (Razin et al., 2013), visual and vibrational (Delattre et al., 2015; Roces et al., 1993) messages, as well as multi-modal combinations of these (Jaffé et al., 1990) in their communication. Broadly speaking, these can be divided into several groups: some messages require direct contact between individuals and can thus be considered as local in both space and time. Other signals are local in time but not space and are typically employed as alarm signals (e.g. highly volatile pheromones; Blum, 1969). Yet another group are signals that are local in space but not in time. This group includes stigmergic, indirect communication between insects in which one individual modifies the environment and a second individual arriving at the same location at some later time reacts to its modified surroundings (Theraulaz and Bonabeau, 1999). Mass recruitment pheromone trails (Jaffe and Howse, 1979) and nest construction without a blueprint (Franks and Deneubourg, 1997) are two impressive examples of stigmergy. Note that, for the case of pheromonal communication, the time scales that characterize
5. What are the effects of music on the elderly’s cognition or performance? Lastly, cognition and performance were shown by four [5-8] out of six [1,2,5-8] studies to improve statistically through musical interventions. In terms of cognition [5-8], it was observed that dementia patients had a better recall of memories after singing a familiar song, resulting in improved clarity, alertness and overall cognition, specifically in verbal memory (p=.036), language (p=.033) and executive functions (p=.007) through musical interventions [5,6,8]. A significant effect of low and high- arousing music was observed on recognition ratings (p<.05; p<.001, respectively). Highest recognition ratings were documented for happy music compared to sad, fearful or peaceful music (p=.001). Though, the author concluded an age-related decline of recognition of music, except for happy music in older adults compared to younger ones . Music also had a positive effect on some conditions, including dementia and depression. Studies showed significant reductions of the BDI score (p=.018) and also a decrease in BPSD, indicated by reductions in the subscale’s values [7,8].
While much effort has been invested into characterizing adverse neurobehavioral outcomes in the PT population, there are few biomarkers relating specific brain abnormal- ities to the adverse outcomes for which preterm infants are at an increased risk. Many of these outcomes may have developmental antecedents in early emerging social cogni- tion, which in turn may reflect abnormal social brain cir- cuit function. More broadly, we do not fully understand how individual differences in social functioning map to in- dividual differences in development of the neural circuitry of the social brain, and preterm infants may serve as a model population for characterizing these associations. The PT brain is not only quantitatively but also qualita- tively different from the brain of a FT infant. Researchers now have the means, the numbers, and certainly the rationale to study the social brain in infants born PT. Future work should make use of behavioral measures of social functioning linked to specific neural circuitry in order to identify the specific brain circuits that are at risk following PT birth and may benefit from targeted behav- ioral interventions. Such work will allow for the characterization of differential trajectories of social cogni- tive and brain development in infants born preterm, and the identification of early social cognitive behaviors and brain signatures related to later emerging clinical impair- ment. Ultimately, targeted assessment of the social brain in infancy has the potential to improve the lives of a sub- stantial proportion of infants born preterm.
Vita et al . (2018) provide more information about various drugs enhancing neuroplasticity for schizophrenia alongside with intervention targeted social cognitive deficit. Second Generation Antipsychotics (SGAs) stated to be partially improving cognitive dysfunction, due to their relatively high attraction for sero- tonin 5HT2A receptors. Dysfunction of Geaba led to cognitive insufficiencies. The properties of Geaba produce improvement on cognition of a group of ami- no acids that act as glutamate agonists by tie to the glycyl site on The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor receptors.
UCLA Program for the Education and Enrichment of Relational Skills (PEERS program). The PEERS program is a specific social skills group intervention for teenagers with ASD in which teens and their parents receive social skills training in a group setting from a clinical psychologist. An initial study found evidence that this intervention improved social functioning both immediately following treatment and at a 14-week follow up (Laugeson, Frankel, Gantman, Dillon, & Mogil 2011), and a later study found similar results (Laugeson, Gantman, Kapp, Orenski, & Ellingsen 2015). Additional studies also found improvements in social ability and other domains social anxiety (McVey et al., 2016) and broader behavioral and emotional domains (Lordo et al., 2017). These findings yield strong evidence that the UCLA PEERS program is an effective intervention for social skills development. In addition, it is one of few researched interventions designed for adolescents rather than children.
environment. The SC theorist addresses the question “How does one apportion the extent to which individuals’ cognitive states are dependent upon their social milieu?” She thereby recognizes that the issue is not one of a choice between an individually oriented and a socially oriented account of cognition, but rather of a grasp of the interaction between these two components. This issue’s raison d’être is to bring out the importance of this interaction, its scope and the issues it raises, as well as to examine its implications for different areas of human activity, from the cognitive functions of language and memory, to economics and science.
socialcognition. The SCSQ has five domains, which are verbal memory, schematic inference, ToM, metacognition, and hostility bias. The task comprises ten short vignettes. Tester reads aloud each vignette and the subject answers three questions for each vignette with “yes” or “no”. Then, in the last question for each vignette, the subject answers about their confidence level of the answers. Higher score represents better level in each domain, except for hostility bias. As for hostility bias, higher score means larger bias.
