Social Contexts

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Speaking in social contexts: Issues for pre sessional EAP students

Speaking in social contexts: Issues for pre sessional EAP students

A large number of non native speakers (NNS) of English from around the globe attend summer English for Academic Purposes (EAP) courses in host countries before going on to further study. Such learners have expectations regarding the improvements that they will make in their speaking skills, not just in an academic context, but also in social contexts. This paper reports on a qualitative study into the kind of contact that such NNS have with native speakers in the community. The findings suggest that expectations are generally not met and our discussion focuses on the ways in which arising issues might be better addressed not only by providers in the host country, but in some regards also by providers in the home country, before students actually leave. Particularly, we argue that when developing listening and speaking skills in the classroom we need to recognise the importance of English as a local language (ELL) and include tasks which contain examples of such language if we are going to adequately equip our learners.

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The relevance of social contexts and social action in reducing substance use and victimization among women participating in an HIV prevention intervention in Cape Town, South Africa

The relevance of social contexts and social action in reducing substance use and victimization among women participating in an HIV prevention intervention in Cape Town, South Africa

findings highlight the positive impact that the support of family and friends who do not use substances can have on some women’s efforts to quit substances. Several partici- pants seemed to find the group sessions useful in this regard, reporting that these group interventions offered them a new and positive social environment within which to seek sup- port, facilitated the development of positive social networks, created capacity for leaving social contexts and relationships where substance use and victimization was promoted, and helped them feel empowered to take action to promote social change within their communities. Together, these factors appeared to reinforce abstinence from substance use and reduce victimization among women who participated in these

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“Tell them you smoke, you’ll get more breaks”: a qualitative study of occupational and social contexts of young adult smoking in Scotland

“Tell them you smoke, you’ll get more breaks”: a qualitative study of occupational and social contexts of young adult smoking in Scotland

participants accepted that their smoking behaviour was subject to both formal and informal social controls. These included legal restrictions on smoking in public places and presenting a socially acceptable image in certain professional and social contexts. Participants talked about, without question, going outside to smoke when at work or pubs and clubs, and not exposing non-smoking partners and friends to their smoking in certain social contexts. The need to manage their smoker identity in different contexts was most marked in accounts of smoking not being an acceptable part of the performance of a professional self in jobs involving contact with the public, such as nursing and the hospitality business. This reaction reflects the increasingly negative social climate around smoking in the UK and countries such as New Zealand, 22 34 with smoking being stigmatised as a marker

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POLITENESS STRATEGIES, LINGUISTIC MARKERS AND  SOCIAL CONTEXTS IN DELIVERING REQUESTS IN JAVANESE

POLITENESS STRATEGIES, LINGUISTIC MARKERS AND SOCIAL CONTEXTS IN DELIVERING REQUESTS IN JAVANESE

Delivering request is not only influenced by linguistic factors, but also by socio-cultural factors. Some studies have reported the interaction between linguistic and socio-cultural factors in delivering requests in many different languages. However, this issue is rarely explored in Javanese (language). The aim of this study is to investigate the politeness strategies, the linguistic markers, and the social contexts commonly used to deliver requests in Javanese. The data were collected and sorted from the conversations among the Javanese people in Jember, East Java, Indonesia, when making speech acts to deliver requests. Having been sorted, the data were analysed using the deconstructive method to reveal the linguistic markers commonly used by the Javanese speakers to deliver requests and the social-cultural backgrounds which influence the choice of the politeness strategies. This research shows that (1) there are four types (most direct, direct, less direct, and indirect) of politeness strategies in Javanese, (2) there are four linguistic devices (sentence moods, speech levels, passive voice, and supposition/condition) as the markers of the politeness strategies and (3) the choices of the levels are strongly influenced by the social contexts (social distance, age, social status or power, and the size of imposition) among the tenors. The appropriate strategies for delivering requests in Javanese will make the communication among the interlocutors run harmoniously.

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A Study of the Understated Violence Within Social Contexts Against Adolescent Girls

A Study of the Understated Violence Within Social Contexts Against Adolescent Girls

on experiences that would foster a sense of con Þ dence and purpose; receiving little or no positive reinforcement for accomplishments; being stigmatized for unusual appearance or behaviour. What affected the girls’ dignity even more was that they were ridiculed in front of their siblings or other members of their family and neigh- bours. Most of them were constantly told that they were a burden on the families and that their marriages would result in a lot of expenditure in the form of arrange- ments and dowry. Also celebrating the birth of a male child and not the female one made them consider their existence insigni Þ cant. Girls grow up within norms of constrained mobility de Þ ned by violence. The “decent” girl is submissive; failure to submit meets with force, which she may come to believe is justi Þ ed. The psy- chological impact of this ill-treatment was seen to affect mostly the girls living in the urban areas (49%) in comparison to the rural areas (30%), as they were more concerned about their social image and respect and even a slight disgrace affected them to a great extent. About 41% and 37% girls in the rural as well as urban areas respectively, were moderately affected by the constant attacks to their self esteem. It was discovered that their con Þ dence was gradually diminishing and they were unable to emotionally brighten up. 29% girls in the rural areas were observed to be either ignorant of the fact that their self worth and self esteemed were threatened, or they did not consider it as an abuse. In the urban areas, however, the girls were found to be more conscious about their self regard and only 14% of them were unaffected by the threat of its loss. Low self-esteem is generally associated with self-doubt, self-criticism, social isolation, suppressed anger, and shame. It is also a symptom of several mental health conditions, including anxiety and depression.

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Alcohol consumption as a factor causing risks for population health (Russian research re-view)

Alcohol consumption as a factor causing risks for population health (Russian research re-view)

Our review comprises medical and sociological research conducted over the last 20 years and dedicated to examining reasons and consequences of alcohol consumption in the Russian Federation. We detected that this research covered a wide range of issues starting from analyzing social contexts of alcohol consumption, micro- social, psychological, and biological factors causing alcohol-associated behavior in specific population groups, and then moving on to examining prevalence and gravity of medical and economic consequences which alcohol consumption usually leads to. We dwell on research results which explain reasons for alcohol consumption in various social and age population groups. We also describe different approaches to risk assessment procedure, assessment techniques and criteria applied for characterizing risks. We give concrete data on this bad habit prevalence in a number of the RF regions as well as data on medical-demographic losses caused by alcohol con- sumption.

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Tauiwi general practitioners explanations of Maori health: Colonial relations in primary healthcare in Aotearoa/New Zealand?

Tauiwi general practitioners explanations of Maori health: Colonial relations in primary healthcare in Aotearoa/New Zealand?

We notice that our participants’ explanations of the state Maori health do not relate in any way to widely available Maori theories and conceptualisations of health (Durie, 1995; Pere, 1997). These holistic, communitarian frameworks emphasise social, cultural and economic interconnection as the basis and context of individual health so that such factors take a crucial role in the explication of Maori health status. Our interpretation of Maori theory is that particular historical political processes and social contexts should be interrogated for their contributions to the established power relations within which the interactions and practices of primary healthcare are located. In the case of Aotearoa/New Zealand, such perspectives invite us especially to consider the colonial context of

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The Role of Organizational Experiences in the Formation and Acceptance of a Leader Identity: A Phenomenological Study of Leaders Working Within the Context of a Religious Not-for-Profit Organization

The Role of Organizational Experiences in the Formation and Acceptance of a Leader Identity: A Phenomenological Study of Leaders Working Within the Context of a Religious Not-for-Profit Organization

Abstract- This study examined the leadership identity development of a sample of leaders in order to better understand leaders’ perceptions about what contributed to the development of their leadership identities. Using in- depth interview questions, the lived experiences of organizational leaders were explored so as to build on the limited existing research on leadership identity and offer further insight into the phenomenon of leadership identity formation. The results of this study revealed that the study participants had each experienced leadership within multiple social and organizational contexts. Based on the responses of study participants, the acceptance of their leadership identities was influenced, in part, by the leaders to whom they had been exposed and by the social contexts in which their leadership experiences took place. The participants in this study began to identify themselves as leaders while working within the context of organizations that provided opportunities for leadership, collaboration, and mentorship from experienced leaders.

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Resilience and Engagement: some thoughts on the magnetic impact of small change

Resilience and Engagement: some thoughts on the magnetic impact of small change

This movement assists in re-attuning to the importance of place and the networks of interdependency on which our survival depends. In busy cities, the garden offers a place to work with our hands, side by side and create something worthwhile and a group who started in Melbourne in 2006 called ‘Permablitz’ are making the most of this opportunity with multiple benefits. As defined by their website 37 , a Permablitz is an informal gathering involving a day on which a group of at least two people come together to create or add to edible gardens where someone lives, share skills related to permaculture and sustainable living, build community networks and have fun. The name permablitz is a contraction of permaculture and blitz, where a blitz simply means a focused application of energy or a concentrated effort to get something done. As a social enterprise committed to improving the sustainability of our cities and suburbs, the organization use the sustainable design system of permaculture to help communities move away from denial and dependent consumerism to engagement and responsible production. The group’s core focus is helping people sustainably grow food where they live, building healthy communities in the process. As their website states, ‘Rather than