What is the reason for the functioning and existence of social cognitive distortions? One of the major reasons is misguided schemes (Barker & Angepoulo 2010:67; Fiske 2004:143). The problem with these kinds of scheme is that they were created during the early stages of childhood. These automatic thoughts about other people could be so wrong that they may have a negative impact on the social interactions between people and on individuals or groups from different cultures (Barker & Angepoulo 2010:68). The chain effect of cognitive distortions is even more concerning when one considers the fact that they also influence people’s ability to make or create perspective (Louw & Louw 2007:305). The ability to make or create perspective has to do with the ability to view life from the perspective of others. In the research about the formation of liturgy this is a major aspect that liturgical research has to take into consideration. In the formation of liturgy it will become increasingly valuable from a South African perspective that different cultures adopt new perspectives and learn to view liturgical formation from the viewpoint of other cultures.
220.127.116.11. Cognitive. The development of social cognitive specific measures through time have been overwhelmingly focused on assessing deficits in ToM (or explicit mentalising ability) in people with ASCs. The first work that began to assess ToM was Wimmer and Perner’s (1983) ‘false-belief task’, with the aim to assess and understand more about mental state attribution. The task was carried out by typically developing children, who were required to demonstrate an understanding that other people could poses beliefs and knowledges different from their own. This led to the formation of a developmental trajectory of ToM; and spurred the development of other measures to assess ToM in an ASC population (Baron-Cohen, Leslie & Frith, 1985), for which ToM deficits are considered a central facet and form part of the classic ‘triad of impairment’ (Wing & Gould, 1979).
argues that the same sensory–motor processes (i.e. the mirror mechanism, Rizzolatti & Craighero 2004) implementing one’s own mental states — e.g., one’s intention to act — are also used when functionally attributing the same mental state to another — e.g., when understanding another’s intention to act. Similarly, Goldman (2006, 2009) claims that mirror neurons play an important role in ‘low- level’ mindreading and support the attribution of mental states to others. According to Gallagher (2008, 2011), interpreting others’ mental states depends on perceptual, rather than inferential, capacities that are employed in situated social interaction and rely on low-level sensory–motor associations developed since early infancy. Finally, according to De Jaeger, “social understanding emerges from a dynamical process of interaction and coordination of two em- bodied subjects coupled to each other” (Fuchs & De Jaegher 2009: 470; see also De Jaegher 2009, McGann & De Jaegher 2009). Accordingly, we cannot disentangle infants’ elaboration of a perceptual input from the motor processes driving infants’ reaction to it.
At the same time as deliberating whether I should create a more gendered, comparative study, I was reviewing the literature on socialcognition. It quickly became clear that it would be necessary to make a decision that would define the rest of the course of the study; namely whether to study one aspect of socialcognition in significant depth, as I had done in my Masters level study, (Levine, 2011) or whether to try to gain a broader, more strategic perspective on several aspects of socialcognition and technology use. The former might have been a more conventional study. Certainly establishing a firm footing on the landscape of existing literature would have been considerably more straightforward. It might have been possible to be more definitive in my responses to the key research questions, with a neater set of relatable – perhaps even causal – explanations for the interplay between adolescence, technology use and attribution, for example. There were many attractions to ‘going deep’ into one aspect of socialcognition.
Social media is an inescapable platform for sharing media and connecting with others. This thesis investigated how social media impacts cognition; specifically, attention. Study 1 investigated typical social media usage patterns and helped gauge which SM platform was most popular. Study 1 revealed three main platforms people used most often: Facebook, Instagram, and Snapchat. Facebook was reported as the most popular social media platform. Study 2 investigated how a social media post impacts cognition. It was hypothesized that participants who posted, with the intention of provoking a reaction from their followers, on their social media prior to performing a cognitive task would be distracted and have lower performance than a control group. However, there was no significant difference between the conditions. Therefore, the main hypothesis was not supported. An external factor that undermined the experiment (i.e. age) was discussed. Social media’s impact on cognition remains unclear and requires future research.