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Digital Competences In The Social Media Program For Older Adults In Vulnerable Contexts

Digital Competences In The Social Media Program For Older Adults In Vulnerable Contexts

Now, learning is mediated by different sources that generate learning nodes and networks that transport what has been learned [7] but to a greater extent because of the quality with which information is taken to the consumer [6], its purpose is to take advantage of transport quality of the social meanings in certain moments of his daily life by different means of virtual learning (mass learning, distance learning, viral learning). In general, young people apply this digital fluency to a greater extent, unlike adults who seek to obtain knowledge or information in virtual media, prioritize the accuracy of the information instead of focusing on transport channels. Digital competences are knowledge and skills to use technologies in more active individuals in digital contexts [5], [8]. Its usefulness benefits the imbalance and cognitive balance with greater sustainability evidenced in the new learning provoked and acquired in the interaction with digital networks [8], other benefits are the reduction of cognitive and neuronal deterioration due to brain aging; and agility in cognitive functions [9], [10]. On the other hand, the lack of their attention would cause digital exclusion, decrease in social participation, and in the economic income of the context in which these inhabitants develop [10], [11]. Developing without skills for virtual competition, influences the development of neutral learning, without a clear sense about the media information sold on the networks, or even on television [11]; turning the human being into a being with practical weaknesses in different digital communities. In these terms, the study allows expanding the possibility of increasing media communication capabilities, opportunities for value growth; as well as the development

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A systematic review of the psychological and social benefits of participation in sport for children and adolescents: informing development of a conceptual model of health through sport

A systematic review of the psychological and social benefits of participation in sport for children and adolescents: informing development of a conceptual model of health through sport

Extensive research has resulted in clear recommenda- tions of the level of PA required to produce health benefits [1,3]. There are specific health-related recom- mendations for children and adolescents distinct from those for adults. For people aged 5–17 years it is recommended that they undertake moderate or vigorous activities for at least 60 minutes per day [4]. Regular maintenance of this level of activity by children and ado- lescents can result in increased physical fitness, reduced body fat, favourable cardiovascular and metabolic dis- ease risk profiles, enhanced bone health and reduced symptoms of depression and anxiety [1]. Whilst many different health benefits of participation in PA are ac- knowledged, the vast majority of research has focused on the physical health benefits of participation in PA, with less research focused on the mental and social health aspects. Although mental health benefits have been referenced in recent guidelines, to date ”insufficient evidence precludes conclusions about the minimal or optimal types or amounts of physical activity for mental health” [1] (Part G Section 8 p39).

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Bullying at University: The Social and Legal Contexts of Cyberbullying Among University Students

Bullying at University: The Social and Legal Contexts of Cyberbullying Among University Students

them, but rather it is an accepted and normalised part of everyday life (Simmons et al., 2016). With this level of expertise and competence, we could assume that university students are relatively happy with their online relationships. However, in recent years there has been a growing realisation that, for some students at least, the online world is a very dangerous place.The age of the students is of key importance here too, as those in higher and further education are young adults, rather than children in need of parental support. From this perspective, the university as an institution has a duty of care to its students in their learning environment regardless of their age. In this article, we consider the social and cultural contexts which either promote or discourage cyberbullying among university students. Finally, the implications for policies, training and awareness-raising are discussed along with ideas for possible future research in this under researched area.

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“Who are we Online?” Approaches to Organizational Identity in Social Media Contexts

“Who are we Online?” Approaches to Organizational Identity in Social Media Contexts

efforts typical for social media platforms. Indeed, partici- pants talked about the “value” associated with having a “human face:” making organizations something that peo- ple could relate to and hence, euphemistically, “support.” Yet the precise value of humanizing the organization was not something anyone could put a number on. In fact, the issue of measuring value exemplifies the complicated rela- tionship between the perspectives on organizational iden- tity in the social media context. All participants were con- cerned with the uncertain return of investment of social media use, especially when it came to emphasizing social media’s benefits and the social media professional’s job to organizational leadership. This concern generated a wide- spread preoccupation with data generation, analysis, and presentation. While among the interviewees the value con- sisted in being a “friend” to the customer and building a community of “friends,” it was exceptionally difficult to translate this postmodern value into functional terms to be measured. Additionally, the desire to connect in a com- munity, typical for social networking media, was not with- out its sticky and tricky points itself – as Patrick, a social media strategist, noted:

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Can social robots help children in healthcare contexts? A scoping review

Can social robots help children in healthcare contexts? A scoping review

This review identified 73 studies that explored the use of social robots for children in healthcare applications. Robots were used to serve a range of purposes, including a companion role, teacher/coach, to connect unwell children to school and to assist in therapeutic and educa- tional endeavours. The wide range of target populations highlights many potential applications, in particular for children with disabilities, impairments, and diabetes, who require intensive ongoing care. Although hospitalisation is not necessarily long term, anxiety, pain and distress are often heightened during hospitalisation. There are potential benefits of using social robots if they can help reduce burden in all three of these contexts. Some of the key findings suggest that social robots can help children with diabetes to improve knowledge; reduce anxiety, anger and depression in children with cancer, and engage children with cerebral palsy in exercises to help improve physical functioning.

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The National Home Reading Union 1889-1930

The National Home Reading Union 1889-1930

realised. 8 There was, too, the fear that the more graphic novels and comics had a harmful influence on the behaviour of young women and boys, sometimes to the point of actively encouraging crime. 9 Such pessimism did not, however, completely displace the characteristic Victorian confidence in the power of universal literacy and cheaper books to bring about social and cultural homogeneity, and the instruction and didacticism that had typified intervention in reading in the mid-century were moderated through a realisation that persuasion and guidance in how to read systematically might prove to be a more successful method. Thomas Wright 10 was one of a number of contemporary critics to attribute a want of ‘culture’ amongst the working classes to a lack of ‘judicious guidance’ in reading, but although there was a growing awareness of the desirability of such guidance - both Ruskin 11 and Frederic Harrison 12 had published advice on choosing what and how to read - theoretical treatises were of little use to the new working-class reader. Not only was the gulf between the Illustrated Police News and Dante too wide to contemplate without intermediary assistance, but the chances of a relatively uneducated reader coming into contact with published guides such as these were slender. The self-educated reader was, as David Vincent suggests, a myth, for no working person could make progress solely on a basis of elementary education and personal unaided effort. 13 If Literature and literary culture were to be effective in the campaign to promote self-cultivation, it would be necessary not only to direct the new readers of the elementary schools towards canonical texts but to teach them how to read independently and reflectively and to induce a process of self-improvement based on a recognition of externally prescribed standards. As the concerns about reading became more acute, the urgency of providing practical advice on choosing what to read was increasingly voiced, 14 but the problem remained, as a contemporary observer noted, 15 that significant progress would be made only if some method of collective communication with readers could be devised. The question thus arose of how to connect with working-class readers in a communal context. Church organisations, Sunday schools and social clubs offered a forum in which reading practice could be influenced through direct contact with readers, but their scope was somewhat limited. However, public libraries and adult education offered possible routes to a wider public.

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Social top down response modulation (STORM): a model of the control of mimicry in social interaction

Social top down response modulation (STORM): a model of the control of mimicry in social interaction

would show greatest mimicry to nice actresses with high status. However, if mimicry acts as an active strategy for social affiliation, participants should show greatest mimicry to those they need to affiliate with but technically challenging to affiliate with, such as the nasty actress with high status. Our results support the latter prediction and found that participants showed greatest mimicry to the nasty actress with high status rather than the nice actress with high status. Again, we suggest that these findings support the STORM theory rather than a simple, stimulus-driven mechanism. Before finishing this section, we would like to emphasize that our novel social SRC paradigm provides a promising approach for future investigation of the subtlety of mimicry in social con- texts. First, some studies have already examined the validity of the SRC paradigm as a measure of mimicry (Heyes, 2011a). It has been suggested that the CE in the SRC paradigms is closely related to the “chameleon effect” in the naturalistic paradigms, and these two paradigms share similar modulative effects by social signals (Lakin and Chartrand, 2003; Leighton et al., 2010; Cook and Bird, 2011a,b; Heyes, 2011a). Second, the novel social SRC paradigm has some advantages over the classic naturalistic paradigm. Social signals are more carefully controlled in the social SRC paradigm. Researchers can accurately manipulate the type, onset and duration of a social signal and measure correspond- ing mimicry with multiple trials per person in a within-subject design (note that most mimicry studies in naturalistic paradigms are between-subject design). Meanwhile, the social SRC paradigm allows us to investigate the control of mimicry by rapid social cues such as eye gaze (Wang et al., 2011a). Comparing with the naturalistic paradigm which examines modulations of mimicry over a couple of minutes (Chartrand and van Baaren, 2009), the social SRC paradigm optimizes the measurement of control of mimicry into a second-by-second timescale, which is ideal for fur- ther application of neuroimaging techniques (Wang et al., 2011b). Finally, the social SRC paradigm can provide us important hints about the underlying mechanisms of the control of mimicry by social signals. As mimicry is measured by the response differ- ences between congruent and incongruent trials, we can roughly infer whether the social signal impacts mimicry process per se (i.e., congruent trials) or the process of inhibition of mimicry (i.e., incongruent trials). For example, in our gaze-mimicry study (Wang et al., 2011a), we found that direct gaze enhances mimicry mainly through the congruent trials rather than incongruent tri- als (Figure 2B), which suggests that eye gaze directly influences the mimicry process per se, but not the process of the inhibition of mimicry.

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Exploring TripAdvisor Online Reviews: The Case of George Eastman Museum

Exploring TripAdvisor Online Reviews: The Case of George Eastman Museum

In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in studying consumption experiences. Understanding consumer behaviour through examining consumption/experiences helps researchers to realize consumer and visitor preferences, likes, and dislikes concerning services provided or experiences encountered. Experiences are an important factor to consider when attempting to understand consumer/visitor behaviour, especially in the tourism industry simply because of the intangible service nature of the industry. There are several ways that visitors express and share their experiences about a visit to a certain destination or local attraction, or even a service they have been offered. This information that is shared by visitors is an important source of data which researchers can investigate to better understand the visitor experience. One of the ways visitors share their experiences is through the use of social media websites. Among these websites, TripAdvisor is the most popular and many visitors use it frequently when choosing hotels because the site makes it possible to share videos, photos, and have a conversation with other people. In a study by Xiang and Gretzel (2010) on the role of social media in online travel search, research results indicated that most tourists in the U.S. use social media to collect information about the destinations to which they plan to travel. The study confirmed the results after analyzing the most frequently searched names of nine U.S. travel destinations and those which were predominant in the search engines. The analysis revealed that search engine results concerning travel destinations were coming from social media websites. It was also evident that most of the visitors to these sites shared their experiences through the social media sites after travelling to some of the destinations (Xiang & Gretzel, 2010).

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Manual-technical operations: A critical examination of one mode of Lemke's hybrid language

Manual-technical operations: A critical examination of one mode of Lemke's hybrid language

The importance of culture and social interactions in disciplinary learning and language development within specific social practices and contexts is now an agreed-upon notion in the science education literature. In a pivotal article in 1990, Lemke introduced the idea of manual- technical operations as one of four modes making up the “hybrid language of science”. Our aim in this paper is to further unpack the concept of manual-technical operations as a mode, thereby contributing to the more complex understanding of when and how this mode enhances meaning- making and communication of ideas. Drawing from researchers in diverse disciplines, we present a visual of the complex and integrated manual-technical operations mode. It is our hope that the theoretical model proposed in this manuscript will allow researchers to develop analytic frameworks to capture and assess change in the manual-technical operations mode of the hybrid language of science.

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Trends in social inequality in the economic and political contexts

Trends in social inequality in the economic and political contexts

Very interesting conclusions, regularities, and generalizations regarding the manifestation of political consequences of social inequality are described by the contemporary Russian researcher Y. Krasin. He focuses attention on the connection of social inequality with the type of political regime. In particular, the author claims that quasi-democratic societies polarized by social inequality with respect to the disadvantaged strata practically do not differ from absolutist and totalitarian regimes, where the mass layers are excluded from participation in politics. Drawing on the works of Western researchers, he notes some links between the regime and social inequality. According to Krasin, “In the long run, countries with high levels of inequality tend to be authoritarian. In the same place, where inequality is minimized, or democratic aspirations are high, there is a growing need and desire for democratic transformations” [9].

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An exploration of strategies used by Chinese graduate students in electrical engineering and education: integrating questionnaire, task performance, and post-task recall data

An exploration of strategies used by Chinese graduate students in electrical engineering and education: integrating questionnaire, task performance, and post-task recall data

Studies further exploring the relationships between general learning strategy use and academic disciplines have suggested that students in different majors tend to choose different strategies. For example, Chang (1991) reported that EAL students in the hu- manities and social sciences generally reported using more strategies than did science majors. Mochizuki (1999) suggested that academic subject was a key variable associated with choice of strategies reported by Japanese university students. The largest study in- vestigating this variable to date has been that of Peacock and Ho (2003) involving over 1000 university EAP (English for academic purposes) students in Hong Kong across eight disciplines. The results also suggested disciplinary variations in strategy use, prompting the researchers to propose discipline-specific strategy training. Ann and Nathalang’s (2010) study involved Chinese first-year undergraduate students from the arts and sciences at a Chinese university; although devoid of observed strategy use owing to data collection methods, the study similarly revealed differences in strategies between learners from the two disciplines.

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